ST2

Summary

Gene Symbol: ST2
Description: interleukin 1 receptor like 1
Alias: DER4, FIT-1, IL33R, ST2, ST2L, ST2V, interleukin-1 receptor-like 1, growth stimulation-expressed, homolog of mouse growth stimulation-expressed, interleukin 1 receptor-related protein
Species: human
Products:     ST2

Top Publications

  1. Castano R, Bosse Y, Endam L, Desrosiers M. Evidence of association of interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 gene polymorphisms with chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2009;23:377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Pending replication of these results, this study suggests that polymorphisms within the IL1RL1 gene may be associated with CRS, conferring a protective effect, particularly among those with severe disease. ..
  2. Demyanets S, Speidl W, Tentzeris I, Jarai R, Katsaros K, Farhan S, et al. Soluble ST2 and interleukin-33 levels in coronary artery disease: relation to disease activity and adverse outcome. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e95055 pubmed publisher
    b>ST2 is a receptor for interleukin (IL)-33. We investigated an association of soluble ST2 (sST2) and IL-33 serum levels with different clinical stages of coronary artery disease...
  3. Mueller T, Dieplinger B, Gegenhuber A, Poelz W, Pacher R, Haltmayer M. Increased plasma concentrations of soluble ST2 are predictive for 1-year mortality in patients with acute destabilized heart failure. Clin Chem. 2008;54:752-6 pubmed publisher
    The soluble isoform of the interleukin-1 receptor family member ST2 (sST2) has been implicated in heart failure...
  4. Schmitz J, Owyang A, Oldham E, Song Y, Murphy E, McClanahan T, et al. IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines. Immunity. 2005;23:479-90 pubmed
    ..In vivo, IL-33 induces the expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and leads to severe pathological changes in mucosal organs. ..
  5. Dieplinger B, Egger M, Haltmayer M, Kleber M, Scharnagl H, Silbernagel G, et al. Increased soluble ST2 predicts long-term mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease: results from the Ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study. Clin Chem. 2014;60:530-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this cohort of patients with stable CAD, increased sST2 was an independent predictor of long-term all-cause mortality and provided complementary prognostic information to hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP. ..
  6. Pastorelli L, Garg R, Hoang S, Spina L, Mattioli B, Scarpa M, et al. Epithelial-derived IL-33 and its receptor ST2 are dysregulated in ulcerative colitis and in experimental Th1/Th2 driven enteritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8017-22 pubmed publisher
    IL-33 is a novel member of the IL-1 family and ligand for the IL-1 receptor-related protein, ST2. Recent evidence suggests that the IL-33/ST2 axis plays a critical role in several autoimmune and inflammatory disorders; however, its role ..
  7. Lécart S, Lecointe N, Subramaniam A, Alkan S, Ni D, Chen R, et al. Activated, but not resting human Th2 cells, in contrast to Th1 and T regulatory cells, produce soluble ST2 and express low levels of ST2L at the cell surface. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:2979-87 pubmed
    The T1/ST2 gene encodes, as a result of differential splicing, a cell surface protein (transmembrane form of T1/ST2, ST2L) and a soluble, secreted, protein (ST2)...
  8. Tominaga S, Kuroiwa K, Tago K, Iwahana H, Yanagisawa K, Komatsu N. Presence and expression of a novel variant form of ST2 gene product in human leukemic cell line UT-7/GM. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;264:14-8 pubmed
    A novel variant cDNA from the human ST2 gene other than ST2 or ST2L was identified and tentatively named ST2V...
  9. Moffatt M, Gut I, Demenais F, Strachan D, Bouzigon E, Heath S, et al. A large-scale, consortium-based genomewide association study of asthma. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:1211-1221 pubmed publisher
    ..Variants at the ORMDL3/GSDMB locus are associated only with childhood-onset disease. Elevation of total serum IgE levels has a minor role in the development of asthma. (Funded by the European Commission and others.) ..

