Sp4

Summary

Gene Symbol: Sp4
Description: Sp4 transcription factor
Alias: HF1B, SPR-1, transcription factor Sp4
Species: human
Products:     Sp4

Top Publications

  1. Hagen G, Muller S, Beato M, Suske G. Cloning by recognition site screening of two novel GT box binding proteins: a family of Sp1 related genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:5519-25 pubmed
    ..SPR-2 mRNA is expressed ubiquitously, whereas SPR-1 transcripts are abundant in the brain but barely detectable in other organs. The possible function of these factors for the activity of the uteroglobin promoter is discussed. ..
  2. ZHOU X, Tang W, Greenwood T, Guo S, He L, Geyer M, et al. Transcription factor SP4 is a susceptibility gene for bipolar disorder. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5196 pubmed publisher
    The Sp4 transcription factor plays a critical role for both development and function of mouse hippocampus. Reduced expression of the mouse Sp4 gene results in a variety of behavioral abnormalities relevant to human psychiatric disorders...
  3. Lerner L, Gribanova Y, Ji M, Knox B, Farber D. Nrl and Sp nuclear proteins mediate transcription of rod-specific cGMP-phosphodiesterase beta-subunit gene: involvement of multiple response elements. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34999-5007 pubmed
    ..Both the ubiquitous Sp1 and the central nervous system-specific Sp4 transcription factors are expressed in retina and interact with this element in vitro...
  4. Lerner L, Gribanova Y, Whitaker L, Knox B, Farber D. The rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase beta-subunit promoter is a specific target for Sp4 and is not activated by other Sp proteins or CRX. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:25877-83 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, although the beta/GC element (-59/-49) binds multiple Sp transcription factors in vitro, only Sp4, but not Sp1 or Sp3, significantly enhanced beta-PDE promoter activity...
  5. Lerner L, Peng G, Gribanova Y, Chen S, Farber D. Sp4 is expressed in retinal neurons, activates transcription of photoreceptor-specific genes, and synergizes with Crx. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:20642-50 pubmed
    ..molecular mechanisms of photoreceptor-specific gene transcription, we examined the role of the neuronal-enriched Sp4 nuclear protein in transcription from the rod-specific beta-PDE and rod opsin gene promoters and compared it to the ..
  6. Suske G. The Sp-family of transcription factors. Gene. 1999;238:291-300 pubmed
    ..genes of the Sp1 factor uncovered the existence of a small protein family consisting of Sp1, Sp2, Sp3 and Sp4. All four proteins exhibit very similar structural features...
  7. Rashid k, Geissl L, Wolf A, Karlstetter M, Langmann T. Transcriptional regulation of Translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) in microglia requires Pu.1, Ap1 and Sp factors. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2018;1861:1119-1133 pubmed publisher
    ..ChIP-qPCR revealed that Pu.1, Ap1, Stat3, Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 bind to the endogenous Tspo promoter...
  8. Lemos Barbosa T, Doriguetto A, Benjamim de Araújo M, Bonfilio R. Solid-State Characterization of Spironolactone 1/3 Hydrate. J Pharm Sci. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to carry out the preparation and solid-state characterization of SPR 1/3 hydrate...
  9. Søndergård S, Vaegter H, Erlangsen A, Stenager E. Ten-year prevalence of mental disorders in patients presenting with chronic pain in secondary care: A register linkage cohort study. Eur J Pain. 2018;22:346-354 pubmed publisher
    ..9-3.4) and depression (SPR 2.5; 95% CI 2.3-2.8), whereas men had higher rates of substance abuse disorders (SPR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-1.9) than found for the general population...

More Information

Publications122 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kasiappan R, Jutooru I, Mohankumar K, Karki K, Lacey A, Safe S. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Inducing Triterpenoid Inhibits Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell and Tumor Growth through Targeting Sp Transcription Factors. Mol Cancer Res. 2019;17:794-805 pubmed publisher
    ..CF3DODA-Me also downregulated expression of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 and prooncogenic Sp-regulated genes including PAX3-FOXO1 (in Rh30 cells)...
  2. Nishitani Y, Yoshida S, Fujihashi M, Kitagawa K, Doi T, Atomi H, et al. Structure-based catalytic optimization of a type III Rubisco from a hyperthermophile. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:39339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..temperatures, both in vivo and in vitro, whereas the former and latter half-replacements of the α-helix 6 (SP4 and SP5 mutants) do not yield such improvement...
  3. Lagou V, Garcia Perez J, Smets I, Van Horebeek L, Vandebergh M, Chen L, et al. Genetic Architecture of Adaptive Immune System Identifies Key Immune Regulators. Cell Rep. 2018;25:798-810.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Early and memory B cell differentiation stages are associated with variation in LARP1B and SP4. Finally, the latrophilin family member ADGRL2 correlates with baseline pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 levels...
