Gene Symbol: SNRPD2
Description: small nuclear ribonucleoprotein D2 polypeptide
Alias: SMD2, SNRPD1, Sm-D2, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein Sm D2, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein D2 polypeptide 16.5kDa, snRNP core protein D2
Species: human
Products:     SNRPD2

Top Publications

  1. Liu Q, Fischer U, Wang F, Dreyfuss G. The spinal muscular atrophy disease gene product, SMN, and its associated protein SIP1 are in a complex with spliceosomal snRNP proteins. Cell. 1997;90:1013-21 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a role for SMN and SIP1 in spliceosomal snRNP biogenesis and function and provide a likely molecular mechanism for the cause of SMA. ..
  2. Kambach C, Walke S, Young R, Avis J, de La Fortelle E, Raker V, et al. Crystal structures of two Sm protein complexes and their implications for the assembly of the spliceosomal snRNPs. Cell. 1999;96:375-87 pubmed
    ..The crystal structures suggest that the seven Sm proteins could form a closed ring and the snRNAs may be bound in the positively charged central hole. ..
  3. Lehmeier T, Raker V, Hermann H, Luhrmann R. cDNA cloning of the Sm proteins D2 and D3 from human small nuclear ribonucleoproteins: evidence for a direct D1-D2 interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:12317-21 pubmed
    ..A., Manolson, M., Becherer, K., Weidenhammer, E., Kirkpatrick, D., Wright, R. & Jones, E. (1991) Mol. Cell. Biol. 11, 5801-5812], suggesting that this gene encodes the yeast homologue of the human D3 protein. ..
  4. Charroux B, Pellizzoni L, Perkinson R, Shevchenko A, Mann M, Dreyfuss G. Gemin3: A novel DEAD box protein that interacts with SMN, the spinal muscular atrophy gene product, and is a component of gems. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:1181-94 pubmed
    ..Gemin3 interacts directly with SMN, as well as with SmB, SmD2, and SmD3. Immunolocalization studies using mAbs to Gemin3 show that it colocalizes with SMN in gems...
  5. Weber G, Trowitzsch S, Kastner B, Luhrmann R, Wahl M. Functional organization of the Sm core in the crystal structure of human U1 snRNP. EMBO J. 2010;29:4172-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The intricate, multi-layered interplay of proteins and RNA rationalizes the hierarchical assembly of U snRNPs in vitro and in vivo. ..
  6. Sleeman J, Lamond A. Newly assembled snRNPs associate with coiled bodies before speckles, suggesting a nuclear snRNP maturation pathway. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1065-74 pubmed
    ..These include speckles, coiled bodies and nucleoli, in addition to a diffuse nucleoplasmic compartment. The reasons for snRNP accumulation in these different structures are unclear...
  7. Urlaub H, Raker V, Kostka S, Luhrmann R. Sm protein-Sm site RNA interactions within the inner ring of the spliceosomal snRNP core structure. EMBO J. 2001;20:187-96 pubmed
    ..Our results thus provide the first evidence that, within the core snRNP, multiple Sm protein-Sm site RNA contacts occur on the inner surface of the heptameric Sm protein ring. ..
  8. Deng H, Li Z, Dai G, Yuan Y, Ning Y, Shangguan J, et al. Isolation of new polymorphic microsatellite markers from the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:758-62 pubmed publisher
    ..0333-0.9667 and 0.0328-0.7675, respectively. Two loci, Smd1-112 and Smd2-80, deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium...
  9. Dulay A, Buhimschi C, Zhao G, Oliver E, Abdel Razeq S, Shook L, et al. Amniotic Fluid Soluble Myeloid Differentiation-2 (sMD-2) as Regulator of Intra-amniotic Inflammation in Infection-induced Preterm Birth. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2015;73:507-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of sMD2 in intra-amniotic inflammation-induced preterm birth has not been previously explored...

More Information


  1. Schwer B, Roth A, Shuman S. Will the circle be unbroken: specific mutations in the yeast Sm protein ring expose a requirement for assembly factor Brr1, a homolog of Gemin2. RNA. 2017;23:420-430 pubmed publisher Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we gained new insights into structure-function relationships of the SmD1 and SmD2 subunits...
  2. Gomez V, Wasserman M. Interactions between Giardia duodenalis Sm proteins and their association with spliceosomal snRNAs. Parasitol Res. 2017;116:617-626 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoprecipitation with anti-HA revealed that the SmD3 protein is associated with the proteins SmB, SmD1, SmD2, SmE and SmF in vivo...
