Sp3

Summary

Gene Symbol: Sp3
Description: Sp3 transcription factor
Alias: SPR2, transcription factor Sp3, GC-binding transcription factor Sp3, specificity protein 3
Species: human
Products:     Sp3

Top Publications

  1. Ihn H, Trojanowska M. Sp3 is a transcriptional activator of the human alpha2(I) collagen gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:3712-7 pubmed
    b>Sp3 is an ubiquitously expressed transcription factor, closely related to Sp1 but, unlike Sp1, it often functions as a transcriptional repressor...
  2. Kennett S, Moorefield K, Horowitz J. Sp3 represses gene expression via the titration of promoter-specific transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:9780-9 pubmed
    We have determined previously that Sp3 encodes three distinct gene products as follows: a full-length protein (Sp3) that is an activator of transcription and two isoforms (M1 and M2) derived via internal translational initiation that ..
  3. Zhang Y, Dufau M. Repression of the luteinizing hormone receptor gene promoter by cross talk among EAR3/COUP-TFI, Sp1/Sp3, and TFIIB. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6958-72 pubmed
    Transcription of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) gene is activated by Sp1/Sp3 at two Sp1 sites and is repressed by nuclear orphan receptors EAR2 and EAR3 through a direct-repeat (DR) motif...
  4. Kramps C, Strieder V, Sapetschnig A, Suske G, Lutz W. E2F and Sp1/Sp3 Synergize but are not sufficient to activate the MYCN gene in neuroblastomas. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:5110-7 pubmed
    ..We recently identified MYCN as a target gene of the E2F transcription factors. Here we show that Sp1 and Sp3 cooperate with E2F-1 to activate the MYCN promoter...
  5. Liu A, Hoffman P, Lu W, Bai G. NF-kappaB site interacts with Sp factors and up-regulates the NR1 promoter during neuronal differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17449-58 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the NR1 NF-kappaB site strongly interacted with Sp3/Sp1, instead of NF-kappaB factors, in P19 nuclear extracts...
  6. Spengler M, Kennett S, Moorefield K, Simmons S, Brattain M, Horowitz J. Sumoylation of internally initiated Sp3 isoforms regulates transcriptional repression via a Trichostatin A-insensitive mechanism. Cell Signal. 2005;17:153-66 pubmed
    b>Sp3 is a ubiquitously expressed member of the Sp family of transcription factors that encodes three proteins, Sp3, M1 and M2, with differing capacities to stimulate or repress transcription...
  7. Goto T, Matsui Y, Fernandes R, Hanson D, Kubo T, Yukata K, et al. Sp1 family of transcription factors regulates the human alpha2 (XI) collagen gene (COL11A2) in Saos-2 osteoblastic cells. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:661-73 pubmed
    ..By studying Saos-2 cells, we showed that the transcription factors, Sp1, Sp3, and Sp7 (Osterix), regulate COL11A2 expression through its proximal promoter...
  8. Kingsley C, Winoto A. Cloning of GT box-binding proteins: a novel Sp1 multigene family regulating T-cell receptor gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:4251-61 pubmed
    ..Two of them, which we term Sp2 and Sp3, were cloned. Sp2 and Sp3 contain zinc fingers and transactivation domains similar to those of Sp1...
  9. Kennett S, Udvadia A, Horowitz J. Sp3 encodes multiple proteins that differ in their capacity to stimulate or repress transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:3110-7 pubmed
    ..We have also previously determined that Sp3 and Sp1, two members of the Sp family of transcription factors, encode the 115 and 95 kDa RCPs respectively and ..

More Information

Publications118 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zhang Y, Dufau M. Silencing of transcription of the human luteinizing hormone receptor gene by histone deacetylase-mSin3A complex. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:33431-8 pubmed
    ..sites essential for basal promoter activity was identified as critical for the TSA effect, but the binding of Sp1/Sp3 to this site remained unchanged in the absence or presence of TSA...
  2. Sapetschnig A, Koch F, Rischitor G, Mennenga T, Suske G. Complexity of translationally controlled transcription factor Sp3 isoform expression. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42095-105 pubmed
    b>Sp3 is a ubiquitous transcription factor closely related to Sp1. Both proteins contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain close to the C terminus and two glutamine-rich domains in the N-terminal moiety...
  3. Moran K, Crusio R, Chan C, Grekova M, Richert J. Human transcription factor Sp3: genomic structure, identification of a processed pseudogene, and transcript analysis. Gene. 2004;341:235-47 pubmed
    The human transcription factor Sp3 has been widely studied at the translational level and has been described as a regulatory factor for a number of genes...
  4. Rohr O, Aunis D, Schaeffer E. COUP-TF and Sp1 interact and cooperate in the transcriptional activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat in human microglial cells. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:31149-55 pubmed
    ..This region is a direct target of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3. We report the discovery and features of a physical and functional interplay between COUP-TF and Sp1...