  4. Pan Z, Wang X, DI R, Liu Q, Hu W, Cao X, et al. A 5-Methylcytosine Site of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF9) Gene Affects Its Tissue-Specific Expression in Sheep. Animals (Basel). 2018;8: pubmed publisher
    ..In this region (-1987 to -1750), only the mC-4 site was present in the Sp4 binding site showed differential methylation between the heart and ovary; with increased (p < 0...
  5. Löfgren M, Opava C, Demmelmaier I, Fridén C, Lundberg I, Nordgren B, et al. Long-term, health-enhancing physical activity is associated with reduction of pain but not pain sensitivity or improved exercise-induced hypoalgesia in persons with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2018;20:262 pubmed publisher
    ..Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and suprathreshold pressure pain at rest corresponding to 4/10 (medium pain) (SP4) and 7/10 (strong pain) (SP7) on Borg CR 10 scale were assessed by algometry...
  6. Piria M, Simonović P, Zanella D, Caleta M, Sprem N, Paunović M, et al. Long-term analysis of fish assemblage structure in the middle section of the Sava River - The impact of pollution, flood protection and dam construction. Sci Total Environ. 2019;651:143-153 pubmed publisher
    ..into four sampling periods (SP): SP1, from 1978 to 1980; SP2, from 1991 to 1994; SP3, from 2001 to 2006, and SP4 from 2011 to 2017...
  7. Priya A, Johar K, Nair B, Wong Riley M. Nuclear respiratory factor 2 regulates the transcription of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 (Gria2). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1843:3018-28 pubmed publisher
    ..GluA2 (Gria2) is transcriptionally regulated by nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and specificity protein 4 (Sp4), which also regulate all subunits of COX...
  8. Yuan J, Gatti D, Philip V, Kasparek S, Kreuzman A, Mansky B, et al. Genome-wide association for testis weight in the diversity outbred mouse population. Mamm Genome. 2018;29:310-324 pubmed publisher
    ..dynein axonemal heavy chain gene Dnah11, the phospholipase D gene Pld6, the trans-acting transcription factor gene Sp4, and the spermatogenesis-associated gene Spata6, each of which has a human ortholog...
  9. Vila E, Huerta Ramos E, Núñez C, Usall J, Ramos B. Specificity proteins 1 and 4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia: a 24-week double-blind, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    Accumulating evidence suggests that Specificity Protein 1 (SP1) and 4 (SP4) transcription factors are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
  10. Samir H, Nagaoka K, Watanabe G. The stimulatory effect of subluteal progesterone environment on the superovulatory response of passive immunization against inhibin in goats. Theriogenology. 2018;121:188-195 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, maintaining a subluteal P4 environment concurrently with passive immunization against endogenous inhibin may improve the superovulatory response in female Shiba goats. ..
  11. Zhao J, Feng L, Dai J, Yang G, Mu J. Characteristics of nitrogen removal and microbial community in biofilm system via combination of pretreated lignocellulosic carriers and various conventional fillers. Biodegradation. 2017;28:337-349 pubmed publisher
    ..for supplementing available carbon sources for denitrifiers in the system, which were integrated to achieve simultaneous removal of nitrate and organics. ..
  12. Jin H, Kanthasamy A, Harischandra D, Kondru N, Ghosh A, Panicker N, et al. Histone hyperacetylation up-regulates protein kinase Cδ in dopaminergic neurons to induce cell death: relevance to epigenetic mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:34743-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Cotransfection experiments and Sp inhibitor studies demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulated NaBu-induced PKCδ up-regulation...
  13. Gálvez M, Ortiz I, Hidalgo M, Morrell J, Dorado J. Should single layer centrifugation of dog semen be done before or after the semen is cooled?. Vet Rec. 2015;176:359 pubmed publisher
    ..highly active, non-progressive; sP2: low velocity, highly progressive; sP3: less vigorous, poorly progressive; sP4: highly progressive motility). A higher proportion of sperm were classified as sP4 in SLC-AC samples...
  14. Young J, Kamenski M, Higa K, Light G, Geyer M, ZHOU X. GlyT-1 Inhibition Attenuates Attentional But Not Learning or Motivational Deficits of the Sp4 Hypomorphic Mouse Model Relevant to Psychiatric Disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40:2715-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor Specificity Protein 4 (SP4) is important for neurodevelopment and is genetically associated with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
  15. Kong X, Xu P, Cai W, Wang H, Li B, Huang G, et al. ZBP-89 and Sp1 contribute to Bak expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. BMC Cancer. 2018;18:419 pubmed publisher
    ..was correlated with Sp1 and Sp3 expression level, while no correlation was found in ZBP-89 and Bak, neither Sp2 nor Sp4. Mithramycin A (MMA) induced Bak expression in a dose-dependent manner...
  16. Morris D, Rebelo L, Dieter P, Lee C. Validating intrinsic markers and optimizing spot sampling frequency to estimate fecal outputs. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:7980-7989 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from individual spot samples were aggregated to represent spot sampling frequencies of 12 (SP12), 6 (SP6), 4 (SP4), or 2 (SP2) evenly spaced events starting at feeding time...
