Gene Symbol: STX4
Description: syntaxin 4
Alias: STX4A, p35-2, syntaxin-4, renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-31, syntaxin 4A (placental)
Species: human
Products:     STX4

Top Publications

  1. Reed G, Houng A, Fitzgerald M. Human platelets contain SNARE proteins and a Sec1p homologue that interacts with syntaxin 4 and is phosphorylated after thrombin activation: implications for platelet secretion. Blood. 1999;93:2617-26 pubmed
    ..We found that platelet membranes contain a full complement of interacting proteins-VAMP, SNAP-25, and syntaxin 4-that are necessary for vesicle docking and fusion with the plasma membrane...
  2. Fu J, Naren A, Gao X, Ahmmed G, Malik A. Protease-activated receptor-1 activation of endothelial cells induces protein kinase Calpha-dependent phosphorylation of syntaxin 4 and Munc18c: role in signaling p-selectin expression. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3178-84 pubmed
    ..We identified the presence of syntaxin 4, syntaxin 3, and the high affinity syntaxin 4-regulatory protein Munc18c in human lung microvascular endothelial ..
  3. Miyata T, Ohnishi H, Suzuki J, Yoshikumi Y, Ohno H, Mashima H, et al. Involvement of syntaxin 4 in the transport of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase to the plasma membrane in human gastric epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:118-24 pubmed
    ..Immunocytochemistry revealed that transient transfection of AGS cells with dominant-negative mutant syntaxin 4 decreased plasma membrane MT1-MMP expression...
  4. Chung S, Polgar J, Reed G. Protein kinase C phosphorylation of syntaxin 4 in thrombin-activated human platelets. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:25286-91 pubmed
    ..We found that syntaxin 4 was phosphorylated in human platelets treated with a physiologic agent that induces secretion (thrombin) but not ..
  5. Sanchez E, Gonzalez E, Moreno D, Cardenas R, Ramos M, Davalos A, et al. Syntaxin 3, but not syntaxin 4, is required for mast cell-regulated exocytosis, where it plays a primary role mediating compound exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2019;294:3012-3023 pubmed publisher
    ..4 in fully developed MCs from conditional knockout mice by electrophysiology and EM, and found that Stx3, and not Stx4, is crucial for MC exocytosis...
  6. Teichert M, Eijgelsheim M, Uitterlinden A, Buhre P, Hofman A, De Smet P, et al. Dependency of phenprocoumon dosage on polymorphisms in the VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 genes. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:26-34 pubmed publisher
    ..two SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium with each other and with SNPs within VKORC1: rs10871454 [Syntaxin 4A (STX4A)] and rs11150604 (ZNF646), each with a P value of 2.1×10⁻²²...
  7. Zhong S, Yu X, Liu Y, Xu D, Mai L, Tan H, et al. Integrating interacting drugs and genetic variations to improve the predictability of warfarin maintenance dose in Chinese patients. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012;22:176-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sought to systematically investigate the effects of VKORC1, STX4A, CYP2C9, CYP4F2, CYP3A4, and GGCX gene polymorphisms and interacting drugs on warfarin maintenance dose...
  8. Oh E, Ahn M, Afelik S, Becker T, Roep B, Thurmond D. Syntaxin 4 Expression in Pancreatic β-Cells Promotes Islet Function and Protects Functional β-Cell Mass. Diabetes. 2018;67:2626-2639 pubmed publisher
    b>Syntaxin 4 (Stx4) enrichment in human and mouse islet grafts improves the success of transplants in reversing streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in mice, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive...
  9. Althubiti M, Lezina L, Carrera S, Jukes Jones R, Giblett S, Antonov A, et al. Characterization of novel markers of senescence and their prognostic potential in cancer. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1528 pubmed publisher
    ..identified 107 proteins that could be potential markers of senescence and validated 10 of them (DEP1, NTAL, EBP50, STX4, VAMP3, ARMX3, B2MG, LANCL1, VPS26A and PLD3)...