More Information

Publications72

  1. Baba Y, Maeda K, Yashiro T, Inage E, Kasakura K, Suzuki R, et al. GATA2 is a critical transactivator for the human IL1RL1/ST2 promoter in mast cells/basophils: opposing roles for GATA2 and GATA1 in human IL1RL1/ST2 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32689-96 pubmed
    The IL1RL1/ST2 gene encodes a receptor for IL-33. Signaling from IL1RL1/ST2 induced by IL-33 binding was recently identified as a modulator of the Th2 response...
  2. Ky B, French B, McCloskey K, Rame J, McIntosh E, Shahi P, et al. High-sensitivity ST2 for prediction of adverse outcomes in chronic heart failure. Circ Heart Fail. 2011;4:180-7 pubmed publisher
    Soluble ST2 reflects activity of an interleukin-33-dependent cardioprotective signaling axis and is a diagnostic and prognostic marker in acute heart failure. The use of ST2 in chronic heart failure has not been well defined...
  3. Liu X, Hammel M, He Y, Tainer J, Jeng U, Zhang L, et al. Structural insights into the interaction of IL-33 with its receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14918-23 pubmed publisher
    ..It signals through its ligand-binding primary receptor ST2 and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), both of which are members of the IL-1 receptor family...
  4. Boisot S, Beede J, Isakson S, Chiu A, Clopton P, Januzzi J, et al. Serial sampling of ST2 predicts 90-day mortality following destabilized heart failure. J Card Fail. 2008;14:732-8 pubmed publisher
    To prospectively determine the prognostic utility of serial sampling of the interleukin-1 receptor family member, ST2, for predicting 90-day mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) admitted to a Veteran Affairs Medical Center...
  5. Moritz D, Rodewald H, Gheyselinck J, Klemenz R. The IL-1 receptor-related T1 antigen is expressed on immature and mature mast cells and on fetal blood mast cell progenitors. J Immunol. 1998;161:4866-74 pubmed
    Expression of the T1 gene, also known as ST2, DER4, and Fit-1, has been shown to be associated with cell proliferation...
  6. Kakkar R, Lee R. The IL-33/ST2 pathway: therapeutic target and novel biomarker. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2008;7:827-40 pubmed publisher
    For many years, the interleukin-1 receptor family member ST2 was an orphan receptor that was studied in the context of inflammatory and autoimmune disease...
  7. Kumar S, Tzimas M, Griswold D, Young P. Expression of ST2, an interleukin-1 receptor homologue, is induced by proinflammatory stimuli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;235:474-8 pubmed
    b>ST2/T1 is an orphan receptor highly homologous to the IL-1 receptor...
  8. Lohning M, Stroehmann A, Coyle A, Grogan J, Lin S, Gutierrez Ramos J, et al. T1/ST2 is preferentially expressed on murine Th2 cells, independent of interleukin 4, interleukin 5, and interleukin 10, and important for Th2 effector function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:6930-5 pubmed
    ..One such gene, T1/ST2, is expressed stably on both Th2 clones and Th2-polarized cells activated in vivo or in vitro...
  9. Suzukawa M, Iikura M, Koketsu R, Nagase H, Tamura C, Komiya A, et al. An IL-1 cytokine member, IL-33, induces human basophil activation via its ST2 receptor. J Immunol. 2008;181:5981-9 pubmed
    ..has been recognized as one of the key cytokines enhancing Th2-balanced immune regulation through its receptor, ST2. The present study was conducted to elucidate whether IL-33 acts directly on, and affects the functions of, human ..
  10. Gillibert Duplantier J, Duthey B, Sisirak V, Salaun D, Gargi T, Tredan O, et al. Gene expression profiling identifies sST2 as an effector of ErbB2-driven breast carcinoma cell motility, associated with metastasis. Oncogene. 2012;31:3516-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of the soluble form of ST2 (sST2), also called interleukin-1 receptor-like 1, one of the most robustly induced genes, decreased ErbB2-induced ..