  17. Urbano M, Ortiz I, Dorado J, Hidalgo M. Identification of sperm morphometric subpopulations in cooled-stored canine sperm and its relation with sperm DNA integrity. Reprod Domest Anim. 2017;52:468-476 pubmed publisher
    ..subpopulations were identified: sP1 (large and rounded), sP2 (large and elongated), sP3 (small and rounded) and sP4 (small and elongated)...
  18. Porcelli S, Crisafulli C, Donato L, Calabrò M, Politis A, Liappas I, et al. Role of neurodevelopment involved genes in psychiatric comorbidities and modulation of inflammatory processes in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2016;370:162-166 pubmed publisher
    ..related genes (BDNF, ST8SIA2, C15orf32, NCAPG2, ESYT2, WDR60, LOC154822, VIPR2, GSK3B, NR1I2, ZNF804A, SP4) and AD...
  19. Kasiappan R, Jutooru I, Karki K, Hedrick E, Safe S. Benzyl Isothiocyanate (BITC) Induces Reactive Oxygen Species-dependent Repression of STAT3 Protein by Down-regulation of Specificity Proteins in Pancreatic Cancer. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:27122-27133 pubmed publisher
    ..BITC also decreased expression of specificity proteins (Sp) Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 transcription factors (TFs) and several pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes, including STAT3 and phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3)..
  20. Ji B, Wang X, Pinto Duarte A, Kim M, Caldwell S, Young J, et al. Prolonged Ketamine Effects in Sp4 Hypomorphic Mice: Mimicking Phenotypes of Schizophrenia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66327 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the responses of Sp4 hypomorphic mice to NMDAR antagonists in electroencephalography and various behavioral paradigms...
  21. Gandhy S, Imanirad P, Jin U, Nair V, Hedrick E, Cheng Y, et al. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and metformin regulate expression of the long non-coding RNA HULC. Oncotarget. 2015;6:26359-72 pubmed publisher
    ..and SK-Hep-1 cells, highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC) was regulated not only by Sp1 but also Sp3 and Sp4 in the three cell lines...
  22. Karki K, Harishchandra S, Safe S. Bortezomib Targets Sp Transcription Factors in Cancer Cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2018;94:1187-1196 pubmed publisher
    ..and induced apoptosis and that this was accompanied by downregulation of specificity protein (Sp) 1, Sp3, and Sp4 transcription factors that are overexpressed in these cells...
  23. Fukuchi M, Nakashima F, Tabuchi A, Shimotori M, Tatsumi S, Okuno H, et al. Class I histone deacetylase-mediated repression of the proximal promoter of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein gene regulates its response to brain-derived neurotrophic factor. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:6825-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Specificity protein 4 (SP4) and early growth response 1 (EGR1) controlled Arc/-1679 transcriptional activity via the region encompassing -169 ..
  24. Wegener A, Küspert M, Sock E, Philipsen S, Suske G, Wegner M. Sp2 is the only glutamine-rich specificity protein with minor impact on development and differentiation in myelinating glia. J Neurochem. 2017;140:245-256 pubmed publisher
    ..We also studied glia-specific conditional Sp2- and constitutive Sp4-deficient mice to include all related glutamine-rich Sp factors into our analysis...
  25. Berg Hansen P, Moen S, Sandvik L, Harbo H, Bakken I, Stoltenberg C, et al. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis among immigrants in Norway. Mult Scler. 2015;21:695-702 pubmed publisher
    ..70, 95% CI: 0.46-1.03). Second-generation immigrants from Pakistan (SPR 1.62, 95% CI: 0.88-2.76) had a strong increase in prevalence compared to the first generation (SPR 0.13, 95% CI: 0...
  26. Safe S. MicroRNA-Specificity Protein (Sp) Transcription Factor Interactions and Significance in Carcinogenesis. Curr Pharmacol Rep. 2015;1:73-78 pubmed
    Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors (TFs) such as Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are overexpressed in tumors and Sp1 is a negative prognostic factor for multiple tumor types...
  27. Sanon K, Ba A, Delaruelle C, Duponnois R, Martin F. Morphological and molecular analyses in Scleroderma species associated with some Caesalpinioid legumes, Dipterocarpaceae and Phyllanthaceae trees in southern Burkina Faso. Mycorrhiza. 2009;19:571-584 pubmed publisher
    ..with very small spines (Scleroderma sp3) and (4) with yellow sporocarps and sub-spherical spores (Scleroderma sp4)...
  28. Sreevalsan S, Safe S. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AND COLORECTAL CANCER. Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep. 2013;9:350-357 pubmed
    ..inducers, these compounds also decrease expression of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 and several pro-oncogenic Spregulated genes important for cancer cell proliferation, survival and metastasis...
