SPARC

Summary

Gene Symbol: SPARC
Description: secreted protein acidic and cysteine rich
Alias: BM-40, OI17, SPARC, basement-membrane protein 40, secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin)
Species: human
Products:     SPARC

Top Publications

  1. Raines E, Lane T, Iruela Arispe M, Ross R, Sage E. The extracellular glycoprotein SPARC interacts with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and -BB and inhibits the binding of PDGF to its receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:1281-5 pubmed
    ..Here we report the association of PDGF-AB and -BB, but not PDGF-AA, with the extracellular glycoprotein SPARC. Complexes of SPARC and 125I-labeled PDGF-BB or -AB were specifically immunoprecipitated by anti-SPARC ..
  2. McClung H, Thomas S, Osenkowski P, Toth M, Menon P, Raz A, et al. SPARC upregulates MT1-MMP expression, MMP-2 activation, and the secretion and cleavage of galectin-3 in U87MG glioma cells. Neurosci Lett. 2007;419:172-7 pubmed
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is highly expressed in human gliomas and promotes glioma invasion...
  3. Hohenester E, Sasaki T, Giudici C, Farndale R, Bachinger H. Structural basis of sequence-specific collagen recognition by SPARC. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18273-7 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins: von Willebrand factor (VWF), discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2), and the extracellular matrix protein SPARC/osteonectin/BM-40. We report the crystal structure at 3...
  4. Chen G, Tian X, Liu Z, Zhou S, Schmidt B, Henne Bruns D, et al. Inhibition of endogenous SPARC enhances pancreatic cancer cell growth: modulation by FGFR1-III isoform expression. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:188-95 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a multi-faceted protein-modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions...
  5. Yunker C, Golembieski W, Lemke N, Schultz C, Cazacu S, Brodie C, et al. SPARC-induced increase in glioma matrix and decrease in vascularity are associated with reduced VEGF expression and secretion. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:2735-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SPARC, a matricellular protein that negatively regulates angiogenesis and cell proliferation, but enhances cell ..
  6. Gruber H, Ingram J, Leslie K, Hanley E. Cellular, but not matrix, immunolocalization of SPARC in the human intervertebral disc: decreasing localization with aging and disc degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:2223-8 pubmed
    Human intervertebral disc anulus tissue was obtained in a prospective study of immunolocalization of SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) (osteonectin)...
  7. Socha M, Said N, Dai Y, Kwong J, Ramalingam P, Trieu V, et al. Aberrant promoter methylation of SPARC in ovarian cancer. Neoplasia. 2009;11:126-35 pubmed
    ..Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is reportedly detrimental to the growth of ovarian cancer cells and has been shown to be epigenetically silenced ..
  8. Kos K, Wong S, Tan B, Gummesson A, Jernas M, Franck N, et al. Regulation of the fibrosis and angiogenesis promoter SPARC/osteonectin in human adipose tissue by weight change, leptin, insulin, and glucose. Diabetes. 2009;58:1780-8 pubmed publisher
    Matricellular Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC), originally discovered in bone as osteonectin, is a mediator of collagen deposition and promotes fibrosis...
  9. Prada F, Benedetti L, Bravo A, Alvarez M, Carbone C, Podhajcer O. SPARC endogenous level, rather than fibroblast-produced SPARC or stroma reorganization induced by SPARC, is responsible for melanoma cell growth. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:2618-28 pubmed
    b>SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) is a matricellular protein whose overexpression in malignant or tumor-stromal cells is often associated with increased aggressiveness and bad prognosis in a wide range of human cancer ..

More Information

Publications99

  1. Barth P, Moll R, Ramaswamy A. Stromal remodeling and SPARC (secreted protein acid rich in cysteine) expression in invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast. Virchows Arch. 2005;446:532-6 pubmed
    In the present study, we analyzed tumor associated stromal remodeling with special respect to SPARC (secreted protein acid rich in cysteine) expression...
  2. Schittenhelm J, Mittelbronn M, Roser F, Tatagiba M, Mawrin C, Bornemann A. Patterns of SPARC expression and basement membrane intactness at the tumour-brain border of invasive meningiomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2006;32:525-31 pubmed
    The matricellular glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine), also termed osteonectin, has been found to regulate the invasive behaviour of several tumour types by interacting with basement membrane constituents...