  11. Li H, Tago K, Io K, Kuroiwa K, Arai T, Iwahana H, et al. The cloning and nucleotide sequence of human ST2L cDNA. Genomics. 2000;67:284-90 pubmed
    ..We have cloned the human ST2L cDNA that encodes a distinct type of membrane-bound ST2 protein...
  12. Brint E, Fitzgerald K, Smith P, Coyle A, Gutierrez Ramos J, Fallon P, et al. Characterization of signaling pathways activated by the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor homologue T1/ST2. A role for Jun N-terminal kinase in IL-4 induction. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49205-11 pubmed
    T1/ST2 is a member of the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor superfamily, possessing three immunoglobulin domains extracellularly and a Toll/IL1R (TIR) domain intracellularly. The ligand for T1/ST2 is not known...
  13. Brunner M, Krenn C, Roth G, Moser B, Dworschak M, Jensen Jarolim E, et al. Increased levels of soluble ST2 protein and IgG1 production in patients with sepsis and trauma. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30:1468-73 pubmed
    T1/ST2, a member of the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor superfamily, is predominantly expressed on type-2 T helper (Th2) cells but not Th1 cells, and plays a role in cell proliferation and Th2 immune response...
  14. Díaz Jiménez D, Núñez L, Beltrán C, Candia E, Suazo C, Alvarez Lobos M, et al. Soluble ST2: a new and promising activity marker in ulcerative colitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:2181-90 pubmed publisher
    To correlate circulating soluble ST2 (sST2) levels with the severity of ulcerative colitis (UC) and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and to demonstrate the predictive power of sST2 levels for differentiation between active and ..
  15. Houghton Triviño N, Salgado D, Rodríguez J, Bosch I, Castellanos J. Levels of soluble ST2 in serum associated with severity of dengue due to tumour necrosis factor alpha stimulation. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:697-706 pubmed publisher
    The interleukin-1 receptor-like-1 protein (IL1RL1), also known as ST2, has been shown previously to regulate T-cell function and is produced by T cells and endothelial cells...
  16. Stampalija T, Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, Tarca A, Bhatti G, Chiang P, et al. Soluble ST2, a modulator of the inflammatory response, in preterm and term labor. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014;27:111-21 pubmed publisher
    Intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI) is causally linked with spontaneous preterm labor and delivery. The ST2L receptor and its soluble form (sST2) are capable of binding to interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the IL-1 superfamily...
  17. Granne I, Southcombe J, Snider J, Tannetta D, Child T, Redman C, et al. ST2 and IL-33 in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24463 pubmed publisher
    ..Interleukin (IL)-33 is a newly described member of the IL-1 family, which binds its receptor ST2L to induce type 2 cytokines...
  18. Szerafin T, Niederpold T, Mangold A, Hoetzenecker K, Hacker S, Roth G, et al. Secretion of soluble ST2 - possible explanation for systemic immunosuppression after heart surgery. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;57:25-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ST2, IL-4 and IL-10 served as markers for TH2 cytokine response; IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-gamma as TH1 markers...
  19. Gudbjartsson D, Bjornsdottir U, Halapi E, Helgadottir A, Sulem P, Jonsdottir G, et al. Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction. Nat Genet. 2009;41:342-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2 x 10(-5) and 2.4 x 10(-4), respectively). We also found that a nonsynonymous SNP at 12q24, in SH2B3, associated significantly (P = 8.6 x 10(-8)) with myocardial infarction in six different populations (6,650 cases and 40,621 controls). ..
  20. Buysschaert I, Grulois V, Eloy P, Jorissen M, Rombaux P, Bertrand B, et al. Genetic evidence for a role of IL33 in nasal polyposis. Allergy. 2010;65:616-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide unprecedented genetic evidence suggesting a role for the IL33 pathway in the pathogenesis of NP. ..