More Information


  1. Madera Salcedo I, Danelli L, Tiwari N, Dema B, Pacreau E, Vibhushan S, et al. Tomosyn functions as a PKC?-regulated fusion clamp in mast cell degranulation. Sci Signal. 2018;11: pubmed publisher
    ..activation, tomosyn-1 was phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues, dissociated from the SNARE protein syntaxin 4 (STX4), and associated with STX3...
  2. Aerbajinai W, Liu L, Zhu J, Kumkhaek C, Chin K, Rodgers G. Glia Maturation Factor-γ Regulates Monocyte Migration through Modulation of β1-Integrin. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:8549-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we observed that GMFG interacted with syntaxin 4 (STX4) and syntaxin-binding protein 4 (STXBP4); however, only knockdown of STXBP4, but not STX4, reduced ..
  3. Gómez Jaramillo L, Romero García R, Jiménez Gómez G, Riegle L, Ramos Amaya A, Brieva J, et al. VAMP2 is implicated in the secretion of antibodies by human plasma cells and can be replaced by other synaptobrevins. Cell Mol Immunol. 2018;15:353-366 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that SNAP23 and STX4 are the t-SNAREs responsible for antibody secretion...
  4. Yoo M, Kim B, Lee S, Jeong H, Park J, Seo D, et al. Syntaxin 4 regulates the surface localization of a promyogenic receptor Cdo thereby promoting myogenic differentiation. Skelet Muscle. 2015;5:28 pubmed publisher
    Syntaxins are a family of membrane proteins involved in vesicle trafficking, such as synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Syntaxin 4 (Stx4) is expressed highly in skeletal muscle and plays a critical role in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by ..
  5. Li H, Hodge D, Pei G, Seth A. Isolation and sequence analysis of the human syntaxin-encoding gene. Gene. 1994;143:303-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the nucleotide sequence of the first human STX gene isolated from a placental library. It encodes a 297-amino-acid (aa) protein and is 89% identical to the aa sequence of rat STX 4a. ..
  6. Gordon D, Chia J, Jayawardena K, Antrobus R, Bard F, Peden A. VAMP3/Syb and YKT6 are required for the fusion of constitutive secretory carriers with the plasma membrane. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006698 pubmed publisher least three SNARE complexes mediating Golgi to PM transport (STX1, SNAP24/29 and Syb; STX1, SNAP24/29 and YKT6; STX4, SNAP24 and Syb)...
  7. Dolai S, Liang T, Orabi A, Holmyard D, Xie L, Greitzer Antes D, et al. Pancreatitis-Induced Depletion of Syntaxin 2 Promotes Autophagy and Increases Basolateral Exocytosis. Gastroenterology. 2018;154:1805-1821.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..of fusogenic soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complexes, mediated by STX3 and STX4. STX2 bound ATG16L1 and prevented it from binding clathrin...
  8. Kawai S, Michikami I, Kitagaki J, Hata K, Kiyonari H, Abe T, et al. Syntaxin 4a Regulates Matrix Vesicle-Mediated Bone Matrix Production by Osteoblasts. J Bone Miner Res. 2017;32:440-448 pubmed publisher
    ..factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor" (SNARE) genes and identified notable Syntaxin 4a (Stx4a) expression on the basolateral side of the plasma membrane of osteoblasts...
  9. Gaudenzio N, Sibilano R, Marichal T, Starkl P, Reber L, Cenac N, et al. Different activation signals induce distinct mast cell degranulation strategies. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:3981-3998 pubmed publisher
    ..IgE-dependent stimulation strongly reduced the time partition between signaling and secretion, inhibited SNAP23/STX4 complex formation, and switched the degranulation pattern into one that resembled degranulation induced by ..
  10. Mohanasundaram P, Shanmugam M. Role of syntaxin 4 in activity-dependent exocytosis and synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons. Sci Signal. 2010;3:jc7 pubmed publisher
    ..enriched in the target SNARE [soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor] syntaxin 4 (Stx4)...
  11. Martinez Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J, Proux Gillardeaux V, et al. A dual mechanism controlling the localization and function of exocytic v-SNAREs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9011-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they point to the amino-terminal domains of SNARE proteins as multifunctional modules responsible for the fine tuning of SNARE function. ..
