SPAG11B

Summary

Gene Symbol: SPAG11B
Description: sperm associated antigen 11B
Alias: EDDM2B, EP2, EP2C, EP2D, HE2, HE2C, SPAG11, sperm-associated antigen 11B, epididymal protein 2B, human epididymis-specific protein 2, sperm antigen HE2
Species: human
Products:     SPAG11B

Top Publications

  1. Lu T, Moxley R, Zhang W. Mapping the neutralizing epitopes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 (F4) fimbrial adhesin and major subunit FaeG. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..induced antibodies to K88ac fimbria, anti-K88 IgG antibodies derived from epitopes MTGDFNGSVD (ep1), LNDLTNGGTK (ep2), GRTKEAFATP (ep3), ELRKPDGGTN (ep4), PMKNAGGTKVGAVKVN (ep5) and RENMEYTDGT (ep8) significantly inhibited adherence ..
  2. Zhang P, Bi R, Gan Y. Glial interleukin-1β upregulates neuronal sodium channel 1.7 in trigeminal ganglion contributing to temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception in rats. J Neuroinflammation. 2018;15:117 pubmed publisher
    ..We treated rat TG explants with IL-1β with or without inhibitors, including NS398 for COX-2, PF-04418948 for EP2, and H89 and PKI-(6-22)-amide for protein kinase A (PKA), or with adenylate cyclase agonist forskolin, and used ..
  3. Pan T, Peng Z, Tan L, Zou F, Zhou N, Liu B, et al. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Potently Inhibit the Replication of Zika Viruses by Inducing the Degradation of AXL. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies showed that the NSAIDs downregulated the prostaglandin E2/prostaglandin E receptor 2 (EP2)/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway and reduced PKA-dependent CDC37 phosphorylation and the interaction ..
  4. Chang C, Li J, Ou Y, Lin S, Wang Y, Chen W, et al. Interplay of inflammatory gene expression in pericytes following Japanese encephalitis virus infection. Brain Behav Immun. 2017;66:230-243 pubmed publisher
    ..had a role in activating NF-?B and CREB DNA-binding activities and inflammatory cytokine transcription via the EP2/cAMP/PKA mechanism in an autocrine loop...
  5. Biswas B, Bhushan S, Rajesh A, Suraj S, Lu Y, Meinhardt A, et al. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) induced antimicrobial gene expression in the male reproductive tract of rat: evaluation of the potential of Defensin 21 to limit infection. Andrology. 2015;3:368-75 pubmed publisher
    ..coli (UPEC) strain MTCC 729, the expression of defensins and defensin-like Spag11 genes are induced in the epididymis and testes...
  6. Németh K, Leelahavanichkul A, Yuen P, Mayer B, Parmelee A, Doi K, et al. Bone marrow stromal cells attenuate sepsis via prostaglandin E(2)-dependent reprogramming of host macrophages to increase their interleukin-10 production. Nat Med. 2009;15:42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..reprogram macrophages by releasing prostaglandin E(2) that acts on the macrophages through the prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 receptors...
  7. Schumacher Y, Aparicio T, Ourabah S, Baraille F, Martin A, Wind P, et al. Dysregulated CRTC1 activity is a novel component of PGE2 signaling that contributes to colon cancer growth. Oncogene. 2016;35:2602-14 pubmed publisher
    ..and parallel nuclear translocation, resulting in enhanced CRTC1 transcriptional activity, through EP1 and EP2 receptors signaling and consecutive calcineurin and protein kinase A activation...
  8. Minatani A, Uchida K, Inoue G, Takano S, Aikawa J, Miyagi M, et al. Activation of calcitonin gene-related peptide signaling through the prostaglandin E2-EP1/EP2/EP4 receptor pathway in synovium of knee osteoarthritis patients. J Orthop Surg Res. 2016;11:117 pubmed
    ..treatment, whereas RAMP1 gene expression increased significantly in the presence of exogenously added EP1 and EP2 agonists...
  9. Li Q, Sun W, Wang X, Zhang K, Xi W, Gao P. Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Atherosclerosis via Modulating Macrophage Function. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2015;4:1294-301 pubmed publisher
    ..upon NF-κB, the release of IL-10 was diminished if the S-MSCs were pretreated with a COX-2 inhibitor or an EP2/EP4 antagonist...

More Information

Publications122 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kaya D, Gram A, Kowalewski M, Schäfer Somi S, Kuru M, Boos A, et al. Expression of GnRH receptor in the canine corpus luteum, and luteal function following deslorelin acetate-induced puberty delay. Reprod Domest Anim. 2017;52:1104-1112 pubmed publisher
    ..progesterone (P4)-receptor (PGR), prolactin receptor (PRLR), PGE2-synthase (PTGES) and PGE2 receptors (PTGER2/EP2, PTGER4/EP4), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) and VEGF receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2), cyclooxygenase 2 (..
  2. Li H, Luo Y, Xu Y, Yang L, Hu C, Chen Q, et al. Meloxicam Improves Cognitive Impairment of Diabetic Rats through COX2-PGE2-EPs-cAMP/pPKA Pathway. Mol Pharm. 2018;15:4121-4131 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, the protein expressions of APP, Aβ, cyclooxygenases2 (COX2), E-type prostanoid recptors 1 (EP1) and EP2, and the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were significantly increased, while the protein expressions ..