  3. Fenouille N, Robert G, Tichet M, Puissant A, Dufies M, Rocchi S, et al. The p53/p21Cip1/?Waf1 pathway mediates the effects of SPARC on melanoma cell cycle progression. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011;24:219-32 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), or osteonectin, belongs to the family of matricellular proteins that modulate cell-matrix interactions and cellular functions...
  4. Reed M, Bradshaw A, Shaw M, Sadoun E, Han N, Ferara N, et al. Enhanced angiogenesis characteristic of SPARC-null mice disappears with age. J Cell Physiol. 2005;204:800-7 pubmed
    ..b>SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine/osteonectin/BM-40) is a matricellular protein that regulates ..
  5. Sage H, Johnson C, Bornstein P. Characterization of a novel serum albumin-binding glycoprotein secreted by endothelial cells in culture. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:3993-4007 pubmed
    ..Its synthesis by normal mesenchymal cells and by malignant or transformed cells of both ectodermal and endodermal origin suggests a general role in cell function that is independent of transformation. ..
  6. Takahashi M, Nagaretani H, Funahashi T, Nishizawa H, Maeda N, Kishida K, et al. The expression of SPARC in adipose tissue and its increased plasma concentration in patients with coronary artery disease. Obes Res. 2001;9:388-93 pubmed
    ..In the current study, we have examined the expression of secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) in adipose tissue and its significance in obesity and coronary artery disease (CAD)...
  7. Francki A, McClure T, Brekken R, Motamed K, Murri C, Wang T, et al. SPARC regulates TGF-beta1-dependent signaling in primary glomerular mesangial cells. J Cell Biochem. 2004;91:915-25 pubmed
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a member of the family of matricellular proteins, regulates the interaction of cells with pleiotropic factors and proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
  8. Liang J, Wang H, Xiao H, Li N, Cheng C, Zhao Y, et al. Relationship and prognostic significance of SPARC and VEGF protein expression in colon cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010;29:71 pubmed publisher
    b>SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) is closely related with the progress, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumor and angiogenesis...
  9. Sasaki T, Hohenester E, Göhring W, Timpl R. Crystal structure and mapping by site-directed mutagenesis of the collagen-binding epitope of an activated form of BM-40/SPARC/osteonectin. EMBO J. 1998;17:1625-34 pubmed
    ..Selected mutations in the non-activated mutant DeltaI also reduced collagen binding, consistent with the same location of the epitope but in a more cryptic form in intact BM-40. ..
  10. Hsiao Y, Lien H, Hwa H, Kuo W, Chang K, Hsieh F. SPARC (osteonectin) in breast tumors of different histologic types and its role in the outcome of invasive ductal carcinoma. Breast J. 2010;16:305-8 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to characterize the immunohistochemical distribution of secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein (SPARC) in benign and malignant breast tumors of different histologic types and define its association with the outcome ..
  11. Wu D, Li L, Yang M, Liu H, Yang G. Elevated plasma levels of SPARC in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165:597-601 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) also known as BM-40 which has been studied in various pathological conditions, has recently been suggested as a key player in the pathology of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (..
  12. Alpers C, Hudkins K, Segerer S, Sage E, Pichler R, Couser W, et al. Localization of SPARC in developing, mature, and chronically injured human allograft kidneys. Kidney Int. 2002;62:2073-86 pubmed
    The matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) is expressed during development, tissue remodeling and repair...
  13. Sage H, Vernon R, Funk S, Everitt E, Angello J. SPARC, a secreted protein associated with cellular proliferation, inhibits cell spreading in vitro and exhibits Ca+2-dependent binding to the extracellular matrix. J Cell Biol. 1989;109:341-56 pubmed
    b>SPARC (Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine) is a Ca+2-binding glycoprotein that is differentially associated with morphogenesis, remodeling, cellular migration, and proliferation...
  14. Liu H, Zhang H, Jiang X, Ma Y, Xu Y, Feng S, et al. Knockdown of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) expression diminishes radiosensitivity of glioma cells. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2011;26:705-15 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) has been shown to play an important role in the promotion of glioma...
  15. Jørgensen L, Petersson S, Sellathurai J, Andersen D, Thayssen S, Sant D, et al. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) in human skeletal muscle. J Histochem Cytochem. 2009;57:29-39 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)/osteonectin is expressed in different tissues during remodeling and repair, suggesting a function in regeneration...