  5. Chou S, Chen H, Lu S. Sp1 and Sp3 are involved in up-regulation of human deoxyribonuclease II transcription during differentiation of HL-60 cells. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:1855-62 pubmed
    ..for maximal promoter activity in both untreated and PMA-treated HL-60 cells and, within this region, three Sp1 and Sp3 binding sites were identified as essential for transcriptional regulation and PMA induction...
  6. Essafi Benkhadir K, Grosso S, Puissant A, Robert G, Essafi M, Deckert M, et al. Dual role of Sp3 transcription factor as an inducer of apoptosis and a marker of tumour aggressiveness. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4478 pubmed publisher
    The ambiguous role of transcription factor Sp3 for tumour progression is still debated since it was described as a transcriptional repressor or activator...
  7. Beauchef G, Bigot N, Kypriotou M, Renard E, Porée B, Widom R, et al. The p65 subunit of NF-?B inhibits COL1A1 gene transcription in human dermal and scleroderma fibroblasts through its recruitment on promoter by protein interaction with transcriptional activators (c-Krox, Sp1, and Sp3). J Biol Chem. 2012;287:3462-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This 51-bp region mediates the action of two zinc fingers, Sp1 (specific protein-1) and Sp3, acting as trans-activators of type I collagen expression in ANF and SF...
  8. Schmitz G, Langmann T. Transcriptional regulatory networks in lipid metabolism control ABCA1 expression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1735:1-19 pubmed
    ..mediated by corepressor complexes involving unliganded LXR, sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2), Sp3, and the SCAN-domain protein ZNF202, which also impacts nuclear receptor signaling...
  9. Santamarina Fojo S, Peterson K, Knapper C, Qiu Y, Freeman L, Cheng J, et al. Complete genomic sequence of the human ABCA1 gene: analysis of the human and mouse ATP-binding cassette A promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:7987-92 pubmed
    ..The human ABCA1 promoter fragment -200 to -80 bp that contains binding motifs for SP1, SP3, E-box, and AP1 modulates cellular cholesterol and cAMP regulation of ABCA1 gene expression...
  10. Karki K, Hedrick E, Kasiappan R, Jin U, Safe S. Piperlongumine Induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Dependent Downregulation of Specificity Protein Transcription Factors. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2017;10:467-477 pubmed publisher
    ..Piperlongumine also downregulated expression of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4, and several pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes, including cyclin D1, survivin, cMyc, EGFR and hepatocyte growth ..
  11. Tsai S, Chuang J, Tsai M, Wang X, Xi Z, Hung J, et al. Sigma-1 receptor mediates cocaine-induced transcriptional regulation by recruiting chromatin-remodeling factors at the nuclear envelope. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E6562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..factor (BAF), and histone deacetylase (HDAC), to form a complex with the gene repressor specific protein 3 (Sp3). Knockdown of Sig-1Rs attenuates the complex formation...
  12. Flores Peredo L, Rodríguez G, Zarain Herzberg A. Induction of cell differentiation activates transcription of the Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum calcium-ATPase 3 gene (ATP2A3) in gastric and colon cancer cells. Mol Carcinog. 2017;56:735-750 pubmed publisher
    ..Using site-directed mutagenesis and DNA-protein binding assays we found that Sp1, Sp3, and Klf-4 transcription factors bind to ATP2A3 proximal promoter elements and regulate basal gene expression...
  13. Singh A, Battu A, Mohareer K, Hasnain S, Ehtesham N. Transcription of human resistin gene involves an interaction of Sp1 with peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor gamma (PPARgamma). PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9912 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed the recruitment of transcription factors phospho ATF-2, Sp1, Sp3, PPARgamma, chromatin modifier histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and the acetylated form of histone H3 but not cRel, C/..
  14. Sølvsten C, de Paoli F, Christensen J, Nielsen A. Voluntary Physical Exercise Induces Expression and Epigenetic Remodeling of VegfA in the Rat Hippocampus. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55:567-582 pubmed publisher
    ..This is exemplified by a CpG site located within a VegfA promoter Sp1/Sp3 transcription factor recognition element...
  15. Soci U, Fernandes T, Barauna V, Hashimoto N, de Fátima Alves Mota G, Rosa K, et al. Epigenetic control of exercise training-induced cardiac hypertrophy by miR-208. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016;130:2005-2015 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription factor 6 (Sox6), Med13, Pur?, specificity proteins (Sp)/Krüppel-like transcription factor 3 (SP3) and HP1? (heterochromatin protein 1?) was more prominent in T2, thus converging to modulate cardiac metabolic and ..