  21. Takezako N, Hayakawa M, Hayakawa H, Aoki S, Yanagisawa K, Endo H, et al. ST2 suppresses IL-6 production via the inhibition of IkappaB degradation induced by the LPS signal in THP-1 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;341:425-32 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrated that a soluble secreted form of the ST2 gene product (ST2), a member of the interleukin-1 receptor family, suppressed the production of IL-6 in an LPS-..
  22. Kurowska Stolarska M, Kewin P, Murphy G, Russo R, Stolarski B, Garcia C, et al. IL-33 induces antigen-specific IL-5+ T cells and promotes allergic-induced airway inflammation independent of IL-4. J Immunol. 2008;181:4780-90 pubmed
    ..In vivo, ST2(-/-) mice developed attenuated airway inflammation and IL-5 production in a murine model of asthma...
  23. Tsapaki A, Zaravinos A, Apostolakis S, Voudris K, Vogiatzi K, Kochiadakis G, et al. Genetic variability of the distal promoter of the ST2 gene is associated with angiographic severity of coronary artery disease. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2010;30:365-71 pubmed publisher
    Genetic polymorphy of the distal promoter region of the ST2 gene influences transcriptional activity and susceptibility to atopic dermatitis and asthma...
  24. Hartland S, Newton J, Griffin S, Donaldson P. A functional polymorphism in the interleukin-1 receptor-1 gene is associated with increased risk of Helicobacter pylori infection but not with gastric cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2004;49:1545-50 pubmed
    ..27 vs 0.156; P = 0.009; OR = 2.01). Our results suggest that the relationship among IL-1 gene polymorphism, H. pylori, and disease is more complex than initially proposed. More detailed studies of the IL-1 gene cluster are needed. ..
  25. Becerra A, Warke R, de Bosch N, Rothman A, Bosch I. Elevated levels of soluble ST2 protein in dengue virus infected patients. Cytokine. 2008;41:114-20 pubmed publisher
    Levels of the soluble form of the interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 protein (IL-1RL-1/ST2) are elevated in the serum of patients with diseases characterized by an inflammatory response...
  26. Aoki S, Hayakawa M, Ozaki H, Takezako N, Obata H, Ibaraki N, et al. ST2 gene expression is proliferation-dependent and its ligand, IL-33, induces inflammatory reaction in endothelial cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;335:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..and Th2 helper T-cells, and recently, IL-33, which belongs to IL-1 family, was identified as the ligand for ST2L, the receptor type product of the ST2 gene...
  27. Mildner M, Storka A, Lichtenauer M, Mlitz V, Ghannadan M, Hoetzenecker K, et al. Primary sources and immunological prerequisites for sST2 secretion in humans. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;87:769-77 pubmed publisher
  28. Tago K, Noda T, Hayakawa M, Iwahana H, Yanagisawa K, Yashiro T, et al. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of a variant form of the human ST2 gene product, ST2V. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;285:1377-83 pubmed
    ..has been known to encode three splice variants; namely, a soluble secreted form of ST2, a transmembrane form of ST2L, and ST2V of undetermined localization...
  29. Schmieder A, Multhoff G, Radons J. Interleukin-33 acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and modulates its receptor gene expression in highly metastatic human pancreatic carcinoma cells. Cytokine. 2012;60:514-21 pubmed publisher
    ..As IL-33 mediates its effects via the heterodimeric ST2L/IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) receptor complex, we investigated the influence of IL-33 alone, IL-33 ..
  30. Dhillon O, Narayan H, Khan S, Kelly D, Quinn P, Squire I, et al. Pre-discharge risk stratification in unselected STEMI: is there a role for ST2 or its natural ligand IL-33 when compared with contemporary risk markers?. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:2182-8 pubmed publisher
    Soluble ST2 is a marker of cellular stress and injury whose natural ligand is interleukin-33. We investigate, for the first time, the relationship of IL-33 and ST2 with death at 30-days, 1-year and beyond in unselected STEMI patients...
  31. Rehman S, Mueller T, Januzzi J. Characteristics of the novel interleukin family biomarker ST2 in patients with acute heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:1458-65 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to examine the patient-specific characteristics of the interleukin-1 receptor family member ST2 in patients with acute heart failure (HF)...