  3. Fan Y, Wang Y, Wang K. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates normal bronchial epithelial cell growth through induction of c-Jun and PDK1, a kinase implicated in oncogenesis. Respir Res. 2015;16:149 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that PGE2 stimulated lung cancer cell growth and progression through PGE2 receptor EP2/EP4-mediated kinase signaling pathways...
  4. Martínez Colón G, Taylor Q, Wilke C, Podsiad A, Moore B. Elevated prostaglandin E2 post-bone marrow transplant mediates interleukin-1?-related lung injury. Mucosal Immunol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..BMT) model, we show that overexpression of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) post-BMT signals via EP2 or EP4 to induce cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which activates protein kinase A or the exchange protein ..
  5. O Brien A, Fullerton J, Massey K, Auld G, Sewell G, James S, et al. Immunosuppression in acutely decompensated cirrhosis is mediated by prostaglandin E2. Nat Med. 2014;20:518-23 pubmed publisher
    ..cytokine secretion and bacterial killing in vitro in a PGE2-dependent manner via the prostanoid type E receptor-2 (EP2), effects not seen with plasma from patients with stable cirrhosis (Child-Pugh score grade A)...
  6. Guo Y, Lei W, Wang J, Hu X, Wei Y, Ji C, et al. Misoprostol Reverse Hippocampal Neuron Cyclooxygenase-2 Downstream Signaling Imbalance in Aluminum-Overload Rats. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2016;13:1006-16 pubmed
    ..the administration of misoprostol resulted in a decrease in the PGE2 level and down-regulation of the mPGES-1, EP2 and EP4 expression levels, while there was a dosedependent up-regulation of EP3 expression...
  7. Maeda S, Tomiyasu H, Tsuboi M, Inoue A, Ishihara G, Uchikai T, et al. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of canine invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma by RNA-Seq. BMC Cancer. 2018;18:472 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed that the most activated upstream regulator was PTGER2 (encoding the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2), which is consistent with the therapeutic efficiency of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in canine iUC...
  8. Wang W, Guo C, Zhu P, Lu J, Li W, Liu C, et al. Phosphorylation of STAT3 mediates the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by cortisol in the human amnion at parturition. Sci Signal. 2015;8:ra106 pubmed publisher
    ..PGE2 activates the prostaglandin receptors EP2 and EP4, which stimulate cAMP-PKA signaling...
  9. Wang R, Zhang W, Dong Z, Qi Y, Hultström M, Zhou X, et al. c-Jun N-terminal Kinase mediates prostaglandin-induced sympathoexcitation in rats with chronic heart failure by reducing GAD1 and GABRA1 expression. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2017;219:494-509 pubmed publisher
    ..PVN infusion of EP1 receptor antagonist SC-19220, EP2 receptor antagonist AH6809 or EP4 receptor antagonist L-161982 had no effect on sympathoexcitation...
  10. Filipenko I, Schwalm S, Reali L, Pfeilschifter J, Fabbro D, Huwiler A, et al. Upregulation of the S1P3 receptor in metastatic breast cancer cells increases migration and invasion by induction of PGE2 and EP2/EP4 activation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1861:1840-1851 pubmed publisher
  11. Na Y, Jung D, Yoon B, Lee W, Seok S. Endogenous prostaglandin E2 potentiates anti-inflammatory phenotype of macrophage through the CREB-C/EBP-β cascade. Eur J Immunol. 2015;45:2661-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note, PGE2 phosphorylates CREB via EP2 and EP4 receptor ligation, thereby transcriptionally increasing C/EBP-β expression in BALB/c bone marrow derived ..
  12. Ma X, Aoki T, Narumiya S. Prostaglandin E2-EP4 signaling persistently amplifies CD40-mediated induction of IL-23 p19 expression through canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways. Cell Mol Immunol. 2016;13:240-50 pubmed publisher
    ..An EP4 agonist, but not agonists of EP1, EP2, or EP3, reproduced this action...
  13. Tajima T, Murata T, Aritake K, Urade Y, Michishita M, Matsuoka T, et al. EP2 and EP4 receptors on muscularis resident macrophages mediate LPS-induced intestinal dysmotility via iNOS upregulation through cAMP/ERK signals. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;302:G524-34 pubmed publisher
    ..NO produced in muscularis macrophages induces dysmotility during gastrointestinal inflammation. ..
  14. Rziha H, Büttner M, Muller M, Salomon F, Reguzova A, Laible D, et al. Genomic Characterization of Orf Virus Strain D1701-V (Parapoxvirus) and Development of Novel Sites for Multiple Transgene Expression. Viruses. 2019;11: pubmed publisher
    ..of deletion site D for expression of foreign genes is demonstrated using novel synthetic early promoter eP1 and eP2. Comparison of promoter strength showed that the original vegf-e promoter Pv as well as promoter eP2 display ..