  16. Xu H, Li Q, Zhao Y, Li J, Ghishan F. Intestinal NHE8 is highly expressed in goblet cells and its expression is subject to TNF-α regulation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, TNF-α reduced Sp3 protein binding to the human NHE8 basal promoter region...
  17. Naidenow J, Hrgovic I, Doll M, Hailemariam Jahn T, Lang V, Kleemann J, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and ? activators induce ICAM-1 expression in quiescent non stimulated endothelial cells. J Inflamm (Lond). 2016;13:27 pubmed publisher
    ..activity via an Sp1 transcription factor binding site and inhibit the binding of the transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3. Furthermore, we performed mRNA stability assays and found that PPAR? and PPAR? agonists increased ICAM-1 mRNA ..
  18. Safe S, Kasiappan R. Natural Products as Mechanism-based Anticancer Agents: Sp Transcription Factors as Targets. Phytother Res. 2016;30:1723-1732 pubmed publisher
    ..target a common pathway in cancer cells, which initially involves downregulation of specificity protein 1 (Sp1), Sp3, and Sp4, which are highly expressed in tumors/cell lines derived from solid tumors...
  19. Reynard L, Ratnayake M, Santibanez Koref M, Loughlin J. Functional Characterization of the Osteoarthritis Susceptibility Mapping to CHST11-A Bioinformatics and Molecular Study. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0159024 pubmed publisher
    ..factors that bind more strongly to the risk-conferring G and T alleles of the two SNPs, including SP1, SP3, YY1 and SUB1. CHST11 was found to be upregulated in OA versus non-OA cartilage (p < 0...
  20. Ghosal A, Sabui S, Said H. Identification and characterization of the minimal 5'-regulatory region of the human riboflavin transporter-3 (SLC52A3) in intestinal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2015;308:C189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..confirmed the importance of Sp1 in driving the activity of the SLC52A3 minimal promoter; they further showed that Sp3 can also do the activation...
  21. Wu X, Li Z, Chen K, Yin P, Zheng L, Sun S, et al. Egr-1 transactivates WNT5A gene expression to inhibit glucose-induced ?-cell proliferation. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, Egr-1, but not NF-?B, FOXO1, Smad2, Smad3, SP1 or SP3 mediated the expression of Wnt5a...
  22. Honda M, Hidaka K, Fukada S, Sugawa R, Shirai M, Ikawa M, et al. Vestigial-like 2 contributes to normal muscle fiber type distribution in mice. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7168 pubmed publisher
    ..in Myh7, down-regulation of miR-208b, encoded within Myh7 gene and up-regulation of targets of miR-208b, Sox6, Sp3, and Pur?, were observed in Vgll2 deficient mice...
  23. Reginald Opara J, Attama A, Ofokansi K, Umeyor C, Kenechukwu F. Molecular interaction between glimepiride and Soluplus®-PEG 4000 hybrid based solid dispersions: Characterisation and anti-diabetic studies. Int J Pharm. 2015;496:741-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Optimized SD batches (SP1 and SP3) showed a reduction in blood glucose level from 100% to 9.81% and 8.97%, respectively, at Tmax of 3h...
  24. Thompson I, Chand A, King P, Ansorge O, Karavitaki N, Jones C, et al. Expression of guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B/NPR2) receptors in normal human fetal pituitaries and human pituitary adenomas implicates a role for C-type natriuretic peptide. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012;19:497-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that this region contains Sp1/Sp3 response elements...
  25. Vickers K, Landstreet S, Levin M, Shoucri B, Toth C, Taylor R, et al. MicroRNA-223 coordinates cholesterol homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:14518-23 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-223 was found to indirectly promote ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 expression (mRNA and protein) through Sp3, thereby enhancing cellular cholesterol efflux...
  26. Hughes T, Tengku Muhammad T, Irvine S, Ramji D. A novel role of Sp1 and Sp3 in the interferon-gamma -mediated suppression of macrophage lipoprotein lipase gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:11097-106 pubmed
    ..mobility shift assays and antibody supershift assays showed that the interacting proteins were composed of Sp1 and Sp3. Mutations of the Sp1/Sp3-binding sites in the minimal IFN-gamma-responsive elements abolished the IFN-gamma-..
  27. Petrovic I, Kovacevic Grujicic N, Stevanovic M. ZBP-89 and Sp3 down-regulate while NF-Y up-regulates SOX18 promoter activity in HeLa cells. Mol Biol Rep. 2009;36:993-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..Using in vitro binding assays we have demonstrated that transcription factors Sp3, ZBP-89 and NF-Y are capable of binding to the SOX18 promoter region spanning the sequence -200 to -162 relative to ..
  28. Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Smith R, Li X, et al. Curcumin decreases specificity protein expression in bladder cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:5345-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that curcumin induced proteasome-dependent down-regulation of Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 in 253JB-V and KU7 cells...