  32. Ferreira M, McRae A, Medland S, Nyholt D, Gordon S, Wright M, et al. Association between ORMDL3, IL1RL1 and a deletion on chromosome 17q21 with asthma risk in Australia. Eur J Hum Genet. 2011;19:458-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we confirm the association between asthma risk and variants in ORMDL3 and identify a novel risk variant in IL1RL1. Follow-up of the 17q21 deletion in larger cohorts is warranted. ..
  33. Demyanets S, Kaun C, Pentz R, Krychtiuk K, Rauscher S, Pfaffenberger S, et al. Components of the interleukin-33/ST2 system are differentially expressed and regulated in human cardiac cells and in cells of the cardiac vasculature. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013;60:16-26 pubmed publisher
    ..that human cardiac and vascular cells have different distribution patterns of ST2 isoforms (sST2 and transmembrane ST2L) mRNA expression and produce different amounts of sST2 protein...
  34. Shimizu M, Matsuda A, Yanagisawa K, Hirota T, Akahoshi M, Inomata N, et al. Functional SNPs in the distal promoter of the ST2 gene are associated with atopic dermatitis. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2919-27 pubmed
    ..The ST2 gene encodes both membrane-bound ST2L and soluble ST2 (sST2) proteins by alternative splicing...
  35. Lüthi A, Cullen S, McNeela E, Duriez P, Afonina I, Sheridan C, et al. Suppression of interleukin-33 bioactivity through proteolysis by apoptotic caspases. Immunity. 2009;31:84-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, caspase-dependent processing of IL-33 was not required for ST2 receptor binding or ST2-dependent activation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor...
  36. Hayakawa H, Hayakawa M, Kume A, Tominaga S. Soluble ST2 blocks interleukin-33 signaling in allergic airway inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26369-80 pubmed
    The ST2 gene produces a soluble secreted form and a transmembrane form, referred to as soluble ST2 and ST2L, respectively...
  37. Iwahana H, Yanagisawa K, Ito Kosaka A, Kuroiwa K, Tago K, Komatsu N, et al. Different promoter usage and multiple transcription initiation sites of the interleukin-1 receptor-related human ST2 gene in UT-7 and TM12 cells. Eur J Biochem. 1999;264:397-406 pubmed
    ..Two distinct types of the ST2 gene products, ST2 (a soluble secreted form) and ST2L (a transmembrane form) are produced by alternative splicing...
  38. Kaitu u Lino T, Tuohey L, Tong S. Maternal serum interleukin-33 and soluble ST2 across early pregnancy, and their association with miscarriage. J Reprod Immunol. 2012;95:46-9 pubmed publisher
    A shift from type 1 to type 2 immune bias is essential for successful implantation and pregnancy. ST2 is a receptor present on type 2 immune cells and IL-33 was recently discovered to be its ligand...
  39. Eggers K, Armstrong P, Califf R, Simoons M, Venge P, Wallentin L, et al. ST2 and mortality in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Am Heart J. 2010;159:788-94 pubmed publisher
    b>ST2 is a member of the interleukin-1 receptor family that is up-regulated in conditions associated with increased myocardial strain...
  40. Weinberg E, Shimpo M, Hurwitz S, Tominaga S, Rouleau J, Lee R. Identification of serum soluble ST2 receptor as a novel heart failure biomarker. Circulation. 2003;107:721-6 pubmed
    Using genomic technology, we previously identified an interleukin-1 receptor family member, ST2, as a gene markedly induced by mechanical strain in cardiac myocytes...
  41. Ali M, Zhang G, Thomas W, McLean C, Bizzintino J, Laing I, et al. Investigations into the role of ST2 in acute asthma in children. Tissue Antigens. 2009;73:206-12 pubmed publisher
    The ST2 gene is a member of the interleukin-1 receptor family and is located on chromosome 2q12, an area of the genome that has been associated with asthma...