  16. Bozkurt S, Ayan E, Bolukbasi F, Elmaci I, Pamir N, Sav A. Immunohistochemical expression of SPARC is correlated with recurrence, survival and malignant potential in meningiomas. APMIS. 2009;117:651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) (osteonectin) is a matricellular glycoprotein that regulates cell ..
  17. Wewer U, Albrechtsen R, Fisher L, Young M, Termine J. Osteonectin/SPARC/BM-40 in human decidua and carcinoma, tissues characterized by de novo formation of basement membrane. Am J Pathol. 1988;132:345-55 pubmed
    The identification and cDNA cloning of bone-enriched osteonectin and parietal endoderm-enriched SPARC indicated that these proteins share greater than 90% homology...
  18. Delany A, McMahon D, Powell J, Greenberg D, Kurland E. Osteonectin/SPARC polymorphisms in Caucasian men with idiopathic osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2008;19:969-78 pubmed
    Animal models suggest a role for osteonectin/SPARC in determination of bone mass...
  19. Greenaway J, Koehler A, McCulloch C, Petrik J, Brown T, Ringuette M. The impact of the ovarian microenvironment on the anti-tumor effect of SPARC on ovarian cancer. Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;90:96-107 pubmed publisher
    A lack of host-derived SPARC promotes disease progression in an intraperitoneal (IP) ID8 mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)...
  20. Fenouille N, Puissant A, Dufies M, Robert G, Jacquel A, Ohanna M, et al. Persistent activation of the Fyn/ERK kinase signaling axis mediates imatinib resistance in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells through upregulation of intracellular SPARC. Cancer Res. 2010;70:9659-70 pubmed publisher
    b>SPARC is an extracellular matrix protein that exerts pleiotropic effects on extracellular matrix organization, growth factor availability, cell adhesion, differentiation, and immunity in cancer...
  21. Maurer P, Hohenadl C, Hohenester E, Göhring W, Timpl R, Engel J. The C-terminal portion of BM-40 (SPARC/osteonectin) is an autonomously folding and crystallisable domain that binds calcium and collagen IV. J Mol Biol. 1995;253:347-57 pubmed
    ..The EC domain was also shown by surface plasmon resonance assay to be responsible for calcium-dependent binding to collagen IV with an affinity (Kd = 19 microM) only sixfold lower than that of intact human BM-40. ..
  22. Kupprion C, Motamed K, Sage E. SPARC (BM-40, osteonectin) inhibits the mitogenic effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on microvascular endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:29635-40 pubmed
    b>SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) is a matricellular protein that modulates cell adhesion and proliferation and is thought to function in tissue remodeling and angiogenesis...
  23. Bhoopathi P, Chetty C, Gujrati M, Dinh D, Rao J, Lakka S. The role of MMP-9 in the anti-angiogenic effect of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:530-40 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a matricellular glycoprotein, modulates cellular interaction with the extracellular matrix and is capable of altering the growth of various cancers...
  24. Mantoni T, Schendel R, Rodel F, Niedobitek G, Al Assar O, Masamune A, et al. Stromal SPARC expression and patient survival after chemoradiation for non-resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:1806-15 pubmed
    ..Our study analyzed both tumor and PSC, since interaction of these cell types may promote tumor progression. SPARC was expressed predominantly in the peritumoral and distal stroma...
  25. Infante J, Matsubayashi H, Sato N, Tonascia J, Klein A, Riall T, et al. Peritumoral fibroblast SPARC expression and patient outcome with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:319-25 pubmed
    b>SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) is a protein involved in cell matrix interactions, wound repair, and cell migration, and has been reported to inhibit cancer growth...
  26. Rodriguez I, Moreira E, Bok D, Kantorow M. Osteonectin/SPARC secreted by RPE and localized to the outer plexiform layer of the monkey retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:2438-44 pubmed
    Osteonectin/SPARC is a secreted protein that has been implicated in ocular disease. Deletion of osteonectin/SPARC causes age-onset cataract in mice and the cataractous human lens has increased expression of osteonectin/SPARC...