  29. Hedrick E, Li X, Safe S. Penfluridol Represses Integrin Expression in Breast Cancer through Induction of Reactive Oxygen Species and Downregulation of Sp Transcription Factors. Mol Cancer Ther. 2017;16:205-216 pubmed publisher
    ..Penfluridol also downregulated Sp transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 through epigenetic downregulation of cMyc and cMyc-regulated miRNAs (miR27a and miR20a/miR17) and induction of the ..
  30. Nair V, Sreevalsan S, Basha R, Abdelrahim M, Abudayyeh A, Rodrigues Hoffman A, et al. Mechanism of metformin-dependent inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Ras activity in pancreatic cancer: role of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:27692-701 pubmed publisher
    ..study showed that metformin down-regulated specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors (TFs) Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 in pancreatic cancer cells and tumors, and this was accompanied by down-regulation of several pro-oncogenic Sp-..
  31. Yang W, Chadalapaka G, Cho S, Lee S, Jin U, Jutooru I, et al. The transcriptional repressor ZBTB4 regulates EZH2 through a MicroRNA-ZBTB4-specificity protein signaling axis. Neoplasia. 2014;16:1059-69 pubmed publisher
    ..ZBTB4 also acts a suppressor of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4, and RNA interference studies show that Sp proteins are required for EZH2 expression...
  32. Khalil M, Ruyechan W, Hay J, Arvin A. Differential effects of Sp cellular transcription factors on viral promoter activation by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IE62 protein. Virology. 2015;485:47-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined effects of ectopic expression of Sp1-Sp4 on IE62- mediated transactivation of three viral promoters...
  33. Maroto Morales A, Ramón M, García Álvarez O, Montoro V, Soler A, Fernández Santos M, et al. Sperm head phenotype and male fertility in ram semen. Theriogenology. 2015;84:1536-41 pubmed publisher
    ..different sperm head phenotype: SP1 (large and round), SP2 (short and elongated), SP3 (shortest and round), and SP4 (large and the most elongated)...
  34. Vizcaíno C, Mansilla S, Portugal J. Sp1 transcription factor: A long-standing target in cancer chemotherapy. Pharmacol Ther. 2015;152:111-24 pubmed publisher
    ..specificity protein 1) is a well-known member of a family of transcription factors that also includes Sp2, Sp3 and Sp4, which are implicated in an ample variety of essential biological processes and have been proven important in cell ..
  35. Nair B, Johar K, Priya A, Wong Riley M. Specificity protein 4 (Sp4) transcriptionally regulates inhibitory GABAergic receptors in neurons. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1863:1-9 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the neuron-specific specificity protein 4 (Sp4) transcriptionally regulates many excitatory neurotransmitter receptor subunit genes, such as those for GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B of N-..
  36. Porcelli S, Lee S, Han C, Patkar A, Albani D, Jun T, et al. Hot Genes in Schizophrenia: How Clinical Datasets Could Help to Refine their Role. J Mol Neurosci. 2018;64:273-286 pubmed publisher
    ..Several clinical features were assessed at recruitment. In the Korean sample, the SP4 gene haplotype rs2282888-rs2237304-rs10272006-rs12673091 (p?=?0.02) was associated with SCZ...
  37. Hosoya T, D Oliveira Albanus R, Hensley J, Myers G, Kyono Y, Kitzman J, et al. Global dynamics of stage-specific transcription factor binding during thymocyte development. Sci Rep. 2018;8:5605 pubmed publisher
    ..probing the chromatin accessibility landscape in double negative (DN), double positive (DP), CD4 single positive (SP4) and CD8 SP (SP8) thymocytes...
  38. Anand B, Thomas C, Prakash S. In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of Talaromyces flavus SP5 inhabited in the marine sediment of Southern Coast of India. Chin J Nat Med. 2016;14:913-921 pubmed publisher
    ..Only three strains viz Trichoderma gamsii SP4, Talaromyces flavus SP5 and Aspergillus oryzae SP6 were screened for further studies...
  39. Wingfield G, Gale R, Minett G, Marino F, Skein M. The effect of high versus low intensity heat acclimation on performance and neuromuscular responses. J Therm Biol. 2016;58:50-9 pubmed publisher
    ..18 ± 3.9%; P<0.05). The 30HI cohort showed greatest improvements in power output (PO) during post-acclimation SPR 1 and 2 compared to 90LI (546 ± 128W and 517 ± 87W, respectively; P<0.02)...
  40. Song J, Song L, Herrera A, Venkataraman G, Murata Collins J, Bedell V, et al. Cyclin D1 expression in peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Mod Pathol. 2016;29:1306-1312 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical stains for cyclin D1 protein (SP4 clone) were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue...
  41. Guida N, Laudati G, Mascolo L, Valsecchi V, Sirabella R, Selleri C, et al. p38/Sp1/Sp4/HDAC4/BDNF Axis Is a Novel Molecular Pathway of the Neurotoxic Effect of the Methylmercury. Front Neurosci. 2017;11:8 pubmed publisher
    ..HDAC4 increase was reverted when cells were transfected with siRNAs against specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and Sp4, that were both increased during MeHg exposure...