  29. Liu J, Wang X, Cai Y, Zhou J, Guleng B, Shi H, et al. The regulation of trefoil factor 2 expression by the transcription factor Sp3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;427:410-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to assess the essential role of the transcription factor SP3 with respect to TFF2 expression...
  30. Kajita Y, Kato T, Tamaki S, Furu M, Takahashi R, Nagayama S, et al. The transcription factor Sp3 regulates the expression of a metastasis-related marker of sarcoma, actin filament-associated protein 1-like 1 (AFAP1L1). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e49709 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of Sp1 and Sp3 proteins transactivated the proximal AFAP1L1 promoter construct, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed ..
  31. Clarke C, Shamseddine A, Jacob J, Khalife G, Burns T, Hannun Y. ATRA transcriptionally induces nSMase2 through CBP/p300-mediated histone acetylation. J Lipid Res. 2016;57:868-81 pubmed publisher
    ..acid receptor-α, but this is independent of previously identified transcriptional regulators of nSMase2 (Sp1, Sp3, Runx2) and is not through increased promoter activity...
  32. Hejda M, Lycka A, Mikysek T, Jambor R, Růzicka A, Vinklárek J, et al. Homolytic, Heterolytic, Mesolytic - As You Like It: Steering the Cleavage of a HC(sp3 )-C(sp3 )H Bond in Bis(1H-2,1-benzazaborole) Derivatives. Chemistry. 2016;22:15340-15349 pubmed publisher
  33. Ceelie H, Spaargaren van Riel C, De Jong M, Bertina R, Vos H. Functional characterization of transcription factor binding sites for HNF1-alpha, HNF3-beta (FOXA2), HNF4-alpha, Sp1 and Sp3 in the human prothrombin gene enhancer. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:1688-98 pubmed
    ..site 1), HNF1-alpha, HNF3-beta and an as yet unidentified TF (site 2) and the ubiquitously expressed TFs Sp1 and Sp3 (site 3)...
  34. Simmons S, Horowitz J. Nkx3.1 binds and negatively regulates the transcriptional activity of Sp-family members in prostate-derived cells. Biochem J. 2006;393:397-409 pubmed
    ..1 DNA-binding activity is itself not required. We conclude that Nkx3.1 negatively regulates Sp-mediated transcription via the tethering of histone deacetylases and/or by inhibiting the association of Sp proteins with co-activators. ..
  35. Gromnicova R, Romero I, Male D. Transcriptional control of the multi-drug transporter ABCB1 by transcription factor Sp3 in different human tissues. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48189 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatin immunoprecipitation identified Sp3 and TFIID associated with this region and EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift assays) confirmed that Sp3 binds ..
  36. Yang W, Song M, Park E, Lee J, Park J, Park K, et al. Transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 regulate expression of human ABCG2 gene and chemoresistance phenotype. Mol Cells. 2013;36:368-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Binding of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors to the ABCG2 promoter in vitro and in vivo was elucidated by electrophoretic mobility shift ..
  37. Wendland A, Ehmsen B, Lenskjold V, Astrup B, Mohr M, Williams C, et al. Undocumented migrant women in Denmark have inadequate access to pregnancy screening and have a higher prevalence Hepatitis B virus infection compared to documented migrants in Denmark: a prevalence study. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:426 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend giving systematic access to routine pregnancy screening to all UM to prevent mother-to-child transmission and to address the observed health care inequity. ..
  38. Kumar S, Kadu R, Kumar S. Regioselective transition metal- and halogen-free direct dithiolation at C(sp3)-H of nitrotoluenes with diaryl disulfides. Org Biomol Chem. 2016;14:9210-9214 pubmed
    ..Synthesized dithioacetals were transformed into 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and 7-(bis(phenylthio)methyl)-1H-indole. ..
  39. Nathan S, Albera C, Bradford W, Costabel U, Glaspole I, Glassberg M, et al. Effect of pirfenidone on mortality: pooled analyses and meta-analyses of clinical trials in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Lancet Respir Med. 2017;5:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..data and data from two Japanese trials of pirfenidone versus placebo-Shionogi Phase 2 (SP2) and Shionogi Phase 3 (SP3; trial durations 36-52 weeks)...
  40. Jeon Y, Lee H. Treatment of an Adult Patient with Atopic Dermatitis Using Traditional Korean Medicine, Especially Sa-Am Acupuncture. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2016;9:322-324 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the LU9 and SP3 acupoints to tonify the hand tai-yin meridian, we could sedate lung dryness and heat, and using the BL67 acupoint ..
  41. Wang X, Xie P, Qiu R, Zhu L, Liu T, Li Y, et al. Nickel-catalysed direct alkylation of thiophenes via double C(sp3)-H/C(sp2)-H bond cleavage: the importance of KH2PO4. Chem Commun (Camb). 2017;53:8316-8319 pubmed publisher
    ..DFT calculations verify the importance of KH2PO4 as an additive for promoting C-H bond cleavage and support the involvement of a Ni(iii) species in the reaction. ..