  27. Capper D, Mittelbronn M, Goeppert B, Meyermann R, Schittenhelm J. Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) expression in astrocytic tumour cells negatively correlates with proliferation, while vascular SPARC expression is associated with patient survival. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2010;36:183-97 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a regulator of cell-matrix interaction and has been associated with tumour stage and patient survival in various malignancies...
  28. Zhu X, Dong Q, Zhang X, Deng B, Jia H, Ye Q, et al. microRNA-29a suppresses cell proliferation by targeting SPARC in hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Mol Med. 2012;30:1321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that the SPARC mRNA 3'UTR was directly targeted by miR-29a since the mutated 3'UTR was not affected...
  29. Jundt G, Berghäuser K, Termine J, Schulz A. Osteonectin--a differentiation marker of bone cells. Cell Tissue Res. 1987;248:409-15 pubmed
    ..Osteonectin was absent in all non-skeletal tissues with the exception of chondrocytes in so-called mineralizing chondroid bone. ..
  30. Rempel S, Golembieski W, Fisher J, Maile M, Nakeff A. SPARC modulates cell growth, attachment and migration of U87 glioma cells on brain extracellular matrix proteins. J Neurooncol. 2001;53:149-60 pubmed
    We have identified secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) as a potential glioma invasion-promoting gene...
  31. Wei H, Liu J, Lv B, Xing L, Fu S. SPARC modulates expression of extracellular matrix genes in human trabecular meshwork cells. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90:e138-43 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) on the expression of components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells...
  32. Chen J, Shi D, Liu X, Fang S, Zhang J, Zhao Y. Targeting SPARC by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:464 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a calcium-binding matricellular glycoprotein, is implicated in the progressions of some cancers...
  33. Briggs J, Chamboredon S, Castellazzi M, Kerry J, Bos T. Transcriptional upregulation of SPARC, in response to c-Jun overexpression, contributes to increased motility and invasion of MCF7 breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2002;21:7077-91 pubmed
    ..We previously demonstrated that expression of the SPARC/osteonectin gene, while undetectable in the MCF7 cell line, is highly induced in response to stable c-Jun ..
  34. Hohenester E, Maurer P, Timpl R. Crystal structure of a pair of follistatin-like and EF-hand calcium-binding domains in BM-40. EMBO J. 1997;16:3778-86 pubmed
    BM-40 (also known as SPARC or osteonectin) is an anti-adhesive secreted glycoprotein involved in tissue remodelling...
  35. Kotani K, Yamada T, Taniguchi N. The association between circulating secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) during lifestyle-modified weight reduction intervention in obese male subjects. J Int Med Res. 2011;39:528-32 pubmed
    The physiological role and clinical relevance of circulating secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, or osteonectin) is still poorly understood...
  36. Demopoulos K, Arvanitis D, Vassilakis D, Siafakas N, Spandidos D. MYCL1, FHIT, SPARC, p16(INK4) and TP53 genes associated to lung cancer in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Cell Mol Med. 2002;6:215-22 pubmed
    ..3, 3p21.32-p21.1, 5q32-q33.1, 9p21 and 17p13.1 where MYCL1, FHIT, SPARC, p16(Ink4) and TP53 genes have been mapped respectively...
  37. Clark C, Sage E. A prototypic matricellular protein in the tumor microenvironment--where there's SPARC, there's fire. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:721-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a prototypic matricellular protein at the center of this exchange...
  38. Jiang Y, Zhu Y, Shi Y, He Y, Kuang Z, Sun Z, et al. Downregulation of SPARC expression inhibits the invasion of human trophoblast cells in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69079 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) is a matricellular glycoprotein that plays critical roles in the ..
  39. Campo McKnight D, Sosnoski D, Koblinski J, Gay C. Roles of osteonectin in the migration of breast cancer cells into bone. J Cell Biochem. 2006;97:288-302 pubmed
    ..We concluded that osteonectin was not a chemotactic factor. However, through its anti-adhesive properties, osteonectin induced undirected breast cancer cell motility, and may have enhanced chemoattraction to vitronectin. ..
  40. Said N, Frierson H, Sanchez Carbayo M, Brekken R, Theodorescu D. Loss of SPARC in bladder cancer enhances carcinogenesis and progression. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:751-66 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) has been implicated in multiple aspects of human cancer...