  42. Cheng Y, Imanirad P, Jutooru I, Hedrick E, Jin U, Rodrigues Hoffman A, et al. Role of metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT-1) in pancreatic cancer. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0192264 pubmed publisher
    ..We also observed that Specificity proteins Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are overexpressed in Panc1 cells and Sp knockdown or treatment with small molecules that decrease Sp proteins ..
  43. Fusté M, Meléndez Pérez I, Villalta Gil V, Pinacho R, Villalmanzo N, Cardoner N, et al. Specificity proteins 1 and 4, hippocampal volume and first-episode psychosis. Br J Psychiatry. 2016;208:591-2 pubmed publisher
    We assessed specificity protein 1 (SP1) and 4 (SP4) transcription factor levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and conducted a voxel-based morphometry analysis on brain structural magnetic resonance images from 11 patients with ..
  44. Reiss K, Schunck R, Razum O. Effect of Length of Stay on Smoking among Turkish and Eastern European Immigrants in Germany--Interpretation in the Light of the Smoking Epidemic Model and the Acculturation Theory. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12:15925-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research should also identify reasons for the possible differences between immigrant groups. ..
  45. Nielsen F, Riis S, Andersen J, Lesage R, Fink T, Pennisi C, et al. Discrete adipose-derived stem cell subpopulations may display differential functionality after in vitro expansion despite convergence to a common phenotype distribution. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2016;7:177 pubmed
    ..CD34+CD146+CD271- (SP3), and CD34-CD146+CD271+ (SP4)...
  46. Zhang C, Guo L. Dalitong granule combined with electroacupuncture in the treatment of functional dyspepsia: A randomized controlled trial. Chin J Integr Med. 2015;21:743-50 pubmed publisher
    ..was treated with puncture of points Zusanli (ST36), Zhongwan (CV12), Neiguan (PC6), Taichong (LR3) and Gongsun (SP4) twice daily; the combined group with above-mentioned DG and EA; and the control group with 5 mg mosapride 3 times, ..
  47. Azuma T, Nakada N, Yamashita N, Tanaka H. Evaluation of concentrations of pharmaceuticals detected in sewage influents in Japan by using annual shipping and sales data. Chemosphere. 2015;138:770-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should help to improve the prediction accuracy of concentrations of pharmaceutical components in river waters. ..
  48. Selvarajan R, Sibanda T, Tekere M, Nyoni H, Meddows Taylor S. Diversity Analysis and Bioresource Characterization of Halophilic Bacteria Isolated from a South African Saltpan. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..From these, the strains SP7 and SP9 were positive for cellulase production while the strains SP4, SP8 and SP22 were positive for lipase production...
  49. Solanki A, Yanez D, Ross S, Lau C, Papaioannou E, Li J, et al. Gli3 in fetal thymic epithelial cells promotes thymocyte positive selection and differentiation by repression of Shh. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher
    ..and differentiation from CD4+ CD8+ to CD4+ CD8- single-positive (SP4) cells in the fetal thymus and that Gli3 represses Shh Constitutive deletion of Gli3, and conditional ..
  50. Bidkhori G, Narimani Z, Hosseini Ashtiani S, Moeini A, Nowzari Dalini A, Masoudi Nejad A. Reconstruction of an integrated genome-scale co-expression network reveals key modules involved in lung adenocarcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67552 pubmed publisher
    ..The genes EGFR, PIK3CA, TAF15, XIAP, VAPB, Appl1, Rab5a, ARF4, CLPTM1L, SP4, ZNF124, LPP, FOXP1, SOX18, MSX2, NFE2L2, SMARCC1, TRA2B, CBX3, PRPF6, ATP6V1C1, MYBBP1A, MACF1, GRM2, TBXA2R, ..
  51. Chou L, Lerner L, Harris A, Brandon A, Girod S, Butler L. Cancer Prevalence among a Cross-sectional Survey of Female Orthopedic, Urology, and Plastic Surgeons in the United States. Womens Health Issues. 2015;25:476-81 pubmed publisher
  52. van der Lee R, Szklarczyk R, Smeitink J, Smeets H, Huynen M, Vogel R. Transcriptome analysis of complex I-deficient patients reveals distinct expression programs for subunits and assembly factors of the oxidative phosphorylation system. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:691 pubmed publisher
    ..OXPHOS regulators (including GABP, NRF1/2, SP1, YY1, E-box factors) and a set of novel candidates (ELK1, KLF7, SP4, EHF, ZNF143, and TEL2)...
  53. Li X, Pathi S, Safe S. Sulindac sulfide inhibits colon cancer cell growth and downregulates specificity protein transcription factors. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:974 pubmed publisher
    ..Effects of these compounds on expression of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes were determined by western blot analysis of whole cell lysates and in ..