  3. Wang C, Qi B, Tan L, Cheng J. Gene markers of fracture healing in early stage and the regulatory mechanism during the process using microarray analysis. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2016;50:681-685 pubmed publisher
    ..processes involving RNA splicing and cell cycle were significantly enriched for the up-regulated genes such as Snrpd2, Eftud2, Plk1 and Bub1b, whereas skeletal system development and bone development processes were predominant for ..
  4. Li J, Leung A, Kondo Y, Oubridge C, Nagai K. Re-refinement of the spliceosomal U4 snRNP core-domain structure. Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol. 2016;72:131-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The U4 Sm site-sequence AAUUUUU has been shown to bind to the seven Sm proteins SmF-SmE-SmG-SmD3-SmB-SmD1-SmD2 in an identical manner as the U1 Sm-site sequence AAUUUGU, except in SmD1 where the bound U replaces G...
  5. Kim Y, Lee J, Kim H, Lee M, Son M, Yoo C, et al. The unique spliceosome signature of human pluripotent stem cells is mediated by SNRPA1, SNRPD1, and PNN. Stem Cell Res. 2017;22:43-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, SNRPA1, SNRPD1, and PNN were significantly up-regulated during the early stage of reprogramming, identified as hub genes by ..
  6. Ehlers K, Clements R, Vermeer M, Giles J, Tran Q. Novel regulations of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 by calmodulin. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018;152:187-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a FRET-based screening method, we identified a new binding site for CaM on SMD2 (a.a. 125-141), in addition to SMD3 and the juxtamembranous region of SMD4 (SMD4JM, a.a., 309-327)...
  7. Bassetto Junior C, Varanda W, González E. 4-Chloro-3-nitro-N-butylbenzenesulfonamide acts on KV3.1 channels by an open-channel blocker mechanism. Amino Acids. 2017;49:1895-1906 pubmed publisher
    The effects of 4-chloro-3-nitro-N-butylbenzenesulfonamide (SMD2) on KV3.1 channels, heterologous expressed in L-929 cells, were studied with the whole cell patch-clamp technique. SMD2 blocks KV3...
  8. Chari A, Golas M, Klingenhäger M, Neuenkirchen N, Sander B, Englbrecht C, et al. An assembly chaperone collaborates with the SMN complex to generate spliceosomal SnRNPs. Cell. 2008;135:497-509 pubmed publisher
    ..The mode of action of this combined chaperone/catalyst system is reminiscent of the mechanism employed by DNA clamp loaders. ..
  9. Pillai R, Grimmler M, Meister G, Will C, Luhrmann R, Fischer U, et al. Unique Sm core structure of U7 snRNPs: assembly by a specialized SMN complex and the role of a new component, Lsm11, in histone RNA processing. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2321-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, the U7-specific Lsm11 protein not only specifies the assembly of the U7 Sm core but also fulfills an important role in U7 snRNP-mediated histone mRNA processing. ..
  10. Charroux B, Pellizzoni L, Perkinson R, Yong J, Shevchenko A, Mann M, et al. Gemin4. A novel component of the SMN complex that is found in both gems and nucleoli. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:1177-86 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, Gemin4 is also detected in the nucleoli, suggesting that the SMN complex may also function in preribosomal RNA processing or ribosome assembly. ..
  11. Carissimi C, Baccon J, Straccia M, Chiarella P, Maiolica A, Sawyer A, et al. Unrip is a component of SMN complexes active in snRNP assembly. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:2348-54 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that unrip functions in the pathway of snRNP biogenesis and is a marker of cellular SMN complexes active in snRNP assembly. ..
  12. Friesen W, Wyce A, Paushkin S, Abel L, Rappsilber J, Mann M, et al. A novel WD repeat protein component of the methylosome binds Sm proteins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8243-7 pubmed
  13. Azzouz T, Pillai R, Däpp C, Chari A, Meister G, Kambach C, et al. Toward an assembly line for U7 snRNPs: interactions of U7-specific Lsm proteins with PRMT5 and SMN complexes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34435-40 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we present evidence for two separate binding sites in SMN for Sm/Lsm proteins. One recognizes Sm domains and the second one, the sDMA-modified RG-tails, which are present only in a subset of these proteins. ..
  14. Yong J, Wan L, Dreyfuss G. Why do cells need an assembly machine for RNA-protein complexes?. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:226-32 pubmed
    ..We discuss how this surveillance capacity of the SMN complex might ensure assembly of Sm cores only on the correct RNAs and prevent illicit, potentially deleterious assembly of Sm cores on random RNAs. ..
  15. Lehmeier T, Foulaki K, Luhrmann R. Evidence for three distinct D proteins, which react differentially with anti-Sm autoantibodies, in the cores of the major snRNPs U1, U2, U4/U6 and U5. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:6475-84 pubmed
    ..Whether the additional band represents a distinct common snRNP protein or a post-translationally modified version of G is not yet known. ..
