Gene Symbol: SRC3
Description: nuclear receptor coactivator 3
Alias: ACTR, AIB-1, AIB1, CAGH16, CTG26, KAT13B, RAC3, SRC-3, SRC3, TNRC14, TNRC16, TRAM-1, bHLHe42, pCIP, nuclear receptor coactivator 3, CBP-interacting protein, amplified in breast cancer 1 protein, class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 42, receptor-associated coactivator 3, steroid receptor coactivator protein 3, thyroid hormone receptor activator molecule 1
Species: human
Products:     SRC3

Top Publications

  1. Kamei Y, Xu L, Heinzel T, Torchia J, Kurokawa R, Gloss B, et al. A CBP integrator complex mediates transcriptional activation and AP-1 inhibition by nuclear receptors. Cell. 1996;85:403-14 pubmed
  2. Li L, Louie M, Chen H, Zou J. Proto-oncogene ACTR/AIB1 promotes cancer cell invasion by up-regulating specific matrix metalloproteinase expression. Cancer Lett. 2008;261:64-73 pubmed
    Overexpression of ACTR/AIB1 is frequently found in different cancers with distant metastasis...
  3. Harigopal M, Heymann J, Ghosh S, Anagnostou V, Camp R, Rimm D. Estrogen receptor co-activator (AIB1) protein expression by automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) in a breast cancer tissue microarray and association with patient outcome. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;115:77-85 pubmed publisher
    Amplified in breast cancer (AIB1 or SRC-3) is an estrogen receptor coregulatory protein that together with other co-activators like transcription intermediary factor 2 (TIF2) and nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR), is implicated in ..
  4. Cai D, Shames D, Raso M, Xie Y, Kim Y, Pollack J, et al. Steroid receptor coactivator-3 expression in lung cancer and its role in the regulation of cancer cell survival and proliferation. Cancer Res. 2010;70:6477-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that SRC-3 may be an important oncogene and therapeutic target for lung cancer. ..
  5. Tan J, Hall S, Petrusz P, French F. Thyroid receptor activator molecule, TRAM-1, is an androgen receptor coactivator. Endocrinology. 2000;141:3440-50 pubmed
    ..SRC-3 was also present in nuclei of spermatogenic cells where AR was not expressed, suggesting it might also be a coactivator with other nuclear receptors that regulate spermatogenesis. ..
  6. Lodrini M, Münz T, Coudevylle N, Griesinger C, Becker S, Pfitzner E. P160/SRC/NCoA coactivators form complexes via specific interaction of their PAS-B domain with the CID/AD1 domain. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:1847-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study discloses a new, complementary mechanism for the current model of coactivator recruitment to target gene promoters. ..
  7. Luo J, Xie D, Liu M, Chen W, Liu Y, Wu G, et al. Protein expression and amplification of AIB1 in human urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and overexpression of AIB1 is a new independent prognostic marker of patient survival. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:2554-61 pubmed publisher
    b>AIB1, a candidate oncogene in human breast cancer, is frequently amplified and overexpressed in several types of human cancers, but the status of AIB1 amplification and expression in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UC) and its ..
  8. Wu X, Li H, Chen J. The human homologue of the yeast DNA repair and TFIIH regulator MMS19 is an AF-1-specific coactivator of estrogen receptor. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:23962-8 pubmed
    ..The nuclear receptor coactivator RAC3 (also known as AIB1/ACTR/pCIP/TRAM-1/SRC-3) is amplified in breast cancer cells, where it forms a complex with ..
  9. Arimura A, vn Peer M, Schroder A, Rothman P. The transcriptional co-activator p/CIP (NCoA-3) is up-regulated by STAT6 and serves as a positive regulator of transcriptional activation by STAT6. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:31105-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that p/CIP positively regulates STAT6 transcriptional activation through formation of a STAT6, p300/CBP, and p/CIP complex. ..