  54. Catar R, Witowski J, Zhu N, Lücht C, Derrac Soria A, Uceda Fernandez J, et al. IL-6 Trans-Signaling Links Inflammation with Angiogenesis in the Peritoneal Membrane. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:1188-1199 pubmed publisher
    ..with sIL-6R promoted VEGF expression and secretion through a transcriptional mechanism involving STAT3 and SP4. Conditioned medium from HPMCs cultured with IL-6 and sIL-6R promoted angiogenic endothelial tube formation, which ..
  55. Safe S, Abbruzzese J, Abdelrahim M, Hedrick E. Specificity Protein Transcription Factors and Cancer: Opportunities for Drug Development. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2018;11:371-382 pubmed publisher
    ..is evidence that transformation of normal cells to cancer cells is associated with upregulation of Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4, which are highly expressed in cancer cells and tumors...
  56. Higa K, Ji B, Buell M, Risbrough V, Powell S, Young J, et al. Restoration of Sp4 in Forebrain GABAergic Neurons Rescues Hypersensitivity to Ketamine in Sp4 Hypomorphic Mice. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;18:pyv063 pubmed publisher
    ..The genes and neurons that regulate behavioral responses to ketamine, however, remain poorly understood. Sp4 is a transcription factor for which gene expression is restricted to neuronal cells in the brain...
  57. Le François B, Soo J, Millar A, Daigle M, le Guisquet A, Leman S, et al. Chronic mild stress and antidepressant treatment alter 5-HT1A receptor expression by modifying DNA methylation of a conserved Sp4 site. Neurobiol Dis. 2015;82:332-341 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the -681 CpG site is recognized and repressed by Sp4, the predominant neuronal Sp1-like factor and that Sp4-induced repression is attenuated by DNA methylation, despite ..
  58. Safe S, Kasiappan R. Natural Products as Mechanism-based Anticancer Agents: Sp Transcription Factors as Targets. Phytother Res. 2016;30:1723-1732 pubmed publisher
    ..a common pathway in cancer cells, which initially involves downregulation of specificity protein 1 (Sp1), Sp3, and Sp4, which are highly expressed in tumors/cell lines derived from solid tumors...
  59. Mookprom S, Boonkum W, Kunhareang S, Siripanya S, Duangjinda M. Genetic evaluation of egg production curve in Thai native chickens by random regression and spline models. Poult Sci. 2017;96:274-281 pubmed publisher
    ..functions with second, third, and fourth orders (LG2, LG3, LG4), and spline functions with 4, 5, 6, and 8 knots (SP4, SP5, SP6, and SP8)...
  60. Schalchli H, Hormazábal E, Rubilar O, Briceño G, Mutis A, Zocolo G, et al. Production of ligninolytic enzymes and some diffusible antifungal compounds by white-rot fungi using potato solid wastes as the sole nutrient source. J Appl Microbiol. 2017;123:886-895 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of ethyl acetate extracts was evaluated by the agar diffusion method, where Anthracophyllum discolor Sp4 and Inonotus sp. Sp2 showed the highest inhibition zones of Mucor miehei...
  61. Lo C, Ma Y, Wei Y, Hsieh B, Hsieh M. Promoter analysis and transcriptional regulation of human carbonic anhydrase VIII gene in a MERRF disease cell model. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2018;641:50-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, over-expression of Flag-Sp1 and Flag-Sp4 significantly increased the hCA8 promoter activity as well as endogenous CA8 protein expression in neuron-like HEK-..
  62. Uppunda A, Bhat J, D costa P, Raj M, Kumar K. Binaural Interaction Component in Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses. J Int Adv Otol. 2015;11:114-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The third and fourth BICs of speech-evoked ABR (BIC-SP3 & BIC-SP4) were observed at around 36 ms and 46 ms, respectively, in the latency regions of peaks E and F, respectively...
  63. Silver S, Pinkerton L, Rocheleau C, Deddens J, Michalski A, Van Zutphen A. Birth defects in infants born to employees of a microelectronics and business machine manufacturing facility. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2016;106:696-707 pubmed publisher
    ..Case numbers for many defects were small, limiting assessment of the role of occupational exposures. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:696-707, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  64. Riva M, Santini M, Borleri D, Trevisan R, Mosconi G. [Not Available]. Med Lav. 2016;107:293-9 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of diabetes in 608 truck drivers was 4.4% (expected 2.6%, SPR 1.69, IC95% 1.08 to 2.31); in 860 construction workers 1.9% (expected 2.1%, SPR 0.90, IC95% 0.48 to 1...
  65. Lacey A, Rodrigues Hoffman A, Safe S. PAX3-FOXO1A Expression in Rhabdomyosarcoma Is Driven by the Targetable Nuclear Receptor NR4A1. Cancer Res. 2017;77:732-741 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistic investigations revealed a requirement for the NR4A1/Sp4 complex to bind GC-rich promoter regions to elevate transcription of the PAX3-FOXO1A gene...