  12. Scales S, Hesser B, Masuda E, Scheller R. Amisyn, a novel syntaxin-binding protein that may regulate SNARE complex assembly. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28271-9 pubmed
    ..amisyn, with a tomosyn- and VAMP-like coiled-coil-forming domain that binds specifically to syntaxin 1a and syntaxin 4 both in vitro and in vivo, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation from rat brain...
  13. Polgar J, Chung S, Reed G. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP-3) and VAMP-8 are present in human platelets and are required for granule secretion. Blood. 2002;100:1081-3 pubmed
    ..mass spectrometry, we identified VAMP-3 and VAMP-8 as VAMP isoforms coimmunoprecipitated from platelets with syntaxin 4. Immunoblotting experiments confirmed the presence of VAMP-3 and VAMP-8 but not VAMP-1 or VAMP-2 in platelets...
  14. Cooper G, Johnson J, Langaee T, Feng H, Stanaway I, Schwarz U, et al. A genome-wide scan for common genetic variants with a large influence on warfarin maintenance dose. Blood. 2008;112:1022-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Randomized clinical trials that account for these 2 genes should therefore produce results that are definitive and broadly applicable. ..
  15. Kawanishi M, Tamori Y, Okazawa H, Araki S, Shinoda H, Kasuga M. Role of SNAP23 in insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mediation of complex formation between syntaxin4 and VAMP2. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:8240-7 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that SNAP23 contributes to insulin-dependent trafficking of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by mediating the interaction between t-SNARE (syntaxin4) and v-SNARE (VAMP2). ..
  16. Thomas D, Ferguson G, Herschman H, Elferink L. Functional and biochemical analysis of the C2 domains of synaptotagmin IV. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:2285-95 pubmed
  17. Bennett M, Garcia Arraras J, Elferink L, Peterson K, Fleming A, Hazuka C, et al. The syntaxin family of vesicular transport receptors. Cell. 1993;74:863-73 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the syntaxins are a family of receptors for intracellular transport vesicles and that each target membrane may be identified by a specific member of the syntaxin family. ..
  18. Logan M, Lacy P, Odemuyiwa S, Steward M, Davoine F, Kita H, et al. A critical role for vesicle-associated membrane protein-7 in exocytosis from human eosinophils and neutrophils. Allergy. 2006;61:777-84 pubmed
    ..Our observations indicate for the first time a critical role for VAMP-7 in both eosinophil and neutrophil mediator release. ..
  19. Ghiani C, Starcevic M, Rodriguez Fernandez I, Nazarian R, Cheli V, Chan L, et al. The dysbindin-containing complex (BLOC-1) in brain: developmental regulation, interaction with SNARE proteins and role in neurite outgrowth. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:115, 204-15 pubmed publisher
  20. Saito T, Okada S, Yamada E, Ohshima K, Shimizu H, Shimomura K, et al. Syntaxin 4 and Synip (syntaxin 4 interacting protein) regulate insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta HC-9 cell. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:36718-25 pubmed
    ..for pancreatic beta cell insulin secretion, we have observed that overexpression of a dominant-interfering syntaxin 4 mutant (syntaxin 4/DeltaTM) attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in betaHC-9 cells...
  21. Oh E, Stull N, Mirmira R, Thurmond D. Syntaxin 4 up-regulation increases efficiency of insulin release in pancreatic islets from humans with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:E866-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Because enrichment of Syntaxin 4, a plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein, enhances β-..
  22. Wiseman D, Kalwat M, Thurmond D. Stimulus-induced S-nitrosylation of Syntaxin 4 impacts insulin granule exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16344-54 pubmed publisher
    ..stress serving as a mechanistic basis for insulin secretory dysfunction, we identified the t-SNARE protein Syntaxin 4 as a target of modification by S-nitrosylation...
  23. Nogami S, Satoh S, Nakano M, Shimizu H, Fukushima H, Maruyama A, et al. Taxilin; a novel syntaxin-binding protein that is involved in Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. Genes Cells. 2003;8:17-28 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that taxilin is a novel binding partner of several syntaxin family members and suggest that taxilin is involved in Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. ..