  16. Fury M, Zhang W, Christodoulopoulos I, Zieve G. Multiple protein: protein interactions between the snRNP common core proteins. Exp Cell Res. 1997;237:63-9 pubmed
    ..Other interactions were between proteins in the 6S and 20S particles or within the 20S particle itself. These interactions are likely to occur within the cytoplasmic snRNP core protein complexes and the mature snRNP particle. ..
  17. Pellizzoni L, Baccon J, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Dreyfuss G. Purification of native survival of motor neurons complexes and identification of Gemin6 as a novel component. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7540-5 pubmed
    ..Co-immunoprecipitation, immunolocalization, and in vitro binding experiments demonstrate that Gemin6 is a component of the SMN complex that localizes to gems and interacts with several Sm proteins of the spliceosomal snRNPs. ..
  18. Baccon J, Pellizzoni L, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Dreyfuss G. Identification and characterization of Gemin7, a novel component of the survival of motor neuron complex. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31957-62 pubmed
    ..With the identification of Gemin7, the inventory of the core components of the SMN complex appears essentially complete. ..
  19. Friesen W, Paushkin S, Wyce A, Massenet S, Pesiridis G, Van Duyne G, et al. The methylosome, a 20S complex containing JBP1 and pICln, produces dimethylarginine-modified Sm proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:8289-300 pubmed
  20. Fong Y, Zhou Q. Stimulatory effect of splicing factors on transcriptional elongation. Nature. 2001;414:929-33 pubmed
    ..Because the TAT-SF1-U snRNP complex also stimulates splicing in vitro, it may serve as a dual-function factor to couple transcription and splicing and to facilitate their reciprocal activation. ..
  21. Rokeach L, Haselby J, Hoch S. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding the human Sm-D autoantigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:4832-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this C terminus shows interesting features: (i) a good homology to protamines as expected for a nucleic acid binding protein and (ii) a striking similarity to a region in the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen. ..
  22. Leung A, Nagai K, Li J. Structure of the spliceosomal U4 snRNP core domain and its implication for snRNP biogenesis. Nature. 2011;473:536-9 pubmed publisher
    ..spliceosome, U1, U2, U4 and U5 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), contain seven Sm proteins (SmB/B', SmD1, SmD2, SmD3, SmE, SmF and SmG) in common...
  23. Selenko P, Sprangers R, Stier G, Buhler D, Fischer U, Sattler M. SMN tudor domain structure and its interaction with the Sm proteins. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:27-31 pubmed
    ..Our data provide a structural basis for a molecular defect underlying SMA. ..
  24. Meister G, Buhler D, Laggerbauer B, Zobawa M, Lottspeich F, Fischer U. Characterization of a nuclear 20S complex containing the survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein and a specific subset of spliceosomal Sm proteins. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:1977-86 pubmed
    ..This shows that the SMN-Sm protein interaction is not restricted to the cytoplasm. Our data imply that nuclear SMN affects splicing by modulating the Sm protein composition of U snRNPs. ..
  25. Buhler D, Raker V, Luhrmann R, Fischer U. Essential role for the tudor domain of SMN in spliceosomal U snRNP assembly: implications for spinal muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8:2351-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data show that SMN is an essential U snRNP assembly factor and establish a direct correlation between defects in the biogenesis of U snRNPs and SMA. ..
  26. Blagoev B, Kratchmarova I, Ong S, Nielsen M, Foster L, Mann M. A proteomics strategy to elucidate functional protein-protein interactions applied to EGF signaling. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:315-8 pubmed
    ..SILAC combined with modification-based affinity purification is a useful approach to detect specific and functional protein-protein interactions. ..
  27. Gubitz A, Mourelatos Z, Abel L, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Dreyfuss G. Gemin5, a novel WD repeat protein component of the SMN complex that binds Sm proteins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:5631-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Gemin5 interacts with several of the snRNP core proteins including SmB, SmD1, SmD2, SmD3, and SmE, suggesting that it participates in the activities of the SMN complex in snRNP assembly...
  28. Tong J, Taylor P, Peterman S, Prakash A, Moran M. Epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation sites Ser991 and Tyr998 are implicated in the regulation of receptor endocytosis and phosphorylations at Ser1039 and Thr1041. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8:2131-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This reinforces the notion that EGFR function is manifest through spatially and temporally controlled protein-protein interactions and phosphorylations. ..
  29. Ma Y, Dostie J, Dreyfuss G, Van Duyne G. The Gemin6-Gemin7 heterodimer from the survival of motor neurons complex has an Sm protein-like structure. Structure. 2005;13:883-92 pubmed