More Information


  1. Dihge L, Bendahl P, Grabau D, Isola J, Lövgren K, Rydén L, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the estrogen receptor modulator amplified in breast cancer (AIB1) for predicting clinical outcome after adjuvant tamoxifen in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;109:255-62 pubmed
    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) modulator Amplified In Breast cancer-1 (AIB1) have been reported to be of importance for the prognosis of breast cancer patients...
  2. Xu F, Xie D, Wen J, Wu H, Liu Y, Bi J, et al. SRC-3/AIB1 protein and gene amplification levels in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer Lett. 2007;245:69-74 pubmed
    It has been suggested that the steroid receptor coactivatior-3 (SRC-3) gene, also known as AIB1, ACTR, RAC3, p/CIP and TRAM-1, located at 20q12, plays an oncogenic role in several types of human cancers...
  3. Hughes D, Ginolhac S, Coupier I, Barjhoux L, Gaborieau V, Bressac de Paillerets B, et al. Breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and polyglutamine repeat length in the AIB1 gene. Int J Cancer. 2005;117:230-3 pubmed
    ..Variation in CAG/CAA repeat lengths coding for stretches of glutamines in the C-terminus of the AIB1 protein (amplified in breast cancer 1, a steroid receptor coactivator) has been proposed to modify the breast ..
  4. Goel A, Janknecht R. Concerted activation of ETS protein ER81 by p160 coactivators, the acetyltransferase p300 and the receptor tyrosine kinase HER2/Neu. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14909-16 pubmed
    Activator of thyroid and retinoic acid receptor (ACTR) is overexpressed in approximately 60% of primary human breast tumors and belongs to the p160 steroid receptor coactivator family...
  5. Louet J, Coste A, Amazit L, Tannour Louet M, Wu R, Tsai S, et al. Oncogenic steroid receptor coactivator-3 is a key regulator of the white adipogenic program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:17868-73 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest a crucial role for SRC-3 as an integrator of the complex transcriptional network controlling adipogenesis. ..
  6. Ferrero M, Avivar A, García Macías M, Font de Mora J. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling can promote AIB1 stability independently of GSK3 phosphorylation. Cancer Res. 2008;68:5450-9 pubmed publisher
    The transcriptional coactivator AIB1 is an oncogene overexpressed in different types of tumors, including breast cancer...
  7. Wang Z, Rose D, Hermanson O, Liu F, Herman T, Wu W, et al. Regulation of somatic growth by the p160 coactivator p/CIP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13549-54 pubmed
    ..One of the p160 factors, p/CIP/AIB1, often amplified and overexpressed in breast cancer, also exhibits particularly strong interaction with CREB-..
  8. Wu H, Sun L, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Shi B, Li R, et al. Coordinated regulation of AIB1 transcriptional activity by sumoylation and phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21848-56 pubmed
    b>AIB1, a member of the steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family that participates in gene transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, is required for animal growth and reproductive development and ..
  9. Suen C, Berrodin T, Mastroeni R, Cheskis B, Lyttle C, Frail D. A transcriptional coactivator, steroid receptor coactivator-3, selectively augments steroid receptor transcriptional activity. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:27645-53 pubmed
    ..Therefore, SRC-3, a third member of a family of steroid receptor coactivators, has a distinct tissue distribution and intriguing selectivity between ERalpha and ERbeta. ..
  10. Takeshita A, Cardona G, Koibuchi N, Suen C, Chin W. TRAM-1, A novel 160-kDa thyroid hormone receptor activator molecule, exhibits distinct properties from steroid receptor coactivator-1. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:27629-34 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TRAM-1 is a coactivator that may exhibit its activity by interacting with subdomains of NRs other than the AF-2 region, in contrast to SRC-1/TIF2. ..
  11. Wu R, Qin J, Hashimoto Y, Wong J, Xu J, Tsai S, et al. Regulation of SRC-3 (pCIP/ACTR/AIB-1/RAC-3/TRAM-1) Coactivator activity by I kappa B kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3549-61 pubmed
    ..of these coactivators are members of the steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family, SRC-1, TIF2/GRIP1/SRC-2, and pCIP/ACTR/AIB-1/RAC-3/TRAM-1/SRC-3...