  66. Zhao J, Feng L, Yang G, Dai J, Mu J. Development of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) in biofilm reactors with partially coupled a novel biodegradable carrier for nitrogen-rich water purification. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:800-809 pubmed publisher
  67. Yu W, Wen G, Lin H, Yang Y, Huang X, Zhou C, et al. Effects of dietary Spirulina platensis on growth performance, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, hepatic antioxidant status, immune responses and disease resistance of Coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepede, 1802). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;74:649-655 pubmed publisher
    ..The fish were fed for 8-week with diets containing different levels of S. platensis: 0% (C), 2% (SP2), 4% (SP4), 6% (SP6), 8% (SP8) and 10% (SP10) as treatment groups, followed by a Vibrio harveyi infection test for 14?d...
  68. McNeely E, Mordukhovich I, Tideman S, Gale S, Coull B. Estimating the health consequences of flight attendant work: comparing flight attendant health to the general population in a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2018;18:346 pubmed publisher
    ..Future longitudinal studies should evaluate specific exposure-disease associations among flight crew. ..
  69. Shyn S, Shi J, Kraft J, Potash J, Knowles J, Weissman M, et al. Novel loci for major depression identified by genome-wide association study of Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression and meta-analysis of three studies. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16:202-15 pubmed publisher
    ..78 x 10??), SP4 (P=7.68 x 10??) and GRM7 (P=1.11 x 10??)...
  70. Kalff Suske M, Kunz J, Grzeschik K, Suske G. Human Sp4 transcription factor gene (SP4) maps to chromosome 7p15. Genomics. 1995;26:631-3 pubmed
  71. Hong J, Samudio I, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Safe S. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent activation of p21 in Panc-28 pancreatic cancer cells involves Sp1 and Sp4 proteins. Endocrinology. 2004;145:5774-85 pubmed
    ..expression/DNA binding assays suggest that DIM-C-pPhCF3 induced p21 expression through a novel mechanism that involves PPARgamma interactions with both Sp1 and Sp4 proteins bound to the proximal GC-rich region of the p21 promoter.
  72. Higgins K, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Yoon K, Vanderlaag K, Porter W, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression is induced by 17beta-estradiol in ZR-75 breast cancer cells by estrogen receptor alpha/Sp proteins. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3285-95 pubmed
    ..Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 proteins bind the GC-rich region of the VEGFR2 promoter...
  73. Villa C, Ghezzi L, Fenoglio C, Clerici F, Marcone A, Benussi L, et al. Genetics and expression analysis of the specificity protein 4 gene (SP4) in patients with Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;31:537-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Transcription factor Sp4 (Specificity protein 4) levels are increased in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Sp4 colocalizes with neurofibrillary tangles...
  74. Macdowell K, Pinacho R, Leza J, Costa J, Ramos B, Garcia Bueno B. Differential regulation of the TLR4 signalling pathway in post-mortem prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in chronic schizophrenia: Relationship with SP transcription factors. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2017;79:481-492 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible association of TLR4 pathway with SP1 and SP4 and SZ negative symptomatology is explored...
  75. Ibănescu I, Leiding C, Bollwein H. Cluster analysis reveals seasonal variation of sperm subpopulations in extended boar semen. J Reprod Dev. 2018;64:33-39 pubmed publisher
    ..high linearity; SP2 sperm with high velocity but low linearity; SP3 sperm with low velocity but high linearity; and SP4 sperm with low velocity and low linearity...
  76. Davis W, Chen Z, Ile K, Tew K. Reciprocal regulation of expression of the human adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding cassette, sub-family A, transporter 2 (ABCA2) promoter by the early growth response-1 (EGR-1) and Sp-family transcription factors. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:1097-107 pubmed
    ..We observed that oligonucleotides containing overlapping EGR-1/Sp1 sites bind the Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors...
  77. Karki K, Hedrick E, Kasiappan R, Jin U, Safe S. Piperlongumine Induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Dependent Downregulation of Specificity Protein Transcription Factors. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2017;10:467-477 pubmed publisher
    ..Piperlongumine also downregulated expression of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4, and several pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes, including cyclin D1, survivin, cMyc, EGFR and hepatocyte growth ..
  78. Tam G, van de Lagemaat L, Redon R, Strathdee K, Croning M, Malloy M, et al. Confirmed rare copy number variants implicate novel genes in schizophrenia. Biochem Soc Trans. 2010;38:445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of calcineurin 1), cell-recognition protein CHL1 (cell adhesion molecule with homology with L1CAM), the transcription factor SP4 (specificity protein 4) and histone deacetylase HDAC9, among others (see http://www.genes2cognition...
  79. ZHOU X, Nie Z, Roberts A, Zhang D, Sebat J, Malhotra D, et al. Reduced NMDAR1 expression in the Sp4 hypomorphic mouse may contribute to endophenotypes of human psychiatric disorders. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:3797-805 pubmed publisher
    The reduced expression of the Sp4 gene in Sp4 hypomorphic mice resulted in subtle vacuolization in the hippocampus as well as deficits in sensorimotor gating and contextual memory, putative endophenotypes for schizophrenia and other ..