  15. Pereira P, Assis P, Prado M, Ramos S, Aronoff D, de Paula Silva F, et al. Prostaglandins D2 and E2 have opposite effects on alveolar macrophages infected with Histoplasma capsulatum. J Lipid Res. 2018;59:195-206 pubmed publisher
    ..on Th2 lymphocytes receptor, whereas PGE2 had opposite effects, through E prostanoid (EP) receptor 2 (EP2)/EP4-dependent mechanisms...
  16. Rehal S, von der Weid P. Experimental ileitis alters prostaglandin biosynthesis in mesenteric lymphatic and blood vessels. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2015;116-117:37-48 pubmed publisher
    ..in mRNA in blood vessels from TNBS-treated animals included differences in COX-1, COX-2, MPGES-1, PGIS, EP1, EP2 and IP expression...
  17. Schmidt A, Sinnett Smith J, Young S, Chang H, Hines O, Dawson D, et al. Direct growth-inhibitory effects of prostaglandin E2 in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro through an EP4/PKA-mediated mechanism. Surgery. 2017;161:1570-1578 pubmed publisher
    ..PKA/CREB and decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which was reversed by an EP4 receptor antagonist, while an EP2 receptor antagonist had no effect...
  18. Kambe A, Iguchi G, Moon Y, Kamitani H, Watanabe T, Eling T. Regulation of EP4 expression via the Sp-1 transcription factor: inhibition of expression by anti-cancer agents. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:1211-9 pubmed publisher
    For glioblastomas, COX-2 expression is linked to poor survival. COX-2 effects are mediated by the receptors EP2 and EP4, whose regulation is poorly understood...
  19. Aoyagi T, Newstead M, Zeng X, Nanjo Y, Peters Golden M, Kaku M, et al. Interleukin-36? and IL-36 receptor signaling mediate impaired host immunity and lung injury in cytotoxic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection: Role of prostaglandin E2. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006737 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of PMs with recombinant IL-36? resulted in impaired bacterial killing via PGE2 and its receptor; EP2. P...
  20. Shahnazi M, Mohammadi M, Mohaddes G, Latifi Z, Ghasemnejad T, Nouri M, et al. Dietary omega-3 and -6 fatty acids affect the expression of prostaglandin E2 synthesis enzymes and receptors in mice uteri during the window of pre-implantation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;503:1754-1760 pubmed publisher
    ..of microsomal- and cytosolic- PGE synthase (mPGES and cPGES) and protein expressions of PGE receptor 2 and 4 (EP2 and EP4) were evaluated in uterus tissues of control as well as omega 3 and omega 6 received mice at days 1-5 of ..
  21. Machado Carvalho L, Roca Ferrer J, Picado C. Prostaglandin E2 receptors in asthma and in chronic rhinosinusitis/nasal polyps with and without aspirin hypersensitivity. Respir Res. 2014;15:100 pubmed publisher
    ..PGE2 exerts its actions through four G-protein-coupled receptors designated E-prostanoid (EP) receptors EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4...
  22. Wang M, Wang Y, Xie T, Zhan P, Zou J, Nie X, et al. Prostaglandin E2/EP2 receptor signalling pathway promotes diabetic retinopathy in a rat model of diabetes. Diabetologia. 2019;62:335-348 pubmed publisher
    ..The PGE2/EP2R signalling pathway is involved in STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy and could be considered as a potential target for diabetic retinopathy prevention and treatment. ..
  23. Torres Atencio I, Ainsua Enrich E, de Mora F, Picado C, Martín M. Prostaglandin E2 prevents hyperosmolar-induced human mast cell activation through prostanoid receptors EP2 and EP4. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e110870 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show a protective role for the PGE2 receptors EP(2) and EP(4) following osmotic changes, through the reduction of human mast cell activity caused by calcium influx impairment and MAP kinase inhibition. ..
  24. Mo C, Zhao R, Vallejo J, IGWE O, Bonewald L, Wetmore L, et al. Prostaglandin E2 promotes proliferation of skeletal muscle myoblasts via EP4 receptor activation. Cell Cycle. 2015;14:1507-16 pubmed publisher
    ..EP1/EP3 agonist 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 (17-PT PGE2) and EP2 agonist butaprost did not have any significant effects...
  25. Satitsri S, Pongkorpsakol P, Srimanote P, Chatsudthipong V, Muanprasat C. Pathophysiological mechanisms of diarrhea caused by the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant: an in vivo study in mice. Virulence. 2016;7:789-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, EP2 and EP4 PGE2 receptor antagonists ameliorated the fluid secretion in the infected ileal loops...
  26. Li X, Su Y, Hua X, Xie C, Liu J, Huang Y, et al. Levels of hepatic Th17 cells and regulatory T cells upregulated by hepatic stellate cells in advanced HBV-related liver fibrosis. J Transl Med. 2017;15:75 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatic stellate cells upregulated the levels of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells via PGE2/EP2 and EP4 pathway...
  27. Wang Y, Han C, Cui D, Luo T, Li Y, Zhang Y, et al. Immunomodulatory Effects of CP-25 on Splenic T Cells of Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis. Inflammation. 2018;41:1049-1063 pubmed publisher
    ..The co-expression of GRK2 and EP2 as well as GRK2 and EP4 was measured by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation...