  12. Chien C, Kirilyuk A, Li J, Zhang W, Lahusen T, Schmidt M, et al. Role of the nuclear receptor coactivator AIB1-Delta4 splice variant in the control of gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:26813-27 pubmed publisher
    The oncogene amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a nuclear receptor coactivator that plays a major role in the progression of various cancers...
  13. Gnanapragasam V, Leung H, Pulimood A, Neal D, Robson C. Expression of RAC 3, a steroid hormone receptor co-activator in prostate cancer. Br J Cancer. 2001;85:1928-36 pubmed
    ..03). We conclude that RAC 3 is an important co-activator of the AR in the prostate and may have an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. ..
  14. Font de Mora J, Brown M. AIB1 is a conduit for kinase-mediated growth factor signaling to the estrogen receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5041-7 pubmed
    ..We found that the transcriptional activity of AIB1, a ligand-dependent ER coactivator and a gene amplified preferentially in ER-positive breast cancers, is enhanced ..
  15. Lanz R, Bulynko Y, Malovannaya A, Labhart P, Wang L, Li W, et al. Global characterization of transcriptional impact of the SRC-3 coregulator. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:859-72 pubmed publisher
    The nuclear receptor and bona fide oncogene, steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3, AIB1), acts as a master transcriptional regulator of breast cancer by transducing growth signals via the estrogen receptor alpha (ER)...
  16. Zhang Y, Huang M, Zhu Z. AIB1 polymorphisms with breast cancer susceptibility: a pooled analysis of variation in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:6881-6 pubmed publisher
    The AIB1 gene (amplified in breast cancer 1), coding for a member of steroid receptor co-activator p160 protein family is involved in regulation of estrogen receptor transactivation influencing the estrogen-dependent gene expression...
  17. Colilla S, Kantoff P, Neuhausen S, Godwin A, Daly M, Narod S, et al. The joint effect of smoking and AIB1 on breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:599-605 pubmed
    Women with BRCA1 mutations are at an elevated risk for breast cancer. AIB1 (NCOA3/SRC3) genotype and smoking may alter this risk...
  18. Chen H, Lin R, Schiltz R, Chakravarti D, Nash A, Nagy L, et al. Nuclear receptor coactivator ACTR is a novel histone acetyltransferase and forms a multimeric activation complex with P/CAF and CBP/p300. Cell. 1997;90:569-80 pubmed
    We report here the identification of a novel cofactor, ACTR, that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates their transcriptional activities in a hormone-dependent fashion...
  19. Gianni M, Parrella E, Raska I, Gaillard E, Nigro E, Gaudon C, et al. P38MAPK-dependent phosphorylation and degradation of SRC-3/AIB1 and RARalpha-mediated transcription. EMBO J. 2006;25:739-51 pubmed
    ..Here we show that during RA-dependent activation of the RARalpha isotype, the p160 coactivator pCIP/ACTR/AIB-1/RAC-3/TRAM-1/SRC-3 is phosphorylated by p38MAPK...
  20. Leo C, Li H, Chen J. Differential mechanisms of nuclear receptor regulation by receptor-associated coactivator 3. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:5976-82 pubmed
    ..We have previously isolated receptor-associated coactivator 3 (RAC3), which belongs to the steroid receptor coactivator family...
  21. Oh A, List H, Reiter R, Mani A, Zhang Y, Gehan E, et al. The nuclear receptor coactivator AIB1 mediates insulin-like growth factor I-induced phenotypic changes in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2004;64:8299-308 pubmed
    The nuclear receptor coactivator AIB1 (amplified in breast cancer 1) is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is required for estrogen signaling. However, the role of AIB1 in breast cancer etiology is not known...
  22. Mc Ilroy M, Fleming F, Buggy Y, Hill A, Young L. Tamoxifen-induced ER-alpha-SRC-3 interaction in HER2 positive human breast cancer; a possible mechanism for ER isoform specific recurrence. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2006;13:1135-45 pubmed
    ..The ability of ER-alpha, but not ER-beta to recruit SRC-3 in the presence of tamoxifen may in part explain the differential ER isoform associations with recurrence in human breast cancer. ..