  42. Brint E, Xu D, Liu H, Dunne A, McKenzie A, O Neill L, et al. ST2 is an inhibitor of interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and maintains endotoxin tolerance. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:373-9 pubmed
    ..b>ST2 is a member of the TIR family that does not activate NF-kappa B and has been suggested as an important effector ..
  43. Lin J, Zhang L, Zhao G, Su Z, Deng R, Pflugfelder S, et al. A novel interleukin 33/ST2 signaling regulates inflammatory response in human corneal epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60963 pubmed publisher
    ..of IL-1 cytokine family, is well known to promote Th2 type immune responses by signaling through its receptor ST2. However, it is not clear whether ST2 is expressed by mucosal epithelium, and how it responds to IL-33 to induce ..
  44. Minutti C, Drube S, Blair N, Schwartz C, McCrae J, McKenzie A, et al. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression Licenses Type-2 Helper T Cells to Function in a T Cell Receptor-Independent Fashion. Immunity. 2017;47:710-722.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..growth factor receptor (EGFR) and of its ligand, amphiregulin, for the formation of a signaling complex between T1/ST2 (the IL-33R) and EGFR...
  45. Zhang Z, Liu X, Wang H, Qu Z, Crew R, Zhang N, et al. Increased soluble ST2 and IL?4 serum levels are associated with disease severity in patients with membranous nephropathy. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    The interleukin (IL)?33/suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) axis regulates Th2 reactivity, and ST2 is the receptor for IL?33...
  46. Rose W, Okragly A, Patel C, Benschop R. IL-33 released by alum is responsible for early cytokine production and has adjuvant properties. Sci Rep. 2015;5:13146 pubmed publisher
    ..many of which are dependent on IL-33 as shown in IL-33 knockout mice or by using an IL-33-neutralizing recombinant ST2 receptor...
  47. Caserta D, Di Benedetto L, Bordi G, D Ambrosio A, Moscarini M. Levels of Galectin-3 and Stimulation Expressed Gene 2 in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis: a pilot study. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2014;30:877-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Gal-3 and ST2 peritoneal concentrations were analyzed using enzyme immunoassay kit...
  48. Tian L, Zheng F, Li Z, Wang H, Yuan H, Zhang X, et al. miR-148a-3p regulates adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation by targeting lysine-specific demethylase 6b. Gene. 2017;627:32-39 pubmed publisher
    ..study revealed that miR-148a-3p was altered in primary cultured marrow stromal cells and established stromal ST2 line after adipogenic and/or osteogenic treatment...
  49. Huang X, Gao Y, Ma Z, Lin G, Cai Z, Zhou J. Profile of Citrobacter freundii ST2, a Multi-acyl-homoserine Lactone Producer Associated with Marine Dinoflagellates. Curr Microbiol. 2017;74:68-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we isolated an epidermal bacterium (ST2) from the marine dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea and evaluated its AHL production profile...
  50. Caballé Serrano J, Fujioka Kobayashi M, Bosshardt D, Gruber R, Buser D, Miron R. Pre-coating deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) with bone-conditioned medium (BCM) improves osteoblast migration, adhesion, and differentiation in vitro. Clin Oral Investig. 2016;20:2507-2513 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse ST2 cells were seeded on (1) DBBM particles alone or (2) DBBM + BCM...
  51. Matta B, Turnquist H. Expansion of Regulatory T Cells In Vitro and In Vivo by IL-33. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1371:29-41 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-33-expanded Treg express the IL-33 receptor (R) ST2, and express classical markers associated with Treg phenotype and suppressor function...
  52. Ponce D, Hilden P, Mumaw C, Devlin S, Lubin M, Giralt S, et al. High day 28 ST2 levels predict for acute graft-versus-host disease and transplant-related mortality after cord blood transplantation. Blood. 2015;125:199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Day 28 samples from 113 CBT patients were analyzed. Suppressor of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) was the only biomarker associated with grades II-IV and III-IV aGVHD and TRM...