  28. Li X, Xie T, Gao L, Ma C, Yang X, Liang X. Prostaglandin E2 facilitates Hepatitis B virus replication by impairing CTL function. Mol Immunol. 2018;103:243-250 pubmed publisher
    ..In AAV-HBV1.2 mouse model, administration of PGE2 analogue promoted HBV replication, while antagonists for EP2 and EP4, two important receptors for PGE2, inhibited virus replication...
  29. O Sullivan M, Gabriel E, Panariti A, Park C, Ijpma G, Fredberg J, et al. Epithelial Cells Induce a Cyclo-Oxygenase-1-Dependent Endogenous Reduction in Airway Smooth Muscle Contractile Phenotype. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2017;57:683-691 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these in vitro results demonstrate that epithelial cells have the capacity to coordinately reduce ASM contraction by functional antagonism and by reduction of the expression of certain contractile proteins. ..
  30. Nasrallah R, Hassouneh R, Zimpelmann J, Karam A, Thibodeau J, Burger D, et al. Prostaglandin E2 increases proximal tubule fluid reabsorption, and modulates cultured proximal tubule cell responses via EP1 and EP4 receptors. Lab Invest. 2015;95:1044-55 pubmed publisher
    ..EP1 and EP4 were detected in MCT, but EP2 and EP3 are not expressed. EP1 was increased by PGE2 and TGFβ, but EP4 was unchanged...
  31. Malty R, Hudmon A, Fehrenbacher J, Vasko M. Long-term exposure to PGE2 causes homologous desensitization of receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase A. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:181 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensitizing actions of PGE2 after acute and long-term exposure were attenuated by EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptor antagonists, but not by an EP1 antagonist...
  32. Dettleff P, Moen T, Santi N, Martinez V. Transcriptomic analysis of spleen infected with infectious salmon anemia virus reveals distinct pattern of viral replication on resistant and susceptible Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;61:187-193 pubmed publisher
    ..fish seem to be related to differences in immune and translational process, as well as to the increase of HIV-EP2 (hivep2) transcript in resistant fish, although the causal mechanism is yet to be discovered...
  33. Foudi N, Ozen G, Amgoud Y, Louedec L, Choqueux C, Badi A, et al. Decreased vasorelaxation induced by iloprost during acute inflammation in human internal mammary artery. Eur J Pharmacol. 2017;804:31-37 pubmed publisher
    ..No vasorelaxation was observed with PGD2, PGE2 or the EP2/4 agonists in pre-contracted IMA...
  34. Feigenson M, Eliseev R, Jonason J, Mills B, O Keefe R. PGE2 Receptor Subtype 1 (EP1) Regulates Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation by Modulating Cellular Energy Metabolism. J Cell Biochem. 2017;118:4383-4393 pubmed publisher
    ..PGE2 binds four different receptors EP1-4. While most studies focus on the role PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 in MSC differentiation, our study focuses on the less studied, receptor subtype 1 (EP1) in MSC function...
  35. Liu S, Jemiolo B, Lavin K, Lester B, Trappe S, Trappe T. Prostaglandin E2/cyclooxygenase pathway in human skeletal muscle: influence of muscle fiber type and age. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016;120:546-51 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins [COX enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2), PGE2 synthases (cPGES, mPGES-1, and mPGES-2), and PGE2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4)] were quantified via Western blot...
  36. Lee B, Kim H, Shin T, Kang I, Lee J, Kim J, et al. PGE2 maintains self-renewal of human adult stem cells via EP2-mediated autocrine signaling and its production is regulated by cell-to-cell contact. Sci Rep. 2016;6:26298 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PGE2 produced by MSCs contributes to maintenance of self-renewal capacity through EP2 in an autocrine manner, and PGE2 secretion is down-regulated by cell-to-cell contact, attenuating its ..
  37. AlQathama A, Prieto J. Natural products with therapeutic potential in melanoma metastasis. Nat Prod Rep. 2015;32:1170-82 pubmed publisher
    ..30 natural active principles are described acting mainly through their antagonistic effects upon the TNF-α and EP2 receptors or the suppression of several protein kinases involved in metastatic pathways such as RAS, PI3K, ERK and ..
  38. Rong Y, Yuan C, Qu Z, Zhou H, Guan Q, Yang N, et al. Doxorubicin resistant cancer cells activate myeloid-derived suppressor cells by releasing PGE2. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23824 pubmed publisher
    ..The secreted PGE2 can stimulate expansion and polymerization of MDSCs by directly target to its receptors, EP2/EP4, on the surface of MDSCs, which consequently triggers production of miR-10a through activating PKA signaling...
  39. Kishore A, Liang H, Kanchwala M, Xing C, Ganesh T, Akgul Y, et al. Prostaglandin dehydrogenase is a target for successful induction of cervical ripening. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E6427-E6436 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that PGE2 uses cell-specific EP2 receptor-mediated increases in Ca2+ to dephosphorylate and translocate histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) to ..