  23. Sakaguchi H, Fujimoto J, Sun W, Tamaya T. Clinical implications of steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-3 in uterine endometrial cancers. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;104:237-40 pubmed
    ..Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3; AIB1, ACTR, RAC3, TRAM-1, and pCIP) is a member of the p160 family of coactivator for nuclear hormone receptors including ..
  24. Li X, Lonard D, Jung S, Malovannaya A, Feng Q, Qin J, et al. The SRC-3/AIB1 coactivator is degraded in a ubiquitin- and ATP-independent manner by the REGgamma proteasome. Cell. 2006;124:381-92 pubmed
    Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3/AIB1) is an oncogene frequently amplified and overexpressed in breast cancers...
  25. Korzus E, Torchia J, Rose D, Xu L, Kurokawa R, McInerney E, et al. Transcription factor-specific requirements for coactivators and their acetyltransferase functions. Science. 1998;279:703-7 pubmed
  26. Montgomery K, Chang J, Gertig D, Dite G, McCredie M, Giles G, et al. The AIB1 glutamine repeat polymorphism is not associated with risk of breast cancer before age 40 years in Australian women. Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7:R353-6 pubmed
    b>AIB1, located at 20q12, is a member of the steroid hormone coactivator family...
  27. Long W, Yi P, Amazit L, LaMarca H, Ashcroft F, Kumar R, et al. SRC-3Delta4 mediates the interaction of EGFR with FAK to promote cell migration. Mol Cell. 2010;37:321-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also reveals that a nuclear receptor coactivator can act in the periphery of a cell to directly mediate activation of an enzyme. ..
  28. Xu Y, Chen Q, Li W, Su X, Chen T, Liu Y, et al. Overexpression of transcriptional coactivator AIB1 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression by enhancing cell proliferation and invasiveness. Oncogene. 2010;29:3386-97 pubmed publisher
    Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors and other transcription factors. AIB1 has an important role in malignancy of several cancers such as breast and prostate cancers...
  29. Liu M, Xie D, Mai S, Tong Z, Shao J, Fu Y, et al. Overexpression of AIB1 in nasopharyngeal carcinomas correlates closely with advanced tumor stage. Am J Clin Pathol. 2008;129:728-34 pubmed publisher
    b>AIB1, a candidate oncogene in breast cancer, is commonly amplified and overexpressed in several types of human cancers...
  30. Yang C, Li S, Wang M, Chang A, Liu Y, Zhao F, et al. PTEN suppresses the oncogenic function of AIB1 through decreasing its protein stability via mechanism involving Fbw7 alpha. Mol Cancer. 2013;12:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a transcriptional coactivator that mediates the transcriptional activities of nuclear receptors and other ..
  31. Zhou X, Suino Powell K, Li J, He Y, Mackeigan J, Melcher K, et al. Identification of SRC3/AIB1 as a preferred coactivator for hormone-activated androgen receptor. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:9161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..studies, we identify that steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC3) (also named as amplified in breast cancer-1 or AIB1) interacts strongly with AR via synergistic binding of its first and third LXXLL motifs...
  32. Li A, Lerner D, Gapuzan M, Karlan B. AIB1 polymorphisms predict aggressive ovarian cancer phenotype. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:2919-22 pubmed
    ..b>AIB1, an AR coactivator, expresses a similar polymorphic glutamine sequence within the carboxyl-terminal coding region...
  33. Kadouri L, Kote Jarai Z, Easton D, Hubert A, Hamoudi R, Glaser B, et al. Polyglutamine repeat length in the AIB1 gene modifies breast cancer susceptibility in BRCA1 carriers. Int J Cancer. 2004;108:399-403 pubmed
    ..Genes involved in hormonal signal transduction are possible candidates. The AIB1 gene, an estrogen receptor (ER) coactivator, is frequently amplified in breast and ovarian tumors...