  41. Yan Q, Sage E. SPARC, a matricellular glycoprotein with important biological functions. J Histochem Cytochem. 1999;47:1495-506 pubmed
    b>SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) is a unique matricellular glycoprotein that is expressed by many different types of cells and is associated with development, remodeling, cell turnover, and tissue repair...
  42. Termine J, Kleinman H, Whitson S, Conn K, McGarvey M, Martin G. Osteonectin, a bone-specific protein linking mineral to collagen. Cell. 1981;26:99-105 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that osteonectin is a tissue-specific protein, linking the bone mineral and collagen phases, perhaps initiating active mineralization in normal skeletal tissue. ..
  43. Watanabe K, Okamoto F, Yokoo T, Iida K, Suzuki H, Shimano H, et al. SPARC is a major secretory gene expressed and involved in the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2009;16:69-76 pubmed
    ..Majority of the cloned cDNAs turned out to encode secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein (SPARC), strongly suggesting that SPARC is highly expressed in PDR...
  44. Fenouille N, Puissant A, Tichet M, Zimniak G, Abbe P, Mallavialle A, et al. SPARC functions as an anti-stress factor by inactivating p53 through Akt-mediated MDM2 phosphorylation to promote melanoma cell survival. Oncogene. 2011;30:4887-900 pubmed publisher
    Aberrant expression of Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC)/osteonectin has been associated with an invasive tumor cell phenotype and poor outcome in human melanomas...
  45. Harries L, McCulloch L, Holley J, Rawling T, Welters H, Kos K. A role for SPARC in the moderation of human insulin secretion. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68253 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown the implication of the multifunctional protein SPARC (Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine)/osteonectin in insulin resistance but potential effects on beta-cell function have not been assessed...
  46. Kantorow M, Huang Q, Yang X, Sage E, Magabo K, Miller K, et al. Increased expression of osteonectin/SPARC mRNA and protein in age-related human cataracts and spatial expression in the normal human lens. Mol Vis. 2000;6:24-9 pubmed
    We have previously reported increased levels of Osteonectin/SPARC transcript in age-related cataractous compared to normal human lenses...
  47. Golembieski W, Thomas S, Schultz C, Yunker C, McClung H, Lemke N, et al. HSP27 mediates SPARC-induced changes in glioma morphology, migration, and invasion. Glia. 2008;56:1061-75 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) regulates cell-extracellular matrix interactions that influence cell adhesion and migration...
  48. Bhoopathi P, Gondi C, Gujrati M, Dinh D, Lakka S. SPARC mediates Src-induced disruption of actin cytoskeleton via inactivation of small GTPases Rho-Rac-Cdc42. Cell Signal. 2011;23:1978-87 pubmed publisher
    The matricellular glycoprotein Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) plays an important role in the regulation of cell adhesion and proliferation as well as in tumorigenesis and metastasis...
  49. Said N, Frierson H, Chernauskas D, Conaway M, Motamed K, Theodorescu D. The role of SPARC in the TRAMP model of prostate carcinogenesis and progression. Oncogene. 2009;28:3487-98 pubmed publisher
    b>SPARC (Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine), is a matricellular glycoprotein that is produced by tumor and/or neighboring stroma...
  50. Haber C, Gottifredi V, Llera A, Salvatierra E, Prada F, Alonso L, et al. SPARC modulates the proliferation of stromal but not melanoma cells unless endogenous SPARC expression is downregulated. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:1465-75 pubmed
    ..The secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) a component of the ECM, impairs the proliferation of different cell types and modulates tumor cell aggressive ..
  51. Kos K, Wilding J. SPARC: a key player in the pathologies associated with obesity and diabetes. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010;6:225-35 pubmed publisher
    b>SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, also known as osteonectin or BM-40) is a widely expressed profibrotic protein with pleiotropic roles, which have been studied in a variety of conditions...
  52. Kato Y, Nagashima Y, Baba Y, Kawano T, Furukawa M, Kubota A, et al. Expression of SPARC in tongue carcinoma of stage II is associated with poor prognosis: an immunohistochemical study of 86 cases. Int J Mol Med. 2005;16:263-8 pubmed
    b>SPARC (secretory protein acidic and rich in cysteine), also known as osteonectin or BM-40, associates with progression in various kinds of tumors...