  40. Duan F, He K, Ma Y, Ihozaki T, Kawasaki H, Arakawa R, et al. High molecular weight organic compounds (HMW-OCs) in severe winter haze: Direct observation and insights on the formation mechanism. Environ Pollut. 2016;218:289-296 pubmed publisher
    ..Four typical haze events (HE1 to HE4) were identified, and HE2 (Jan. 9-16) was the most serious of these. Based on the hourly observed chemical composition of PM2...
  41. Buch P, Desai I, Balakrishnan S. COX-2 activity and expression pattern during regenerative wound healing of tail in lizard Hemidactylus flaviviridis. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2018;135:11-15 pubmed publisher
    ..COX-2 signal was mediated through the PKA/cAMP pathway via binding with the prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2)...
  42. Preising C, Schneider R, Bucher M, Gekle M, Sauvant C. Regulation of Expression of Renal Organic Anion Transporters OAT1 and OAT3 in a Model of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;37:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter signaling was confirmed by application of butaprost (EP2 agonist) or TCS2510 (EP4 agonist) to control cells...
  43. Rumzhum N, Ammit A. Prostaglandin E2 induces expression of MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) in airway smooth muscle cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;782:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we utilize selective antagonists of EP2 (PF-04418948) and EP4 receptors (GW 627368X) to begin to identify EP-mediated functional outcomes in ASM cells in ..
  44. Muff J, Mackinnon L, Durant N, Bennedsen L, Rügge K, Bondgaard M, et al. The influence of cosolvent and heat on the solubility and reactivity of organophosphorous pesticide DNAPL alkaline hydrolysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23:22658-22666 pubmed
    ..and heating to 30 °C, EP3 solubility was significantly enhanced and results for O,O-diethyl-thiophosphoric acid (EP2 acid) showed a significant enhancement of hydrolysis as well...
  45. Wang J, Li C, Cao Y, Wang Q, Lu L, Chang H, et al. Mechanism of QSYQ on anti-apoptosis mediated by different subtypes of cyclooxygenase in AMI induced heart failure rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:352 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, RT-PCR showed that expressions of EP2 and EP4, which are the receptors of PGE2, were also up-regulated...
  46. Maślanka T, Chrostowska M, Otrocka Domagała I, Snarska A, Mikiewicz M, Zuśka Prot M, et al. Prostaglandin E2 exerts the proapoptotic and antiproliferative effects on bovine NK cells. Res Vet Sci. 2016;107:80-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The magnitude of these effects increased with an increasing concentration of PGE2. The blockade of EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors did not prevent the PGE2-induced apoptosis and depletion of NK cells...
  47. Lacroix A, Toussay X, Anenberg E, Lecrux C, Ferreirós N, Karagiannis A, et al. COX-2-Derived Prostaglandin E2 Produced by Pyramidal Neurons Contributes to Neurovascular Coupling in the Rodent Cerebral Cortex. J Neurosci. 2015;35:11791-810 pubmed publisher
    ..stimulation involve cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and activation of the prostaglandin E2 (PgE2) receptors EP2 and EP4...
  48. Liu M, Gong Y, Wei J, Xie D, Wang J, Yu Y, et al. [Media of rat macrophage NR8383 cells with prostaglandins E2-induced VEGF over-expression promotes migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2016;36:936-40 pubmed
    ..of VEGF protein and mRNAs in rat macrophage cell line NR8383 stimulated by PGE2 in the presence or absence of EP2 receptor inhibitor (AH6809) and EP4 receptor inhibitor (AH23848)...
  49. Yun B, Lee H, Jayaraja S, Suram S, Murphy R, Leslie C. Prostaglandins from Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α/Cyclooxygenase-1 Pathway and Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases Regulate Gene Expression in Candida albicans-infected Macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:7070-86 pubmed publisher
    ..was reconstituted with 8-bromo-cAMP, the PKA activator 6-benzoyl-cAMP, and agonists for prostaglandin receptors IP, EP2, and EP4 in infected but not uninfected cPLA2α(-/-)or COX-1(-/-)macrophages. InC...
  50. Merz C, von Mässenhausen A, Queisser A, Vogel W, Andrén O, Kirfel J, et al. IL-6 Overexpression in ERG-Positive Prostate Cancer Is Mediated by Prostaglandin Receptor EP2. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:974-84 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism in prostate tumor cell lines we show the ERG-mediated up-regulation of the prostanoid receptors EP2 and EP3. The prostanoid receptor EP2 was overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissue...
  51. Rezq S, Abdel Rahman A. Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla EP3 Receptor Mediates the Sympathoexcitatory and Pressor Effects of Prostaglandin E2 in Conscious Rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016;359:290-299 pubmed
    ..To achieve these goals, we showed the expression of EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptors in the RVLM and investigated their cardiovascular roles in conscious rats, ex vivo as well ..
  52. Suganami A, Fujino H, Okura I, Yanagisawa N, Sugiyama H, Regan J, et al. Human DP and EP2 prostanoid receptors take on distinct forms depending on the diverse binding of different ligands. FEBS J. 2016;283:3931-3940 pubmed publisher
    Human D-type prostanoid (DP) and E-type prostanoid 2 (EP2) receptors are G protein-coupled receptors and are regarded as the most closely related receptors among prostanoid receptors because they are generated by tandem duplication...