  34. Sugiyama T, Wang J, Scott D, Granner D. Transcription activation by the orphan nuclear receptor, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor I (COUP-TFI). Definition of the domain involved in the glucocorticoid response of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:3446-54 pubmed
    ..Finally, overexpression of GRIP1 or SRC-1 does not convert COUP-TFI from a transcriptional repressor into a transcriptional activator in HeLa cells. ..
  35. Amazit L, Pasini L, Szafran A, Berno V, Wu R, Mielke M, et al. Regulation of SRC-3 intercompartmental dynamics by estrogen receptor and phosphorylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6913-32 pubmed
    The steroid receptor coactivator 3 gene (SRC-3) (AIB1/ACTR/pCIP/RAC3/TRAM1) is a p160 family transcription coactivator and a known oncogene...
  36. Haiman C, Hankinson S, Spiegelman D, Colditz G, Willett W, Speizer F, et al. Polymorphic repeat in AIB1 does not alter breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res. 2000;2:378-85 pubmed
    STATEMENT OF FINDINGS: We assessed the association between a glutamine repeat polymorphism in AIB1 and breast cancer risk in a case-control study (464 cases, 624 controls) nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort...
  37. Zheng F, Wu R, Smith C, O Malley B. Rapid estrogen-induced phosphorylation of the SRC-3 coactivator occurs in an extranuclear complex containing estrogen receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8273-84 pubmed
    SRC-3/AIB1/ACTR/pCIP/RAC3/TRAM1 is a primary transcriptional coregulator for estrogen receptor (ER)...
  38. Mani A, Oh A, Bowden E, Lahusen T, Lorick K, Weissman A, et al. E6AP mediates regulated proteasomal degradation of the nuclear receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 in immortalized cells. Cancer Res. 2006;66:8680-6 pubmed
    The steroid receptor coactivator oncogene, amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1; also known as ACTR/RAC-3/TRAM-1/SRC-3/p/CIP), is amplified and overexpressed in a variety of epithelial tumors...
  39. Gojis O, Rudraraju B, Alifrangis C, Krell J, Libalova P, Palmieri C. The role of steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) in human malignant disease. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2010;36:224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Only articles published in English were considered. The search terms included "SRC-3", "AIB1" in association with the following terms: "human", "cancer" and "malignant disease&..
  40. Zhao C, Yasui K, Lee C, Kurioka H, Hosokawa Y, Oka T, et al. Elevated expression levels of NCOA3, TOP1, and TFAP2C in breast tumors as predictors of poor prognosis. Cancer. 2003;98:18-23 pubmed
    ..022) and postmenopausal status (P = 0.008). Patients whose tumors showed elevated expression of NCOA3 (AIB1) had significantly shorter disease-free (P = 0.017) and overall (P = 0...
  41. Demarest S, Martinez Yamout M, Chung J, Chen H, Xu W, Dyson H, et al. Mutual synergistic folding in recruitment of CBP/p300 by p160 nuclear receptor coactivators. Nature. 2002;415:549-53 pubmed
    ..Our study uncovers a unique mechanism, called 'synergistic folding', through which p160 coactivators recruit CBP/p300 to allow transmission of the hormonal signal to the transcriptional machinery. ..
  42. Lonard D, O Malley B. SRC-3 transcription-coupled activation, degradation, and the ubiquitin clock: is there enough coactivator to go around in cells?. Sci Signal. 2008;1:pe16 pubmed publisher
    ..Steroid receptor coactivator-3 [(SRC-3), also known as amplified in breast cancer-1 or AIB1] is foremost among these overexpressed oncogenic coactivators, being overexpressed in most breast cancers...
  43. Shirazi S, Bober M, Coetzee G. Polymorphic exonic CAG microsatellites in the gene amplified in breast cancer (AIB1 gene). Clin Genet. 1998;54:102-3 pubmed
  44. Burwinkel B, Wirtenberger M, Klaes R, Schmutzler R, Grzybowska E, Forsti A, et al. Association of NCOA3 polymorphisms with breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:2169-74 pubmed
    The nuclear receptor coactivator 3 (NCOA3, also known as AIB1) is a coactivator of nuclear receptors like the estrogen receptor...