  53. Yang E, Kang H, Koh K, Rhee H, Kim N, Kim H. Frequent inactivation of SPARC by promoter hypermethylation in colon cancers. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:567-75 pubmed
    ..The inactivation of SPARC through CpG island methylation was studied in colon cancers using oligonucleotide microarray analysis and ..
  54. Sturm R, Satyamoorthy K, Meier F, Gardiner B, Smit D, Vaidya B, et al. Osteonectin/SPARC induction by ectopic beta(3) integrin in human radial growth phase primary melanoma cells. Cancer Res. 2002;62:226-32 pubmed
    ..Fourteen fragments from known genes including osteonectin (also known as SPARC and BM-40) were identified after three rounds of representational difference analysis...
  55. Smit D, Gardiner B, Sturm R. Osteonectin downregulates E-cadherin, induces osteopontin and focal adhesion kinase activity stimulating an invasive melanoma phenotype. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:2653-60 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a central role for Osteonectin in the regulation of gene expression changes driving the progression of melanoma toward metastasis. ..
  56. Shi Q, Bao S, Maxwell J, Reese E, Friedman H, Bigner D, et al. Secreted protein acidic, rich in cysteine (SPARC), mediates cellular survival of gliomas through AKT activation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52200-9 pubmed
    Secreted protein acidic, rich in cysteine (SPARC), is an extracellular matrix protein expressed in many advanced cancers, including malignant gliomas...
  57. Gerson K, Shearstone J, Maddula V, Seligmann B, Mercurio A. Integrin ?4 regulates SPARC protein to promote invasion. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:9835-44 pubmed publisher
    ..GeneChip data to detect downstream effectors involved in ?4-mediated invasion of breast carcinoma cells identified SPARC, or secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine...
  58. Chen J, Wang M, Xi B, Xue J, He D, Zhang J, et al. SPARC is a key regulator of proliferation, apoptosis and invasion in human ovarian cancer. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42413 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a calcium-binding matricellular glycoprotein, is implicated in the progression of many cancers. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of SPARC in ovarian cancer...
  59. Seet L, Su R, Toh L, Wong T. In vitro analyses of the anti-fibrotic effect of SPARC silencing in human Tenon's fibroblasts: comparisons with mitomycin C. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:1245-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that SPARC (secreted protein, acidic, rich in cysteine) knockout mice had improved surgical success in a murine model of GFS...
  60. Chen N, Ye X, Chu K, Navone N, Sage E, Yu Lee L, et al. A secreted isoform of ErbB3 promotes osteonectin expression in bone and enhances the invasiveness of prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6544-8 pubmed
    ..to identify p45-sErbB3-responsive genes, we found that p45-sErbB3 up-regulated the expression of osteonectin/SPARC, biglycan, and type I collagen in calvaria...
  61. Zhang J, Chen G, Liu Y, Wang P, Wang X, Wan Y, et al. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) suppresses angiogenesis by down-regulating the expression of VEGF and MMP-7 in gastric cancer. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44618 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a glycoprotein that functions to inhibit angiogenesis, proliferation, and invasion in different types of cancer...
  62. Nie J, Chang B, Traktuev D, Sun J, March K, Chan L, et al. IFATS collection: Combinatorial peptides identify alpha5beta1 integrin as a receptor for the matricellular protein SPARC on adipose stromal cells. Stem Cells. 2008;26:2735-45 pubmed publisher
    ..and cultured human and mouse stromal cells express a conserved receptor targeted by peptides found to mimic SPARC, a matricellular protein that is required for normal WAT development...
  63. Lagan A, Pantelidis P, Renzoni E, Fonseca C, Beirne P, Taegtmeyer A, et al. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the SPARC gene are not associated with susceptibility to scleroderma. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005;44:197-201 pubmed
    b>SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) is a matricellular protein that modulates cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions...
  64. Zhou X, Tan F, Guo X, Wallis D, Milewicz D, Xue S, et al. Small interfering RNA inhibition of SPARC attenuates the profibrotic effect of transforming growth factor beta1 in cultured normal human fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:257-61 pubmed
    b>SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine), or osteonectin, is a matricellular protein...
  65. Watkins G, Douglas Jones A, Bryce R, Mansel R, Jiang W. Increased levels of SPARC (osteonectin) in human breast cancer tissues and its association with clinical outcomes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005;72:267-72 pubmed
    b>SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein), also known as osteonectin and BM40, is a 32 kDa secreted glycoprotein that interacts with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to promote adhesion of cells from the matrix, thereby ..