  24. Castañeda Ramírez A, González Rodríguez D, Hernández Pineda J, Verdugo Rodríguez A. Blocking the expression of syntaxin 4 interferes with initial phagocytosis of Brucella melitensis in macrophages. Can J Vet Res. 2015;79:39-45 pubmed
    ..A multiplicity of infection of 100 was used in trials focused on defining the relative expression of syntaxin 4 (STX4), a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor, in the early events of ..
  25. Brasher M, Martynowicz D, Grafinger O, Hucik A, Shanks Skinner E, Uniacke J, et al. Interaction of Munc18c and syntaxin4 facilitates invadopodium formation and extracellular matrix invasion of tumor cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:16199-16210 pubmed publisher
    ..The SNARE protein syntaxin4 (Stx4) is involved in the formation of invasive structures called invadopodia; however, it is unclear how Stx4 function ..
  26. Band A, Ali H, Vartiainen M, Welti S, Lappalainen P, Olkkonen V, et al. Endogenous plasma membrane t-SNARE syntaxin 4 is present in rab11 positive endosomal membranes and associates with cortical actin cytoskeleton. FEBS Lett. 2002;531:513-9 pubmed
    ..b>Syntaxin 4 is a t-SNARE that, according to previous overexpression studies, is predominantly localized at the plasma ..
  27. Li L, Omata W, Kojima I, Shibata H. Direct interaction of Rab4 with syntaxin 4. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5265-73 pubmed
    In the present study, we examined the possible interaction between Rab4 and syntaxin 4, both having been implicated in insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation...
  28. Kennedy M, Davison I, Robinson C, Ehlers M. Syntaxin-4 defines a domain for activity-dependent exocytosis in dendritic spines. Cell. 2010;141:524-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Exocytosis occurs at microdomains enriched in the plasma membrane t-SNARE syntaxin 4 (Stx4), and disruption of Stx4 impairs both spine exocytosis and long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal ..
  29. Cebrian I, Visentin G, Blanchard N, Jouve M, Bobard A, Moita C, et al. Sec22b regulates phagosomal maturation and antigen crosspresentation by dendritic cells. Cell. 2011;147:1355-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Sec22b localizes to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and pairs to the plasma membrane SNARE syntaxin 4, which is present in phagosomes (Phgs)...
  30. Mandon B, Chou C, Nielsen S, Knepper M. Syntaxin-4 is localized to the apical plasma membrane of rat renal collecting duct cells: possible role in aquaporin-2 trafficking. J Clin Invest. 1996;98:906-13 pubmed
  31. Verboogen D, González Mancha N, ter Beest M, van den Bogaart G. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy reveals rerouting of SNARE trafficking driving dendritic cell activation. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..activation of dendritic cells by bacterial lipopolysaccharide leads to increased FRET of fluorescently labeled syntaxin 4 with VAMP3 specifically at the plasma membrane, indicating increased SNARE complex formation, whereas FRET with ..
  32. Tellam J, Macaulay S, McIntosh S, Hewish D, Ward C, James D. Characterization of Munc-18c and syntaxin-4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Putative role in insulin-dependent movement of GLUT-4. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:6179-86 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that syntaxin-4/Munc-18c/VAMP-2 may play a role in the docking/fusion of intracellular GLUT-4-containing vesicles with the cell surface in adipocytes. ..
  33. Hata Y, Sudhof T. A novel ubiquitous form of Munc-18 interacts with multiple syntaxins. Use of the yeast two-hybrid system to study interactions between proteins involved in membrane traffic. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13022-8 pubmed
    ..produced in COS cells, we show that both forms of Munc-18 bind tightly to syntaxins 1A, 2, and 3 but not to syntaxin 4. In an independent approach to study the binding specificities of Munc-18-1 and Munc-18-2, we used the yeast two-..
  34. Rahman A, Decourcey J, Larbi N, Loughran S, Walls D, Loscher C. Syntaxin-4 is essential for IgE secretion by plasma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;440:163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of this machinery may be beneficial in identifying potential therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma and autoimmune disease where over-production of Ig leads to severe pathology in patients. ..