  45. Hossain A, Kuo M, Saunders G. Mir-17-5p regulates breast cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting translation of AIB1 mRNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:8191-201 pubmed
    ..We found that microRNA Mir-17-5p has extensive complementarity to the mRNA of AIB1 (named for "amplified in breast cancer 1")...
  46. Karmakar S, Foster E, Smith C. Unique roles of p160 coactivators for regulation of breast cancer cell proliferation and estrogen receptor-alpha transcriptional activity. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1588-96 pubmed publisher
  47. Haiman C, Garcia R, Hsu C, Xia L, Ha H, Sheng X, et al. Screening and association testing of common coding variation in steroid hormone receptor co-activator and co-repressor genes in relation to breast cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:43 pubmed publisher
  48. Al Otaiby M, Tassi E, Schmidt M, Chien C, Baker T, Salas A, et al. Role of the nuclear receptor coactivator AIB1/SRC-3 in angiogenesis and wound healing. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:1474-84 pubmed publisher
    The nuclear receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1/SRC-3) has a well-defined role in steroid and growth factor signaling in cancer and normal epithelial cells...
  49. Li C, Ao J, Fu J, Lee D, Xu J, Lonard D, et al. Tumor-suppressor role for the SPOP ubiquitin ligase in signal-dependent proteolysis of the oncogenic co-activator SRC-3/AIB1. Oncogene. 2011;30:4350-64 pubmed publisher
    Steroid receptor co-activator-3 (SRC-3/AIB1) is an oncogene that is amplified and overexpressed in many human cancers...
  50. Guan X, Xu J, Anzick S, Zhang H, Trent J, Meltzer P. Hybrid selection of transcribed sequences from microdissected DNA: isolation of genes within amplified region at 20q11-q13.2 in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 1996;56:3446-50 pubmed
    ..Using this strategy, we have isolated three novel amplified genes (termed AIB1, AIB3, and AIB4) from a cDNA library constructed from the 20q amplified breast cancer cell line BT-474...
  51. Molnár F, Matilainen M, Carlberg C. Structural determinants of the agonist-independent association of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors with coactivators. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26543-56 pubmed
    ..This leads to high basal activity of PPARs and provides an additional view on PPAR signaling. ..
  52. Zwart W, Theodorou V, Kok M, Canisius S, Linn S, Carroll J. Oestrogen receptor-co-factor-chromatin specificity in the transcriptional regulation of breast cancer. EMBO J. 2011;30:4764-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We map by ChIP-seq the essential p160 co-regulators (SRC1, SRC2 and SRC3), and the histone acetyl transferases p300 and CBP in MCF-7 breast cancer cells...
  53. Werbajh S, Nojek I, Lanz R, Costas M. RAC-3 is a NF-kappa B coactivator. FEBS Lett. 2000;485:195-9 pubmed
    ..Here we report a role for the nuclear receptor coactivator RAC3, in modulating NF-kappa B transactivation...
  54. Wong L, Dai P, Lu J, Lou M, Clarke R, Nazarov V. AIB1 gene amplification and the instability of polyQ encoding sequence in breast cancer cell lines. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:111 pubmed
    The poly Q polymorphism in AIB1 (amplified in breast cancer) gene is usually assessed by fragment length analysis which does not reveal the actual sequence variation...
  55. Li H, Gomes P, Chen J. RAC3, a steroid/nuclear receptor-associated coactivator that is related to SRC-1 and TIF2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:8479-84 pubmed
    ..We report here the cloning and characterization of receptor-associated coactivator 3 (RAC3), a human transcriptional coactivator for steroid/nuclear receptors...
  56. Anzick S, Kononen J, Walker R, Azorsa D, Tanner M, Guan X, et al. AIB1, a steroid receptor coactivator amplified in breast and ovarian cancer. Science. 1997;277:965-8 pubmed
    ..b>AIB1, a member of the SRC-1 family, was cloned during a search on the long arm of chromosome 20 for genes whose ..