  42. Wu J, Lang M, Wang J. Photoredox-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Enamides for the Assembly of ?-Difluoroimine Synthons. Org Lett. 2017;19:5653-5656 pubmed publisher
    A photoredox-catalyzed formal Csp3-Csp3 cross-coupling reaction of enamides with bromodifluoro compounds is established...
  43. Billon N, Carlisi D, Datto M, van Grunsven L, Watt A, Wang X, et al. Cooperation of Sp1 and p300 in the induction of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 during NGF-mediated neuronal differentiation. Oncogene. 1999;18:2872-82 pubmed
    ..This GC-rich region was shown to interact specifically with the transcription factor Sp1 and the related protein Sp3, in either exponentially-growing or NGF-treated PC12 cells...
  44. Marecki J, Cota Gomez A, Vaitaitis G, Honda J, Porntadavity S, St Clair D, et al. HIV-1 Tat regulates the SOD2 basal promoter by altering Sp1/Sp3 binding activity. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;37:869-80 pubmed
    ..of Tat is independent of induction with Tumor necrosis factor alpha and that Tat affects the interaction of Sp1 and Sp3 with the basal promoter...
  45. Dong J, Tsai Morris C, Dufau M. A novel estradiol/estrogen receptor alpha-dependent transcriptional mechanism controls expression of the human prolactin receptor. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18825-36 pubmed
    ..The abolition of the E(2) effect by mutation of Sp1 or C/EBP elements that bind Sp1/Sp3 and C/EBPbeta within PIII indicated the cooperation of these transfactors in E(2)-induced transcription of the ..
  46. Enya K, Hayashi H, Takii T, Ohoka N, Kanata S, Okamoto T, et al. The interaction with Sp1 and reduction in the activity of histone deacetylase 1 are critical for the constitutive gene expression of IL-1 alpha in human melanoma cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:190-9 pubmed
    ..Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and Sp3 bound to the nucleotide containing the sequence...
  47. Lee J, Park K, Shin M, Yang W, Song M, Park J, et al. Accessible chromatin structure permits factors Sp1 and Sp3 to regulate human TGFBI gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;409:222-8 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that TGFBI expression required Sp1 transcription elements that can bind transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 in vitro...
  48. Huang X, Wang Y, Lan J, You J. Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed Activation of C(sp3)-H Bonds and Subsequent Intermolecular Amidation at Room Temperature. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2015;54:9404-8 pubmed publisher
    Disclosed herein is a Rh(III)-catalyzed chelation-assisted activation of unreactive C(sp3)-H bonds, thus enabling an intermolecular amidation to provide a practical and step-economic route to 2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethanamine derivatives...
  49. Riva M, Santini M, Borleri D, Trevisan R, Mosconi G. [Not Available]. Med Lav. 2016;107:293-9 pubmed
    ..The study highlighted an increased diabetes prevalence among truck drivers, whereas other jobs might represent protective factors; this hypothesis, however, needs further investigation. ..
  50. Hussain N, Tatina M, Rasool F, Mukherjee D. Diastereoselective sp2-sp3 coupling of sugar enol ethers with unactivated cycloalkenes: new entries to C-branched sugars. Org Biomol Chem. 2016;14:9989-9992 pubmed
    ..Generation of a ?-allyl complex by the Pd(ii) catalyst via cleavage of the allylic C-H bond of the cycloalkene may be responsible for the formation of sp2-sp3 coupling products. ..
  51. Jin L, Zeng X, Li S, Hong X, Qiu G, Liu P. Palladium-catalyzed intermolecular amination of unactivated C(sp3)-H bonds via a cleavable directing group. Chem Commun (Camb). 2017;53:3986-3989 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the directing group can be easily removed to produce 1,2-amino alcohols. ..
  52. Sun Q, Xie P, Yuan D, Xia Y, Yao Y. Regioselective addition of C(sp3)-H bonds of alkyl pyridines to olefins catalysed by cationic zirconium complexes. Chem Commun (Camb). 2017;53:7401-7404 pubmed publisher
    ..Ligand-controlled regioselectivity was observed, which was verified by DFT study. ..
  53. Sattar M, Kumar S. Palladium-Catalyzed Removable 8-Aminoquinoline Assisted Chemo- and Regioselective Oxidative sp2-C-H/sp3-C-H Cross-Coupling of Ferrocene with Toluene Derivatives. Org Lett. 2017;19:5960-5963 pubmed publisher
    ..It seems Fe(II) catalyst not only stabilizes the generated benzyl radical but also tames its oxidizing behavior, and consequently transfers it to the palladacycle for C-C coupling...