  35. Gómez Jaramillo L, Delgado Pérez L, Reales E, Mora López F, Mateos R, García Poley A, et al. Syntaxin-4 is implicated in the secretion of antibodies by human plasma cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2014;95:305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..SNAP23, STX3, and STX4 were localized mainly in the plasma membrane of PCs, and interactions of SNAP23 with STX3 and with STX4 were proven ..
  36. Inoue T, Nielsen S, Mandon B, Terris J, Kishore B, Knepper M. SNAP-23 in rat kidney: colocalization with aquaporin-2 in collecting duct vesicles. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:F752-60 pubmed
    ..However, localization of SNAP-23 in both intracytoplasmic vesicles and plasma membranes suggests a function different from that originally proposed for SNAP-25 in synaptic vesicle targeting. ..
  37. Imai A, Nashida T, Yoshie S, Shimomura H. Intracellular localisation of SNARE proteins in rat parotid acinar cells: SNARE complexes on the apical plasma membrane. Arch Oral Biol. 2003;48:597-604 pubmed
    ..Syntaxins 2 and 3 were localised in the apical plasma membrane (APM), and syntaxin 4 was localised in the plasma membrane. SNAP-23 was localised in the APM and intracellular membrane (ICM)...
  38. Williams K, McNeilly R, Coppolino M. SNAP23, Syntaxin4, and vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP7) mediate trafficking of membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) during invadopodium formation and tumor cell invasion. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:2061-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal an important role for SNARE-regulated trafficking of MT1-MMP to invadopodia during cellular invasion of ECM. ..
  39. Kadono N, Miyazaki T, Okugawa Y, Nakajima K, Hirai Y. The impact of extracellular syntaxin4 on HaCaT keratinocyte behavior. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:1200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results revealed, for the first time, the extracellular role of syntaxin4 and shed light on the division of the extracellular effects exerted by epimorphin and syntaxin4 on keratinocyte cornification. ..
  40. Day P, Riggs K, Hasan N, Corbin D, Humphrey D, Hu C. Syntaxins 3 and 4 mediate vesicular trafficking of ?5?1 and ?3?1 integrins and cancer cell migration. Int J Oncol. 2011;39:863-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that syntaxins 3- and 4-dependent integrin trafficking is important in cancer cell migration and survival, and may be a valuable target for cancer therapy. ..
  41. Low S, Vasanji A, Nanduri J, He M, Sharma N, Koo M, et al. Syntaxins 3 and 4 are concentrated in separate clusters on the plasma membrane before the establishment of cell polarity. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:977-89 pubmed
    ..Deletion of the apical targeting signal of syntaxin 3 does not prevent sorting into clusters away from syntaxin 4. Syntaxin 3 and 4 cluster formation depends on different mechanisms because the integrity of syntaxin 3 clusters ..
  42. Widberg C, Bryant N, Girotti M, Rea S, James D. Tomosyn interacts with the t-SNAREs syntaxin4 and SNAP23 and plays a role in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35093-101 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Tomosyn and Munc18c operate at a similar stage of the Syntaxin4 SNARE assembly cycle, which likely primes Syntaxin4 for entry into the ternary SNARE complex. ..
  43. Perskvist N, Roberg K, Kulyté A, Stendahl O. Rab5a GTPase regulates fusion between pathogen-containing phagosomes and cytoplasmic organelles in human neutrophils. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:1321-30 pubmed
    ..These results also identified Rab5a as a key regulator of phagolysosome maturation in human neutrophils. ..
  44. Dent J, Kato K, Peng X, Martinez C, Cattaneo M, Poujol C, et al. A prototypic platelet septin and its participation in secretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3064-9 pubmed
    ..CDCrel-1 revealed it to be part of a macromolecular complex containing a protein involved in platelet secretion, syntaxin 4. Moreover, CDCrel-1 was localized in situ to areas surrounding platelet-storage granules...
  45. Takuma T, Arakawa T, Okayama M, Mizoguchi I, Tanimura A, Tajima Y. Trafficking of green fluorescent protein-tagged SNARE proteins in HSY cells. J Biochem. 2002;132:729-35 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that munc18c plays an important role in the trafficking of syntaxin-4 to its proper destination by preventing premature interactions with other proteins, including SNARE proteins. ..