  53. Haga Y, Yanagisawa K, Ohto Ozaki H, Tominaga S, Masuzawa T, Iwahana H. The effect of ST2 gene product on anchorage-independent growth of a glioblastoma cell line, T98G. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:163-70 pubmed
    The ST2 gene, which is specifically induced by growth stimulation in fibroblasts, encodes interleukin-1 receptor-related proteins and is widely expressed in hematopoietic, helper T, and various cancer cells...
  54. Shore S. Mechanistic Basis for Obesity-related Increases in Ozone-induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017;14:S357-S362 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, an antibody blocking the IL-33 receptor, ST2, attenuates ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in obese but not in lean mice...
  55. Sun Z, Chang B, Gao M, Zhang J, Zou Z. IL-33-ST2 Axis in Liver Disease: Progression and Challenge. Mediators Inflamm. 2017;2017:5314213 pubmed publisher
    ..interleukin-33 (IL-33), participates in the progression of a variety of diseases through binding with its receptor ST2. Recently, much clinical evidence and experimental data have indicated that IL-33 is associated with various liver ..
  56. Lu D, Zhou X, Yao L, Liu C, Ma W, Jin F, et al. Serum soluble ST2 is associated with ER-positive breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:198 pubmed publisher
    b>ST2, a member of the interleukin (IL)-1receptor family, regulates Th1/Th2 immune responses in autoimmune and inflammatory conditions...
  57. Dieplinger B, Egger M, Poelz W, Gabriel C, Haltmayer M, Mueller T. Soluble ST2 is not independently associated with androgen and estrogen status in healthy males and females. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49:1515-8 pubmed publisher
    Soluble ST2 (sST2) plasma concentrations are significantly higher in healthy men than in healthy women. The reason for the sex-specific difference of sST2 plasma concentrations is not established...
  58. Jo S, Kim E, Kwak A, Lee J, Hong J, Lee J, et al. Reconstitution of ST2 (IL-1R4) specific for IL-33 activity; no suppression by IL-1Ra though a common chain IL-1R3 (IL-1RAcP) shared with IL-1. Cytokine. 2016;83:33-40 pubmed publisher
    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptors are composed of ST2 (also known as IL-1R4), a ligand binding chain, and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP, also known as IL-1R3), a signal transducing chain...
  59. Mbarik M, Kaabachi W, Henidi B, Sassi F, Hamzaoui K. Soluble ST2 and IL-33: Potential markers of endometriosis in the Tunisian population. Immunol Lett. 2015;166:1-5 pubmed publisher
    Interleukin-33 is an IL-1 family cytokine which signals via its T1/ST2 receptor, and acts as a key regulator of inflammation. This study aims to measure the expression of soluble ST2 (sST2) and IL-33 in endometriosis...
  60. Ramadan A, Griesenauer B, Adom D, Kapur R, Hanenberg H, Liu C, et al. Specifically differentiated T cell subset promotes tumor immunity over fatal immunity. J Exp Med. 2017;214:3577-3596 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that, in mice and humans, a population of interleukin-9 (IL-9)-producing T cells activated via the ST2-IL-33 pathway (T9IL-33 cells) increases GVL while decreasing GVHD through two opposing mechanisms: ..
  61. Jung S, Lee J, Baek S, Lee J, Lee J, Park K, et al. The Interleukin 33/ST2 axis in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome: expression in serum and salivary glands, and the clinical association. J Rheumatol. 2015;42:264-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum IL-33 and soluble ST2 (sST2) of 55 patients with pSS and 48 controls were determined by ELISA and assessed for clinical correlation...
  62. Willems S, Quax P, de Borst G, de Vries J, Moll F, de Kleijn D, et al. Soluble ST2 levels are not associated with secondary cardiovascular events and vulnerable plaque phenotype in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Atherosclerosis. 2013;231:48-53 pubmed publisher
    Soluble ST2 (sST2), a novel biomarker predictive for heart disease, has recently been shown associated with the progression of atherosclerotic disease in a mouse model...