  66. Li K, Cai R, Dai B, Zhang X, Wang H, Ge S, et al. SATB1 regulates SPARC expression in K562 cell line through binding to a specific sequence in the third intron. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;356:6-12 pubmed
    ..One of these was the extra-cellular matrix glycoprotein, SPARC (human secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine)...
  67. Girotti M, Fernandez M, Lopez J, Camafeita E, Fernandez E, Albar J, et al. SPARC promotes cathepsin B-mediated melanoma invasiveness through a collagen I/?2?1 integrin axis. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:2438-47 pubmed publisher
    In melanoma, the extracellular protein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) is related to tumor progression...
  68. Nagai M, Gerhard R, Fregnani J, Nonogaki S, Rierger R, Netto M, et al. Prognostic value of NDRG1 and SPARC protein expression in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;126:1-14 pubmed publisher
    An increasing number of studies have shown altered expression of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and N-myc down-regulated gene (NDRG1) in several malignancies, including breast carcinoma; however, the role of these ..
  69. Bhoopathi P, Chetty C, Gujrati M, Dinh D, Rao J, Lakka S. Cathepsin B facilitates autophagy-mediated apoptosis in SPARC overexpressed primitive neuroectodermal tumor cells. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:1529-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matrix-associated glycoprotein that influences a variety of cellular activities in vitro and in vivo...
  70. Bradshaw A, Graves D, Motamed K, Sage E. SPARC-null mice exhibit increased adiposity without significant differences in overall body weight. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:6045-50 pubmed
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine/osteonectin/BM-40 (SPARC) is a matrix-associated protein that elicits changes in cell shape, inhibits cell-cycle progression, and influences the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM)...
  71. Kzhyshkowska J, Workman G, Cardo Vila M, Arap W, Pasqualini R, Gratchev A, et al. Novel function of alternatively activated macrophages: stabilin-1-mediated clearance of SPARC. J Immunol. 2006;176:5825-32 pubmed
    The matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) has been implicated in development, differentiation, response to injury, and tumor biology by virtue of its regulation of extracellular matrix production/..
  72. Rodríguez Jiménez F, Caldes T, Iniesta P, Vidart J, Garcia Asenjo J, Benito M. Overexpression of SPARC protein contrasts with its transcriptional silencing by aberrant hypermethylation of SPARC CpG-rich region in endometrial carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2007;17:1301-7 pubmed
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a secreted matricellular glycoprotein involved in crucial processes that occur during cancer...
  73. Yan Q, Clark J, Sage E. Expression and characterization of SPARC in human lens and in the aqueous and vitreous humors. Exp Eye Res. 2000;71:81-90 pubmed
    b>SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) is a matricellular glycoprotein that regulates morphogenesis, cellular proliferation, and differentiation...
  74. Said N, Elmarakby A, Imig J, Fulton D, Motamed K. SPARC ameliorates ovarian cancer-associated inflammation. Neoplasia. 2008;10:1092-104 pubmed
    We have recently identified that the role of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) in amelioration of peritoneal ovarian carcinomatosis is mediated, at least in part, through mesothelial cell/lysophosphatidic acid-induced ..
  75. Koukourakis M, Giatromanolaki A, Brekken R, Sivridis E, Gatter K, Harris A, et al. Enhanced expression of SPARC/osteonectin in the tumor-associated stroma of non-small cell lung cancer is correlated with markers of hypoxia/acidity and with poor prognosis of patients. Cancer Res. 2003;63:5376-80 pubmed
    Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cystein (SPARC)/osteonectin is a nonstructural matricellular protein involved in cell-matrix interaction during tissue remodeling and embryonic development...
  76. Zhou X, Tan F, Reveille J, Wallis D, Milewicz D, Ahn C, et al. Association of novel polymorphisms with the expression of SPARC in normal fibroblasts and with susceptibility to scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:2990-9 pubmed
    ..b>SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) regulates the deposition or assembly of ECM components...
  77. Sato T, Oshima T, Yamamoto N, Yamada T, Hasegawa S, Yukawa N, et al. Clinical significance of SPARC gene expression in patients with gastric cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2013;108:364-8 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is one of the first known matricellular proteins that modulates interactions between cells and extracellular matrix...