  46. Paumet F, Le Mao J, Martin S, Galli T, David B, Blank U, et al. Soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in RBL-2H3 mast cells: functional role of syntaxin 4 in exocytosis and identification of a vesicle-associated membrane protein 8-containing secretory compartment. J Immunol. 2000;164:5850-7 pubmed
    ..Within the syntaxin family, syntaxin 4 interacted with SNAP23 and all vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) examined, except tetanus neurotoxin ..
  47. Freedman S, Song H, Xu Y, Sun Z, Eck M. Homotetrameric structure of the SNAP-23 N-terminal coiled-coil domain. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:13462-7 pubmed
    ..A comparison of the SNAP-23N structure to other SNARE complex structures reveals how a simple coiled-coil motif can form diverse SNARE complexes. ..
  48. Steegmaier M, Yang B, Yoo J, Huang B, Shen M, Yu S, et al. Three novel proteins of the syntaxin/SNAP-25 family. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34171-9 pubmed
    ..SNAP-29 does not contain a predicted membrane anchor characteristic of other SNAREs. In vitro studies established that SNAP-29 is capable of binding to a broad range of syntaxins. ..
  49. Araki S, Tamori Y, Kawanishi M, Shinoda H, Masugi J, Mori H, et al. Inhibition of the binding of SNAP-23 to syntaxin 4 by Munc18c. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;234:257-62 pubmed
    ..Expression of SNAP-23, syntaxin 4, and the syntaxin-binding protein Munc 18c in COS cells revealed that Munc18c reduced the amount of SNAP-23 ..
  50. Nogami S, Satoh S, Tanaka Nakadate S, Yoshida K, Nakano M, Terano A, et al. Identification and characterization of taxilin isoforms. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;319:936-43 pubmed
    ..The taxilin family members mutually interacted with the syntaxin family members. These results indicate that there is the taxilin family composed of at least three members in mammals. ..
  51. Li C, Ullrich B, Zhang J, Anderson R, Brose N, Sudhof T. Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent activities of neural and non-neural synaptotagmins. Nature. 1995;375:594-9 pubmed
    ..The same C2 domains also bind syntaxin as a function of Ca2+ but the Ca(2+)-concentration dependence of Syt I, II and V (> 200 microM) differs from that of Syt III and VII (< 10 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  52. Ravichandran V, Chawla A, Roche P. Identification of a novel syntaxin- and synaptobrevin/VAMP-binding protein, SNAP-23, expressed in non-neuronal tissues. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:13300-3 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that SNAP-23 is an essential component of the high affinity receptor for the general membrane fusion machinery and an important regulator of transport vesicle docking and fusion in all mammalian cells. ..
  53. Massimi P, Narayan N, Thomas M, Gammoh N, Strand S, Strand D, et al. Regulation of the hDlg/hScrib/Hugl-1 tumour suppressor complex. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:3306-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate an interaction between the three components of the hScrib complex and the tSNARE syntaxin 4, and show that correct localization of the Scrib complex is in part tSNARE dependent...
  54. Mollinedo F, Martin Martin B, Calafat J, Nabokina S, Lazo P. Role of vesicle-associated membrane protein-2, through Q-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor/R-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor interaction, in the exocytosis of specific and tert. J Immunol. 2003;170:1034-42 pubmed
    ..Activation of neutrophils led to the interaction of VAMP-2 with the plasma membrane Q-SNARE syntaxin 4, and anti-syntaxin 4 Abs inhibited exocytosis of specific and tertiary granules in electropermeabilized ..
  55. Min J, Okada S, Kanzaki M, Elmendorf J, Coker K, Ceresa B, et al. Synip: a novel insulin-regulated syntaxin 4-binding protein mediating GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes. Mol Cell. 1999;3:751-60 pubmed
    ..transport and GLUT4 translocation require regulated interactions between the v-SNARE, VAMP2, and the t-SNARE, syntaxin 4. We have isolated a novel syntaxin 4-binding protein, Synip, which specifically interacts with syntaxin 4...
  56. Logan M, Lacy P, Bablitz B, Moqbel R. Expression of eosinophil target SNAREs as potential cognate receptors for vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 in exocytosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;109:299-306 pubmed
    ..These findings support a role for SNARE molecules in eosinophil mediator release. ..