  53. Ma Y, Matsuwaki T, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Glucocorticoids Suppress the Protective Effect of Cyclooxygenase-2-Related Signaling on Hippocampal Neurogenesis Under Acute Immune Stress. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:1953-1966 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of AH6809, a selective antagonist of the PGE2 EP2 receptor, as well as NS398, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, exacerbated the suppression of proliferation of neural ..
  54. Iresjö B, Wang W, Nilsberth C, Andersson M, Lönnroth C, Smedh U. Food intake, tumor growth, and weight loss in EP2 receptor subtype knockout mice bearing PGE2-producing tumors. Physiol Rep. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigate the role of PGE receptor subtype EP2 in the development of anorexia after MCG 101 implantation in wild-type (EP2 (+/+)) or EP2-receptor knockout (EP2(-/-..
  55. Zasłona Z, Okunishi K, Bourdonnay E, Domingo Gonzalez R, Moore B, Lukacs N, et al. Prostaglandin E₂ suppresses allergic sensitization and lung inflammation by targeting the E prostanoid 2 receptor on T cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:379-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we tested the role of EP2 signaling in allergic asthma...
  56. Hoang K, Allison S, Murray M, Petrovic N. Prostanoids regulate angiogenesis acting primarily on IP and EP4 receptors. Microvasc Res. 2015;101:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Both of these prostanoids activate G-protein coupled receptors: EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 by PGE2 and IP by prostacyclin...
  57. Bonfill Teixidor E, Otxoa de Amezaga A, Font Nieves M, Sans Fons M, Planas A. Differential expression of E-type prostanoid receptors 2 and 4 in microglia stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. J Neuroinflammation. 2017;14:3 pubmed publisher
    ..EP receptor expression and the effects of EP2 and EP4 agonists and antagonists were studied at different time points after LPS...
  58. Dinc E, Dursun O, Yilmaz B, Vatansever M, Sarı A, Yildirim O, et al. Expression of prostaglandin E2 receptor subtypes in human pterygium and normal conjunctiva: immunohistochemical study. Int Ophthalmol. 2018;38:1703-1708 pubmed publisher
    ..007 and p = 0.002, respectively). Epithelial expressions of EP2 and EP3 were significantly lower in primary pterygium specimens compared to normal conjunctival tissues (p = 0...
  59. Mohan S, Narumiya S, Doré S. Neuroprotective role of prostaglandin PGE2 EP2 receptor in hemin-mediated toxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2015;46:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-EP2 receptor in hemin neurotoxicity remains unclear...
  60. DU M, Shi F, Zhang H, Xia S, Zhang M, Ma J, et al. Prostaglandin E2 promotes human cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion through the upregulation of β-catenin expression via EP3-4 receptor. Oncol Rep. 2015;34:715-26 pubmed publisher
    ..in cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion through E prostanoid receptors, including EP1, EP2 and EP4...
  61. Qasem H, Al Ayadhi L, Bjørklund G, Chirumbolo S, El Ansary A. Impaired lipid metabolism markers to assess the risk of neuroinflammation in autism spectrum disorder. Metab Brain Dis. 2018;33:1141-1153 pubmed publisher
    ..E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), prostaglandin PGE2 EP2 receptors and nuclear kappa B (NF-κB) and the severity of cognitive disorders, social impairment, and sensory ..
  62. Bonanno A, Albano G, Siena L, Montalbano A, Riccobono L, Anzalone G, et al. Prostaglandin Eâ‚‚ possesses different potencies in inducing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Interleukin-8 production in COPD human lung fibroblasts. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2016;106:11-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PGE2, VEGF, and IL-8 levels, COX-2, EP2, and EP4 protein expression and mRNA were increased in COPD when compared to Controls...
  63. Cui F, Huang D, Zhang F, Gao E, Zhang Y, Cao Y, et al. Investigation on the regulatory effect of PGE2 on ESCC cells through the trans-activation of EGFR by EP2 and the relevant mechanism. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:5668-5676 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the combination of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and EP2, the subtype receptor of PGE2, could trans-activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
  64. Zang S, Ma X, Wu Y, Liu W, Cheng H, Li J, et al. PGE2 synthesis and signaling in malignant transformation and progression of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2017;63:120-127 pubmed publisher
    ..001). In addition, the expression of EP2 receptor was considerably upregulated in HCC tissue compared with the expression of EP1 (P<.05), EP3 (P<...
  65. Arosh J, Lee J, Balasubbramanian D, Stanley J, Long C, Meagher M, et al. Molecular and preclinical basis to inhibit PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 as a novel nonsteroidal therapy for endometriosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:9716-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pharmacological inhibition of PGE2 receptors, EP2 and EP4, on molecular and cellular aspects of the pathogenesis of endometriosis and associated clinical symptoms...
  66. Wu H, Wu T, Han X, Wan J, Jiang C, Chen W, et al. Cerebroprotection by the neuronal PGE2 receptor EP2 after intracerebral hemorrhage in middle-aged mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017;37:39-51 pubmed
    ..However, the cell-specific signaling by PGE2 receptor EP2 differs depending on whether the neuropathic insult is acute or chronic...