  78. Yin J, Chen G, Liu Y, Liu S, Wang P, Wan Y, et al. Downregulation of SPARC expression decreases gastric cancer cellular invasion and survival. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010;29:59 pubmed publisher
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) plays a key role in the development of many tissues and organ types. Aberrant SPARC expression was found in a wide variety of human cancers, contributes to tumor development...
  79. Dalla Torre C, Yoshimoto M, Lee C, Joshua A, de Toledo S, Petrilli A, et al. Effects of THBS3, SPARC and SPP1 expression on biological behavior and survival in patients with osteosarcoma. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:237 pubmed
    ..THBS3, SPARC and SPP1 were identified as genes differentially expressed in osteosarcoma...
  80. Shi Q, Bao S, Song L, Wu Q, Bigner D, Hjelmeland A, et al. Targeting SPARC expression decreases glioma cellular survival and invasion associated with reduced activities of FAK and ILK kinases. Oncogene. 2007;26:4084-94 pubmed
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is an extracellular glycoprotein expressed in several solid cancers, including malignant gliomas, upon adoption of metastatic or invasive behaviors...
  81. Chang W, Wei K, Jacobs S, Upadhyay D, Weill D, Rosen G. SPARC suppresses apoptosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis fibroblasts through constitutive activation of beta-catenin. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:8196-206 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that IPF fibroblasts constitutively expressed increased basal levels of SPARC, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and active beta-catenin compared with control cells...
  82. Atorrasagasti C, Malvicini M, Aquino J, Alaniz L, Garcia M, Bolontrade M, et al. Overexpression of SPARC obliterates the in vivo tumorigenicity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:2726-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Current treatments are extremely disappointing. SPARC (Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) is a matricellular glycoprotein with differential expression in ..
  83. Chua J, Seet L, Jiang Y, Su R, Htoon H, Charlton A, et al. Increased SPARC expression in primary angle closure glaucoma iris. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1886-92 pubmed
    b>SPARC (secreted protein, acidic, and rich in cysteine) is involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization...
  84. Wang C, Lin K, Chen S, Chan Y, Hsueh S. Overexpression of SPARC gene in human gastric carcinoma and its clinic-pathologic significance. Br J Cancer. 2004;91:1924-30 pubmed
    ..Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) (Osteonectins), one of the most highly expressed genes in both intestinal and diffuse gastric cancers in our ..
  85. Wang L, Yang M, Shan L, Qi L, Chai C, Zhou Q, et al. The role of SPARC protein expression in the progress of gastric cancer. Pathol Oncol Res. 2012;18:697-702 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to investigate the expression of SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) in gastric cancer and its relationship with tumor angiogenesis and cancer cells proliferation...
  86. Miyoshi K, Sato N, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M. SPARC mRNA expression as a prognostic marker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:867-71 pubmed
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a protein which governs diverse cellular functions and matrix remodeling systems...
  87. Hunzelmann N, Hafner M, Anders S, Krieg T, Nischt R. BM-40 (osteonectin, SPARC) is expressed both in the epidermal and in the dermal compartment of adult human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110:122-6 pubmed
    BM-40 (Osteonectin, SPARC) is the most abundant glycoprotein secreted by human osteoblasts...
  88. Frizell E, Liu S, Abraham A, Ozaki I, Eghbali M, Sage E, et al. Expression of SPARC in normal and fibrotic livers. Hepatology. 1995;21:847-54 pubmed
    b>SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine)--also known as osteonectin, BM-40, and 43K glycoprotein--is secreted by endothelial cells and fibroblasts in response to culture shock...
  89. Sage E, Bassuk J, Yost J, Folkman M, Lane T. Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation by SPARC is mediated through a Ca(2+)-binding EF-hand sequence. J Cell Biochem. 1995;57:127-40 pubmed
    b>SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine, also known as osteonectin and BM-40) is a metal-binding glycoprotein secreted by a variety of cultured cells and characteristic of tissues undergoing morphogenesis, remodeling, and ..
  90. Zhang J, Zhang Q, Zhang Q, Liu X, Li C, Guo Z. Expression and clinical significance of SPARC in clinical stage II tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Ai Zheng. 2009;28:68-71 pubmed
    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is expressed widely in malignant tumors. It is related to prognosis and biological behaviors of tumors...