  57. Timmers K, Clark A, Omatsu Kanbe M, Whiteheart S, Bennett M, Holman G, et al. Identification of SNAP receptors in rat adipose cell membrane fractions and in SNARE complexes co-immunoprecipitated with epitope-tagged N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein. Biochem J. 1996;320 ( Pt 2):429-36 pubmed
    ..These complexes contain VAMPs 2 and 3 and syntaxin 4, but not syntaxins 2 or 3. Complex formation requires ATP and is disrupted by ATP hydrolysis...
  58. Jagadish M, Fernandez C, Hewish D, Macaulay S, Gough K, Grusovin J, et al. Insulin-responsive tissues contain the core complex protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein 25) A and B isoforms in addition to syntaxin 4 and synaptobrevins 1 and 2. Biochem J. 1996;317 ( Pt 3):945-54 pubmed
    ..It describes the isolation and characterization of cDNA molecules encoding SNAP-25 A and B isoforms, syntaxin 4 and synaptobrevins (also known as vehicle-associated membrane proteins) from two major human insulin-responsive ..
  59. Bryant N, Govers R, James D. Regulated transport of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002;3:267-77 pubmed
  60. Alfadhli S, Al Zufairi A, Nizam R, AlSaffar H, Al Mutairi N. De-regulation of diabetic regulatory genes in psoriasis: Deciphering the unsolved riddle. Gene. 2016;593:110-116 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis revealed three candidate genes GSK3B, PTPN1, STX4 that are differentially expressed in study subjects. GSK3B was highly significant in Ps-T2D (P=0.00018, FR=-26...
  61. Perrotta C, Bizzozero L, Cazzato D, Morlacchi S, Assi E, Simbari F, et al. Syntaxin 4 is required for acid sphingomyelinase activity and apoptotic function. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40240-51 pubmed publisher
    ..from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane in an exocytic pathway requiring the t-SNARE protein syntaxin 4. Indeed, down-regulation of syntaxin 4 inhibits A-SMase translocation and activation induced by CD95 stimulation...
  62. Xie L, Zhu D, Dolai S, Liang T, Qin T, Kang Y, et al. Syntaxin-4 mediates exocytosis of pre-docked and newcomer insulin granules underlying biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in human pancreatic beta cells. Diabetologia. 2015;58:1250-9 pubmed publisher
  63. Li G, Alexander E, Schwartz J. Syntaxin isoform specificity in the regulation of renal H+-ATPase exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:19791-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Interaction between the syntaxin-1A and H+-ATPase is important in the targeted exocytosis of the proton pump to the apical membrane of intercalated cells...
  64. Schraw T, Lemons P, Dean W, Whiteheart S. A role for Sec1/Munc18 proteins in platelet exocytosis. Biochem J. 2003;374:207-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate a clear role for SM proteins in platelet exocytosis and aggregation and suggest a dominant role for Munc18c in all three granule-release events...
  65. Evesson F, Peat R, Lek A, Brilot F, Lo H, Dale R, et al. Reduced plasma membrane expression of dysferlin mutants is attributed to accelerated endocytosis via a syntaxin-4-associated pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:28529-39 pubmed publisher
  66. Rao S, Huynh C, Proux Gillardeaux V, Galli T, Andrews N. Identification of SNAREs involved in synaptotagmin VII-regulated lysosomal exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20471-9 pubmed
    ..we show that Ca2+-dependent interaction of the synaptotagmin VII C(2)A domain with SNAP-23 is facilitated by syntaxin 4. Specific interactions also occurred in cell lysates between the plasma membrane t-SNAREs SNAP-23 and syntaxin 4 ..
  67. Brochetta C, Vita F, Tiwari N, Scandiuzzi L, Soranzo M, Guérin Marchand C, et al. Involvement of Munc18 isoforms in the regulation of granule exocytosis in neutrophils. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:1781-91 pubmed publisher
    ..and Munc18-3 were often located in close proximity to their respective SNARE-binding partners syntaxin 3 and syntaxin 4. Both isoforms were also found in plasma membrane fractions and in the cytosol, where they associate with ..