  54. Xu X, Sun J, Lin Y, Cheng J, Li P, Yan Y, et al. Copper nitrate-catalyzed oxidative coupling of unactivated C(sp3)-H bonds of ethers and alkanes with N-hydroxyphthalimide: synthesis of N-hydroxyimide esters. Org Biomol Chem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..To further understand this unusual transformation, control experiments were performed and a plausible mechanism was proposed...
  55. Won J, Yim J, Kim T. Sp1 and Sp3 recruit histone deacetylase to repress transcription of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter in normal human somatic cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:38230-8 pubmed
    ..The repressive element formed DNA-protein complexes with Sp1 and Sp3 in nuclear extracts...
  56. Monslow J, Williams J, Fraser D, Michael D, Foka P, Kift Morgan A, et al. Sp1 and Sp3 mediate constitutive transcription of the human hyaluronan synthase 2 gene. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18043-50 pubmed
    ..Electrophoretic mobility shift and promoter assay data demonstrated that transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 bound to three sites immediately upstream of the HAS2 transcription initiation site and that mutation of the ..
  57. Lucchese A, Serpico R. Effect of SP3 silencing on cytokeratin expression pattern in HPV-positive cells. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009;22:163-8 pubmed
    ..factors underlying squamous cell carcinogenesis in HPV-infected oral and cervical tissues, we examined the Sp3-dependent cytokeratin expression in HPV-positive CaSki cells...
  58. Zeng J, Mi R, Wang Y, Li Y, Lin L, Yao B, et al. Promoters of Human Cosmc and T-synthase Genes Are Similar in Structure, Yet Different in Epigenetic Regulation. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:19018-33 pubmed publisher
    ..within cCpG-II and tCpG, which contain two binding sites for Krüppel-like transcription factors, including SP1/SP3, respectively...
  59. Fauquenoy S, Robette G, Kula A, Vanhulle C, Bouchat S, Delacourt N, et al. Repression of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Long Terminal Repeat sense transcription by Sp1 recruitment to novel Sp1 binding sites. Sci Rep. 2017;7:43221 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that the Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors bound in vitro to these two sites and compared the binding affinity for Sp1 of all six ..
  60. NGUYEN T, DAUGULIS O. Palladium-catalyzed, aminoquinoline-directed arylation of phosphonamidate and phosphinic amide sp3 C-H bonds. Chem Commun (Camb). 2017;53:4609-4611 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemistry described here is the first example of unactivated sp3 C-H bond arylation by using a phosphorus-containing directing group. ..
  61. Zhu R, Liu L, Yu J. Highly Versatile ?-C(sp3)-H Iodination of Ketones Using a Practical Auxiliary. J Am Chem Soc. 2017;139:12394-12397 pubmed publisher
  62. Zaman K, Palmer L, Doctor A, Hunt J, Gaston B. Concentration-dependent effects of endogenous S-nitrosoglutathione on gene regulation by specificity proteins Sp3 and Sp1. Biochem J. 2004;380:67-74 pubmed
    ..of the endogenous S-nitrosothiol, GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione), on the activities of nuclear regulatory proteins Sp3 and Sp1 (specificity proteins 3 and 1)...
  63. Yang L, Melot R, Neuburger M, Baudoin O. Palladium(0)-catalyzed asymmetric C(sp3)-H arylation using a chiral binol-derived phosphate and an achiral ligand. Chem Sci. 2017;8:1344-1349 pubmed publisher
  64. Mou X, Chen X, Chen G, He G. Radical-mediated intramolecular β-C(sp3)-H amidation of alkylimidates: facile synthesis of 1,2-amino alcohols. Chem Commun (Camb). 2018;54:515-518 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistic studies suggest that a sequence of 1,5-HAT of an imidate radical, iodination and cyclization might be operative. ..
  65. Sun M, Wang Y, Xu B, Ma X, Zhang S. A metal-free direct C (sp3)-H cyanation reaction with cyanobenziodoxolones. Org Biomol Chem. 2018;16:1971-1975 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistic studies indicated that the cyanation proceeded with two potential pathways, which is highly dependent on the substrates: (1) a free radical case for alkanes and ethers and (2) an oxidative case for tertiary amines. ..
  66. Wobus M, Wandel E, Prohaska S, Findeiss S, Tschop K, Aust G. Transcriptional regulation of the human CD97 promoter by Sp1/Sp3 in smooth muscle cells. Gene. 2008;413:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..5'-flanking region revealed that the TATA box-lacking promoter possesses several GC-rich regions as putative Sp1/Sp3 binding sites...
  67. Zou X, Gao Y, Ruvolo V, Gardner T, Ruvolo P, Brown R. Human glycolipid transfer protein gene (GLTP) expression is regulated by Sp1 and Sp3: involvement of the bioactive sphingolipid ceramide. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1301-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Four GC-boxes were shown to be functional Sp1/Sp3 transcription factor binding sites...