  67. Laporte M, Weems Y, Arreguin Arevalo A, Nett T, Tsutahara N, Sy T, et al. Effects of LPA2R, LPA3R, or EP4R agonists on luteal or endometrial function in vivo or in vitro and sirtuin or EP1R, EP2R, EP3R or EP4R agonists on endometrial secretion of PGE and PGF2αin vitro. Theriogenology. 2017;95:8-17 pubmed publisher
    In previous work, an EP2 prostanoid receptor (EP2R) agonist in vivo increased mRNA expression of luteal LH receptors (LHR), unoccupied and occupied luteal; LHR, and circulating progesterone, while an EP3R or FPR agonist decreased; ..
  68. Maric J, Ravindran A, Mazzurana L, Björklund Ã, Van Acker A, Rao A, et al. Prostaglandin E2 suppresses human group 2 innate lymphoid cell function. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141:1761-1773.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that PGE2 limits ILC2 activation and propose that selective EP2 and EP4 receptor agonists might serve as a promising therapeutic approach in treating allergic diseases by ..
  69. Légaré C, Verville N, Sullivan R. Vasectomy influences expression of HE1 but not HE2 and HE5 genes in human epididymis. J Androl. 2004;25:30-43 pubmed
    ..the effect of vasectomy on a gene expressed all along the epididymis (HE1) or more selectively in the proximal (HE2) or distal (HE5) segment...
  70. Narmadha G, Yenugu S. Molecular modeling of the human sperm associated antigen 11 B (SPAG11B) proteins. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2015;61:78-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the protein isoforms encoded by the sperm associated antigen 11B (SPAG11) gene in humans are beta-defensin-like and exhibit structure dependent and salt tolerant ..
  71. Chen J, Liang X, Li H, Chen T, Zhu P. Improving the Catalytic Property of the Glycoside Hydrolase LXYL-P1-2 by Directed Evolution. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..Two variants, LXYL-P1-2-EP1 (EP1, S91D mutation) and LXYL-P1-2-EP2 (EP2, T368E mutation), were obtained from the library and exhibited 17% and 47% increases in their catalytic ..
  72. Fortner C, Breyer R, Paul R. EP2 receptors mediate airway relaxation to substance P, ATP, and PGE2. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;281:L469-74 pubmed
    ..Using mice homozygous for a gene-targeted deletion of the EP2 receptor [EP2(-/-)], one of the PGE2 receptors, we tested the hypothesis that PGE2 is the primary mediator of ..
  73. Blikslager A, Pell S, Young K. PGE2 triggers recovery of transmucosal resistance via EP receptor cross talk in porcine ischemia-injured ileum. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;281:G375-81 pubmed
    ..PGE2) may interact with one of four prostaglandin type E (EP) receptors, which signal via cAMP (via EP2 or EP4 receptors) or intracellular Ca(2+) (via EP1 receptors)...
  74. Morimoto K, Sugimoto Y, Katsuyama M, Oida H, Tsuboi K, Kishi K, et al. Cellular localization of mRNAs for prostaglandin E receptor subtypes in mouse gastrointestinal tract. Am J Physiol. 1997;272:G681-7 pubmed
    ..In the ileum, signals were only observed in the upper part of the villi. However, no or weak signals for EP2 transcripts were detected...
  75. Ogawa S, Watanabe T, Moriyuki K, Goto Y, Yamane S, Watanabe A, et al. Structural optimization and structure-functional selectivity relationship studies of G protein-biased EP2 receptor agonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016;26:2446-2449 pubmed publisher
    The modification of the novel G protein-biased EP2 agonist 1 has been investigated to improve its G protein activity and develop a better understanding of its structure-functional selectivity relationship (SFSR)...
  76. Osterhoff C, Kirchhoff C, Krull N, Ivell R. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human sperm antigen (HE2) specifically expressed in the proximal epididymis. Biol Reprod. 1994;50:516-25 pubmed
    ..secretory glycopeptide specifically expressed within the caput and proximal corpus regions of the human epididymis, HE2, has been cloned and sequenced. Southern hybridization analysis showed it to be derived from a single-copy gene...
  77. Choi S, Yeum C, Chang I, You H, Park J, Jeong H, et al. Activating of ATP-dependent K+ channels comprised of K(ir) 6.2 and SUR 2B by PGE2 through EP2 receptor in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal from murine small intestine. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2006;18:187-98 pubmed
    ..2-SUR 2B in ICC and this action of PGE(2) are through EP(2) receptor subtype and also the activation of ATP-dependent K(+) channels involves intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization...
  78. Srivastava T, Dai H, Heruth D, Alon U, Garola R, Zhou J, et al. Mechanotransduction Signaling in Podocytes from Fluid Flow Shear Stress. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;:ajprenal.00325.2017 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous work suggests that COX2-PGE2-EP2 axis plays an important role in mechanoperception of FFSS in podocyte (Srivastava et al...