  57. Li S, Yang C, Hong Y, Bi H, Zhao F, Liu Y, et al. The transcriptional activity of co-activator AIB1 is regulated by the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1. Biol Cell. 2012;104:287-96 pubmed publisher
    Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors and other transcription factors...
  58. Zou J, Zhong Z, Shi X, Tepper C, deVere White R, Kung H, et al. ACTR/AIB1/SRC-3 and androgen receptor control prostate cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth through direct control of cell cycle genes. Prostate. 2006;66:1474-86 pubmed
    Co-factor ACTR is frequently overexpressed and/or amplified in multiple types of tumors. The mechanism of its function in prostate cancer (CaP) is still unclear...
  59. Yan J, Erdem H, Li R, Cai Y, Ayala G, Ittmann M, et al. Steroid receptor coactivator-3/AIB1 promotes cell migration and invasiveness through focal adhesion turnover and matrix metalloproteinase expression. Cancer Res. 2008;68:5460-8 pubmed publisher
    Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3)/AIB1 is a member of the p160 nuclear receptor coactivator family involved in development and cell cycle progression...
  60. Qin L, Liao L, Redmond A, Young L, Yuan Y, Chen H, et al. The AIB1 oncogene promotes breast cancer metastasis by activation of PEA3-mediated matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5937-50 pubmed publisher
    Amplified-in-breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is an overexpressed transcriptional coactivator in breast cancer. Although overproduced AIB1 is oncogenic, its role and underlying mechanisms in metastasis remain unclear...
  61. Long W, Foulds C, Liu J, Ding C, Lonard D, Solis L, et al. ERK3 signals through SRC-3 coactivator to promote human lung cancer cell invasion. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1869-80 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, ERK3 protein kinase may be an attractive target for therapeutic treatment of invasive lung cancer. ..
  62. Suo J, Snider S, Mills G, Creighton C, Chen A, Schiff R, et al. Int6 regulates both proteasomal degradation and translation initiation and is critical for proper formation of acini by human mammary epithelium. Oncogene. 2011;30:724-36 pubmed publisher
    ..A reverse-phase protein array screen identified SRC3/AIB1 as one oncoprotein the level and stability of which increased when Int6 was silenced in MCF10A cells...
  63. Kleibl Z, Havranek O, Kormunda S, Novotny J, Foretova L, Machackova E, et al. The AIB1 gene polyglutamine repeat length polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer development. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011;137:331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, polyglutamine (poly-Q) repeat length polymorphism of the amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) gene was analyzed as a risk factor influencing BC onset in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with contradictory results...
  64. Louie M, Zou J, Rabinovich A, Chen H. ACTR/AIB1 functions as an E2F1 coactivator to promote breast cancer cell proliferation and antiestrogen resistance. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5157-71 pubmed
    Overexpression or amplification of ACTR (also named AIB1, RAC3, p/CIP, TRAM-1, and SRC-3), a member of the p160 family of coactivators for nuclear hormone receptors, has been frequently detected in multiple types of human tumors, ..
  65. Wu R, Qin J, Yi P, Wong J, Tsai S, Tsai M, et al. Selective phosphorylations of the SRC-3/AIB1 coactivator integrate genomic reponses to multiple cellular signaling pathways. Mol Cell. 2004;15:937-49 pubmed
    Although several lines of evidence have indicated that the activity of SRC-3/AIB1/ACTR/pCIP/RAC3/TRAM1 could be regulated by phosphorylation, an important question remained as to how different signaling pathways can act through limiting ..
  66. Henke R, Haddad B, Kim S, Rone J, Mani A, Jessup J, et al. Overexpression of the nuclear receptor coactivator AIB1 (SRC-3) during progression of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:6134-42 pubmed
    The nuclear receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) was found to be amplified and overexpressed in breast and some other epithelial tumors...
  67. He L, Liu M, Li B, Rao H, Deng H, Guan X, et al. Overexpression of AIB1 predicts resistance to chemoradiotherapy and poor prognosis in patients with primary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:1591-6 pubmed publisher
    b>AIB1 (amplified in breast cancer 1) is frequently overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but the significance of AIB1 expression in chemoradiotherapy (CRT) sensitivity and its effect on prognosis are still unclear...