  68. Khair M, Bourhim M, Barre L, Li D, Netter P, Magdalou J, et al. Regulation of xylosyltransferase I gene expression by interleukin 1? in human primary chondrocyte cells: mechanism and impact on proteoglycan synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:1774-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Sp3 is a repressor of XT-I promoter and bring evidence that the repressive effect of IL-1? during the late phase is ..
  69. Liu H, Goldenberg A, Chen Y, Lun C, Wu W, Bush K, et al. Molecular Properties of Drugs Interacting with SLC22 Transporters OAT1, OAT3, OCT1, and OCT2: A Machine-Learning Approach. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016;359:215-29 pubmed publisher
    ..e., greater SP3 character)...
  70. Yamakawa H, Cheng J, Penney J, Gao F, Rueda R, Wang J, et al. The Transcription Factor Sp3 Cooperates with HDAC2 to Regulate Synaptic Function and Plasticity in Neurons. Cell Rep. 2017;20:1319-1334 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional screening revealed that knockdown of the transcription factor Sp3 phenocopied HDAC2 knockdown and that Sp3 facilitated recruitment of HDAC2 to synaptic genes...
  71. Baggioli A, Meille S, Famulari A. Nucleophilicity and electrophilicity of the C(sp3)-H bond: methane and ethane binary complexes with iodine. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2017;19:24555-24565 pubmed publisher
    ..Source function and NCI results suggest instead that nucleophilic carbon centres participate in the noncovalent bond themselves by drawing electron density from their shared electron pairs. ..
  72. Schnur N, Seuter S, Katryniok C, Radmark O, Steinhilber D. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A mediates upregulation of 5-lipoxygenase promoter activity by recruitment of Sp1 to distinct GC-boxes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:1271-82 pubmed
    ..We identified two proximal Sp1/Sp3 binding sites in the 5-LO gene promoter mediating the TsA effect in both 5-LO-negative HeLa cells and in 5-LO ..
  73. Xu H, Jin R, Ren W, Zou L, Wang Y, Zhou G. Transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 regulate basal transcription of the human IRF-3 gene. Biochimie. 2012;94:1390-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 up-regulate the basal transcriptional activity of IRF-3 and increase IRF-3 expression at mRNA level...
  74. Jiang Y, Fleet J. Phorbol esters enhance 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-regulated 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) gene expression through ERK-mediated phosphorylation of specific protein 3 (Sp3) in Caco-2 cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;361:31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Sp1 or Sp3 siRNA knockdown reduced 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-regulated hCYP24A1 promoter activity but only Sp3 siRNA reduced PMA-..
  75. Zhou Y, Tang Z, Song Q. Co-catalyzed highly selective C(sp3)-H nitration. Chem Commun (Camb). 2017;53:8972-8975 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific nitration of C(sp3)-H instead of C(sp2)-H was achieved via a radical process rather than concerted metalation-deprotonation. ..
  76. Wang R, Li Y, Jin R, Wang X. Copper-catalyzed oxidative C(sp3)-H/C(sp2)-H cross-coupling en route to carbocyclic rings. Chem Sci. 2017;8:3838-3842 pubmed publisher
    ..An aniline module was used as a directing group to generate an aminyl radical, which selectively cleaves the secondary and tertiary C(sp3)-H bonds via a 1,5-HAT process to forge six-membered carbocyclic rings...
  77. Gao J, Huang Z, Chen Y, Wan J, Gu X, Ma Z, et al. Activating Inert Alkali Metal Ions by Electron Transfer from Manganese Oxide for Formaldehyde Abatement. Chemistry. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The electron transfer originates from the interactions of alkali d-sp frontier orbitals with lattice oxygen sp3 orbitals occupied by lone-pair electrons...
  78. Short M, Blackburn J, Roizen J. Sulfamate Esters Guide Selective Radical-Mediated Chlorination of Aliphatic C-H Bonds. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we disclose a general strategy for aliphatic ?-C(sp3)-H functionalization guided by a masked alcohol...
  79. Bume D, Pitts C, Ghorbani F, Harry S, Capilato J, Siegler M, et al. Ketones as directing groups in photocatalytic sp3 C-H fluorination. Chem Sci. 2017;8:6918-6923 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective ?- and ?-fluorination are demonstrated on rigid mono-, di-, tri-, and tetracyclic (steroidal) substrates employing both cyclic and exocyclic aliphatic ketones as directing groups. ..
  80. Pang J, Chen X, Wu S. Regulation of telomerase activity in Jurkat T cells by transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2002;22:481-5 pubmed
    To investigate the role of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 in the regulation of telomerase activity and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in Jurkat T cells...