  80. Pathi S, Lei P, Sreevalsan S, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S. Pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid repress specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes in colon cancer cells. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63:1133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..to reactive oxygen species-dependent downregulation of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes...
  81. Pinacho R, Villalmanzo N, Lalonde J, Haro J, Meana J, Gill G, et al. The transcription factor SP4 is reduced in postmortem cerebellum of bipolar disorder subjects: control by depolarization and lithium. Bipolar Disord. 2011;13:474-85 pubmed publisher
    ..altered SP4 protein in the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex in BD subjects supporting a possible role of transcription factor SP4 in the pathogenesis of the disease...
  82. Pinacho R, Villalmanzo N, Roca M, Iniesta R, Monje A, Haro J, et al. Analysis of Sp transcription factors in the postmortem brain of chronic schizophrenia: a pilot study of relationship to negative symptoms. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47:926-34 pubmed publisher
    ..SP1, SP3 and SP4 transcription factors regulate genes in these pathways, suggesting a possible involvement in negative symptoms...
  83. Hagen G, Dennig J, Preiss A, Beato M, Suske G. Functional analyses of the transcription factor Sp4 reveal properties distinct from Sp1 and Sp3. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:24989-94 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that Sp4-mediated transcriptional activation can be repressed by Sp3. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the transcription factor Sp4 exhibits specific functional properties distinct from Sp1 and Sp3.
  84. Tsai W, Aiba I, Lee S, Feun L, Savaraj N, Kuo M. Resistance to arginine deiminase treatment in melanoma cells is associated with induced argininosuccinate synthetase expression involving c-Myc/HIF-1alpha/Sp4. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:3223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The proximal region of the AS promoter contains an E-box that is recognized by c-Myc and HIF-1alpha and a GC-box by Sp4. Through ChIP assays, we showed that under noninduced conditions, the E-box was bound by HIF-1alpha in all the ..
  85. Pinacho R, Saia G, Meana J, Gill G, Ramos B. Transcription factor SP4 phosphorylation is altered in the postmortem cerebellum of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia subjects. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:1650-1660 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported reduced levels of transcription factor SP4 protein, but not transcript, in the cerebellum in bipolar disorder and associated with more severe ..
  86. Zou Y, Zhang F, Li Y, Wang Y, Li Y, Long Z, et al. Cloning, expression and identification of KTX-Sp4, a selective Kv1.3 peptidic blocker from Scorpiops pococki. Cell Biosci. 2017;7:60 pubmed publisher
    ..3, and identify its function...
  87. Fermin L, Pain S, Morel P, Gedye K, Kenyon P, Blair H. Effect of exogenous progesterone on embryo size and ewe uterine gene expression in an ovine 'dam size' model of maternal constraint. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..At Day 19S embryos were collected from four experimental groups: P4 pretreated S ewes (SP4; n=5), untreated S ewes (SnP4; n=15), P4 pretreated C ewes (CP4; n=7) and untreated C ewes (CnP4; n=21)...
  88. Gao Y, Danciger M, Ozgul R, Gribanova Y, Jacobson S, Farber D. Association of the Asn306Ser variant of the SP4 transcription factor and an intronic variant in the beta-subunit of transducin with digenic disease. Mol Vis. 2007;13:287-92 pubmed
    b>SP4 is a transcription factor abundantly expressed in retina that binds to the GC promoter region of photoreceptor signal transduction genes...
  89. Voevoda M, Kulikov I, Maksimov V, Smirnova I. [Association of Sp4 gene polymorphism with pathological tortuosity of internal carotid arteries]. Kardiologiia. 2009;49:46-9 pubmed
    ..7%) or autosomal-recessive (39.3%). Association of A80807T polymorphism of the transcriptional factor Sp4 gene with PT ICA was established. Probability of PT ICA in A80807/A80807 homozygotes was 1...
  90. Fusté M, Pinacho R, Meléndez Pérez I, Villalmanzo N, Villalta Gil V, Haro J, et al. Reduced expression of SP1 and SP4 transcription factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in first-episode psychosis. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47:1608-14 pubmed publisher
    Alterations of transcription factor specificity protein 4 (SP4) and 1 (SP1) have been linked to different neuropsychiatric diseases...
  91. Hedrick E, Cheng Y, Jin U, Kim K, Safe S. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are non-oncogene addiction genes in cancer cells. Oncotarget. 2016;7:22245-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Sp1 and also Sp3 and Sp4 are highly expressed in cancer cells and in this study, we have used results of RNA interference (RNAi) to show ..
  92. Sanders A, Jain D, Sofer T, Kerr K, Laurie C, Shaffer J, et al. GWAS Identifies New Loci for Painful Temporomandibular Disorder: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. J Dent Res. 2017;96:277-284 pubmed publisher
    ..9 × 10-7) upstream of the Sp4 Transcription Factor ( SP4) gene were identified in the discovery cohort, but neither of these was replicated...