  68. Louie M, Revenko A, Zou J, Yao J, Chen H. Direct control of cell cycle gene expression by proto-oncogene product ACTR, and its autoregulation underlies its transforming activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3810-23 pubmed
    b>ACTR (also called AIB1 and SRC-3) was identified as a coactivator for nuclear receptors and is linked to multiple types of human cancer due to its frequent overexpression...
  69. Li C, Liang Y, Feng X, Tsai S, Tsai M, O Malley B. Essential phosphatases and a phospho-degron are critical for regulation of SRC-3/AIB1 coactivator function and turnover. Mol Cell. 2008;31:835-49 pubmed publisher
    SRC-3/AIB1 is a master growth coactivator and oncogene, and phosphorylation activates it into a powerful coregulator...
  70. Koh S, Chen D, Lee Y, Stallcup M. Synergistic enhancement of nuclear receptor function by p160 coactivators and two coactivators with protein methyltransferase activities. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:1089-98 pubmed
    ..Because multiple coactivators are presumably required to mediate transcriptional activation of native genes in vivo, the low-NR conditions may provide a more physiologically relevant assay for coactivator function. ..
  71. Naeem H, Cheng D, Zhao Q, Underhill C, Tini M, Bedford M, et al. The activity and stability of the transcriptional coactivator p/CIP/SRC-3 are regulated by CARM1-dependent methylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:120-34 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we have established that recombinant p/CIP (p300/CBP interacting protein) is robustly methylated by CARM1 in vitro but not by other protein arginine methyltransferase family ..
  72. Alkner S, Bendahl P, Grabau D, Lovgren K, Stal O, Ryden L, et al. AIB1 is a predictive factor for tamoxifen response in premenopausal women. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:238-44 pubmed publisher
    Clinical trials implicate the estrogen receptor (ER) coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) to be a prognostic and a treatment-predictive factor, although results are not unanimous...
  73. Mussi P, Yu C, O Malley B, Xu J. Stimulation of steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) gene overexpression by a positive regulatory loop of E2F1 and SRC-3. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:3105-19 pubmed
    Steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3, amplified in breast cancer 1, or ACTR) is a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors and certain other transcription factors such as E2F1...
  74. Torchia J, Rose D, Inostroza J, Kamei Y, Westin S, Glass C, et al. The transcriptional co-activator p/CIP binds CBP and mediates nuclear-receptor function. Nature. 1997;387:677-84 pubmed
  75. Yi P, Feng Q, Amazit L, Lonard D, Tsai S, Tsai M, et al. Atypical protein kinase C regulates dual pathways for degradation of the oncogenic coactivator SRC-3/AIB1. Mol Cell. 2008;29:465-76 pubmed publisher
    SRC-3/AIB1 is a steroid receptor coactivator with potent growth-promoting activity, and its overexpression is sufficient to induce tumorigenesis...
  76. Dai P, Wong L. Somatic instability of the DNA sequences encoding the polymorphic polyglutamine tract of the AIB1 gene. J Med Genet. 2003;40:885-90 pubmed
    b>AIB1 contains a polymorphic polyglutamine tract (poly Q) that is encoded by a trinucleotide CAG repeat. Previously there have been conflicting results regarding the effect of the poly Q tract length on breast cancer...
  77. Spurdle A, Antoniou A, Kelemen L, Holland H, Peock S, Cook M, et al. The AIB1 polyglutamine repeat does not modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:76-9 pubmed
    This is by far the largest study of its kind to date, and further suggests that AIB1 does not play a substantial role in modifying the phenotype of BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers...
  78. Wu R, Feng Q, Lonard D, O Malley B. SRC-3 coactivator functional lifetime is regulated by a phospho-dependent ubiquitin time clock. Cell. 2007;129:1125-40 pubmed
    SRC-3/AIB1 is an important growth coactivator whose activity should be tightly regulated since excess activation results in oncogenesis...