  81. Katsuyama M, Hirai H, Iwata K, Ibi M, Matsuno K, Matsumoto M, et al. Sp3 transcription factor is crucial for transcriptional activation of the human NOX4 gene. FEBS J. 2011;278:964-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrated that Sp1 and Sp3 could bind to GC-boxes at positions -239/-227 and +69/+81 in these cells...
  82. Mani G, Shaik S, Tangella Y, Bale S, Godugu C, Kamal A. A facile I2-catalyzed synthesis of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines via sp3 C-H functionalization of azaarenes and evaluation of anticancer activity. Org Biomol Chem. 2017;15:6780-6791 pubmed publisher
    ..The synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-cancer activity in selected human cancer cell lines. Compounds 4a, 4b, 4c, 4i, 7a, 7b and 7m have significant IC50 values ranging from 4.88 ± 0.28 to 14.55 ± 0.74 ?M. ..
  83. Rotheneder H, Geymayer S, Haidweger E. Transcription factors of the Sp1 family: interaction with E2F and regulation of the murine thymidine kinase promoter. J Mol Biol. 1999;293:1005-15 pubmed
    ..assays with oligonucleotides comprising the Sp1, or both the Sp1 and the E2F binding site suggest that Sp1 and Sp3 supply most if not all activity binding to the GC-box of the thymidine kinase promoter in murine fibroblasts...
  84. Lin A, Yang Q, Murong S. [Deficient mRNA expression of specific protein 3 gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with multiple sclerosis]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2008;25:187-9 pubmed
    To characterize the deficiency of the mRNA expression of specific protein (SP3) gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Chinese patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and study its correlation with the disease phenotypes...
  85. Eckerstorfer P, Novy M, Burgstaller Muehlbacher S, Paster W, Schiller H, Mayer H, et al. Proximal human FOXP3 promoter transactivated by NF-kappaB and negatively controlled by feedback loop and SP3. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:2094-102 pubmed publisher
    ..proximal FOXP3 promoter transactivation was inhibited by Foxp3 and the SP transcription factor family member SP3. Thus, the human proximal FOXP3 promoter is controlled by activation through the TCR involving PKC and the NF-..
  86. Baig M, Shaik S, Nayak V, Alarifi A, Kamal A. Iodine-catalyzed Csp3-H functionalization of methylhetarenes: One-pot synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of heteroarenyl-benzimidazoles and benzothiazole. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:4039-4043 pubmed publisher
    ..synthetic procedure has been developed for the preparation of heteroarenyl-benzimidazoles via oxidative Csp3-H functionalization with o-phenylenediamine using I2-DMSO in open air from easily available ..
  87. Kuang Z, Li B, Song Q. Cu/Pd cooperatively catalyzed tandem intramolecular anti-Markovnikov hydroarylation of unsaturated amides: facile construction of 3,4-dihydroquinolinones via borylation/intramolecular C(sp3)-C(sp2) cross coupling. Chem Commun (Camb). 2017;54:34-37 pubmed publisher
    ..3,4-Dihydroquinolinones, one type of important scaffold prevailing in pharmaceuticals and biologically active compounds, could be readily accessible with high regio-selectivity and high yields. ..
  88. Dennig J, Beato M, Suske G. An inhibitor domain in Sp3 regulates its glutamine-rich activation domains. EMBO J. 1996;15:5659-67 pubmed
    b>Sp3 is a ubiquitously expressed human transcription factor closely related to Sp1 and Sp4...
  89. Kishikawa S, Murata T, Kimura H, Shiota K, Yokoyama K. Regulation of transcription of the Dnmt1 gene by Sp1 and Sp3 zinc finger proteins. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:2961-70 pubmed
    ..DNA-binding assays indicated that transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 bound to the same cis-element in this region in a dose-dependent manner...
  90. Takahashi S, Matsuura N, Kurokawa T, Takahashi Y, Miura T. Co-operation of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to transcriptional activation of the human haem oxygenase-1 gene promoter in a hepatoma cell line. Biochem J. 2002;367:641-52 pubmed
    ..e. HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3. Co-transfection experiments using Drosophila SL2 cells revealed that HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3 synergistically stimulated ..
  91. Lennartsson A, Pieters K, Ullmark T, Vidovic K, Gullberg U. AML-1, PU.1, and Sp3 regulate expression of human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;311:853-63 pubmed
    ..Within this region, direct binding and transactivation by AML-1, PU.1, and Sp3 were demonstrated, as judged by electrophoretic mobility shift analysis...
  92. Koshiji M, To K, Hammer S, Kumamoto K, Harris A, Modrich P, et al. HIF-1alpha induces genetic instability by transcriptionally downregulating MutSalpha expression. Mol Cell. 2005;17:793-803 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the regulation of DNA repair is an integral part of the hypoxic response, providing molecular insights into the mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced genetic instability. ..