  79. Kang X, Qiu J, Li Q, Bell K, Du Y, Jung D, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 contributes to oxidopamine-mediated neuronal inflammation and injury via the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9459 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with PGE2 or EP2 selective agonist butaprost, but not EP4 agonist CAY10598, increased cAMP response in both cell lines...
  80. Matsubara S, Shiraishi A, Sakai T, Okuda T, Satake H. Heterodimerization of the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 and the calcitonin receptor CTR. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187711 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we identified a novel GPCR heterodimer between prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor 2 (EP2) and calcitonin (CT) receptor (CTR)...
  81. Li H, Chen H, Liu W, Jia X, Zhang J, Ma C, et al. Prostaglandin E2 restrains human Treg cell differentiation via E prostanoid receptor 2-protein kinase A signaling. Immunol Lett. 2017;191:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..b>EP2 receptors may mediate the inhibitory role of PGE2, since PGE2 actions were mimicked by EP2 ..
  82. Miao J, Lu X, Hu Y, Piao C, Wu X, Liu X, et al. Prostaglandin E2 and PD-1 mediated inhibition of antitumor CTL responses in the human tumor microenvironment. Oncotarget. 2017;8:89802-89810 pubmed publisher
    ..The disruption of COX2/PGE2 signaling using COX2 inhibitors or PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 antagonists, combined with anti-PD-1 blockade was therapeutic in terms of improving eradication of tumors ..
  83. von Horsten H, Derr P, Kirchhoff C. Novel antimicrobial peptide of human epididymal duct origin. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:804-13 pubmed
    b>HE2, a gene expressed specifically in human epididymis, gives rise to multiple mRNAs that encode a group of small cationic secretory peptides...
  84. Krull N, Ivell R, Osterhoff C, Kirchhoff C. Region-specific variation of gene expression in the human epididymis as revealed by in situ hybridization with tissue-specific cDNAs. Mol Reprod Dev. 1993;34:16-24 pubmed
    ..gene probes that had been isolated by differential screening from a human epididymal cDNA library--HE1, HE2, and HE5--were employed to investigate regional specializations in the human epididymis...
  85. Nasrallah R, Zimpelmann J, Eckert D, Ghossein J, Geddes S, Beique J, et al. PGE2 EP1 receptor inhibits vasopressin-dependent water reabsorption and sodium transport in mouse collecting duct. Lab Invest. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..mPGE2 synthase were increased and COX2 was decreased in mice lacking EP1, with increases in EP3 and reductions in EP2 and EP4 mRNA throughout the nephron...
  86. Nango H, Kosuge Y, Miyagishi H, Sugawa K, Ito Y, Ishige K. Prostaglandin E2 facilitates neurite outgrowth in a motor neuron-like cell line, NSC-34. J Pharmacol Sci. 2017;135:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure of undifferentiated NSC-34 cells to PGE2 and butaprost, an EP2-selective agonist, resulted in a reduction of MTT reduction activity without increase the number of propidium ..
  87. Yousif N, de Oliveira A, Brioschi S, Huell M, Biber K, Fiebich B. Activation of EP2 receptor suppresses poly(I: C) and LPS-mediated inflammation in primary microglia and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures: Contributing role for MAPKs. Glia. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data identify an anti-inflammatory function for EP2 signaling in diverse innate immune responses, through a mechanism that involves the mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway...
  88. Sugimoto Y, Namba T, Shigemoto R, Negishi M, Ichikawa A, Narumiya S. Distinct cellular localization of mRNAs for three subtypes of prostaglandin E receptor in kidney. Am J Physiol. 1994;266:F823-8 pubmed
    ..The mRNA for EP2 subtype, which is linked to stimulation of adenylate cyclase, was localized to the glomeruli...
  89. Hamil K, Sivashanmugam P, Richardson R, Grossman G, Ruben S, Mohler J, et al. HE2beta and HE2gamma, new members of an epididymis-specific family of androgen-regulated proteins in the human. Endocrinology. 2000;141:1245-53 pubmed
    b>HE2 is an epididymis-specific sperm-binding secretory protein. We isolated a family of HE2-related complementary DNAs from a human caput/corpus library...
  90. Radhakrishnan Y, Hamil K, Tan J, Grossman G, Petrusz P, Hall S, et al. Novel partners of SPAG11B isoform D in the human male reproductive tract. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:647-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The results reveal human SPAG11B isoform D (SPAG11B/D) interactions with tryptase alpha/beta 1 (TPSAB1), tetraspanin 7 (TSPAN7), and attractin (..
  91. Martin E, Messenger K, Sheats M, Jones S. Misoprostol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production by Equine Leukocytes. Front Vet Sci. 2017;4:160 pubmed publisher
    ..These receptors can be targeted by the EP2/4 agonist and prostaglandin E1 analog, misoprostol...
  92. Moreland R, Albadawi H, Bratton C, Patton G, Goldstein I, Traish A, et al. O2-dependent prostanoid synthesis activates functional PGE receptors on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H552-8 pubmed
    ..The prostaglandin G/H synthase inhibitor indomethacin or the E prostanoid (EP2)-selective antagonist AH-6809 each inhibited the O2-tension-dependent increases in cAMP...