Gene Symbol: SNRPA
Description: small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide A
Alias: Mud1, U1-A, U1A, U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein A, U1 small nuclear RNP-specific A, U1 snRNP A, U1 snRNP-specific protein A
Species: human
Products:     SNRPA

Top Publications

  1. Jiang D, Zou X, Zhang C, Chen J, Li Z, Wang Y, et al. Gemin5 plays a role in unassembled-U1 snRNA disposal in SMN-deficient cells. FEBS Lett. 2018;592:1400-1411 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that non-Sm protein-associated U1 snRNA and U1A are enriched in cytoplasmic granules and colocalize to P bodies in SMN-deficient cells...
  2. Zhang Z, Jones A, Joo H, Zhou D, Cao Y, Chen S, et al. USP49 deubiquitinates histone H2B and regulates cotranscriptional pre-mRNA splicing. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1581-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Change in H2B ubiquitination level, as modulated by USP49, regulates U1A and U2B association with chromatin and binding to nascent pre-mRNA...
  3. Han Z, Shao Q, Gong W, Wang S, Su J, Li C, et al. Interpreting the Dynamics of Binding Interactions of snRNA and U1A Using a Coarse-Grained Model. Biophys J. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..and O4' atoms, to investigating the impact of the snRNA-binding interaction on the dynamic stability of the human U1A protein, which is a major component of the spliceosomal U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle...
  4. Ferré D Amaré A. Use of the spliceosomal protein U1A to facilitate crystallization and structure determination of complex RNAs. Methods. 2010;52:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..An approach that has resulted in 10 new RNA structures in the past decade is the use of the U1A crystallization module...
  5. Kappel K, Jarmoskaite I, Vaidyanathan P, Greenleaf W, Herschlag D, Das R. Blind tests of RNA-protein binding affinity prediction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019;116:8336-8341 pubmed publisher
    ..5 kcal/mol on an independent test set involving the signal recognition particle, human U1A, PUM1, and FOX-1. As a stringent test, the method achieves RMSE accuracy of 1...
  6. Valdés J, Nozaki T, Sato E, Chiba Y, Nakada Tsukui K, Villegas Sepúlveda N, et al. Proteomic analysis of Entamoeba histolytica in vivo assembled pre-mRNA splicing complexes. J Proteomics. 2014;111:30-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we HA-tagged cloned the snRNP component U1A and assessed its expression and nuclear localization...
  7. Dou N, Yang D, Yu S, Wu B, Gao Y, Li Y. SNRPA enhances tumour cell growth in gastric cancer through modulating NGF expression. Cell Prolif. 2018;51:e12484 pubmed publisher
    b>SNRPA is a protein component of U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1 snRNP) complex, which takes part in the splicing of pre-mRNAs. Its expression and function in tumour remain unknown...
  8. Pavlović M, Jandrlić D, Mitic N. Epitope distribution in ordered and disordered protein regions. Part B - Ordered regions and disordered binding sites are targets of T- and B-cell immunity. J Immunol Methods. 2014;407:90-107 pubmed publisher
    ..were located near the segments predicted to have elevated crystallographic B factor in EBNA-1, Sm-B/B' and U1 snRNP A proteins, suggesting that protein flexibility could influence the structural availability of epitopes...
  9. Yu Y, Chi B, Xia W, Gangopadhyay J, Yamazaki T, Winkelbauer Hurt M, et al. U1 snRNP is mislocalized in ALS patient fibroblasts bearing NLS mutations in FUS and is required for motor neuron outgrowth in zebrafish. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:3208-18 pubmed publisher
    ..of the U1 snRNP core particle (Sm proteins and U1 snRNA), but not the mature U1 snRNP-specific proteins (U1-70K, U1A and U1C), co-mislocalize with FUS to the cytoplasm in ALS patient fibroblasts harboring mutations in the FUS ..

More Information


  1. Crookenden M, Walker C, Kuhn Sherlock B, Murray A, Dukkipati V, Heiser A, et al. Technical note: Evaluation of endogenous control gene expression in bovine neutrophils by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR using microfluidics gene expression arrays. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:6763-6771 pubmed publisher
    ..The selected genes included ACTB, B2M, G6PD, GAPDH, GCH1, GOLGA5, OSBPL2, PGK1, RPL13A, RPL19, RPS9, SDHA, SMUG1, SNRPA, TBP, UXT, and YWHAZ...
  2. Mesa A, Fernandez M, Wu W, Narasimhan G, Greidinger E, Mills D. Can SLE classification rules be effectively applied to diagnose unclear SLE cases?. Lupus. 2016;: pubmed
    ..Lu-vs-M) includes novel contrasting characteristics (calcinosis, CPK elevated and anti-IgM reactivity for U1-70K, U1A and U1C) between SLE and MCTD patients and showed a 33% improvement in distinguishing these disorders when compared ..
  3. Han S, Zhuang H, Xu Y, Lee P, Li Y, Wilson J, et al. Maintenance of autoantibody production in pristane-induced murine lupus. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:384 pubmed publisher
    ..B cells, switched memory B cells, switched plasmablasts, and plasma cells were flow-sorted and total IgG and anti-U1A (RNP) autoantibodies were determined with ELISA...
  4. Kruis I, Löwik D, Boelens W, van Hest J, Pruijn G. An integrated, peptide-based approach to site-specific protein immobilization for detection of biomolecular interactions. Analyst. 2016;141:5321-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteins of interest, the autoantigenic proteins La and U1A, were immobilized via a simple incubation procedure by using the complementary leucine zipper sequence as a ..
  5. Ferré D Amaré A. Use of the U1A Protein to Facilitate Crystallization and Structure Determination of Large RNAs. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1320:67-76 pubmed publisher
    ..three-dimensional architecture can be facilitated by engineering a binding site for the spliceosomal protein U1A into a functionally and structurally dispensable stem-loop of the RNA of interest...
  6. Strange R, Russelburg L, Delaney K. Co-evolution of SNF spliceosomal proteins with their RNA targets in trans-splicing nematodes. Genetica. 2016;144:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The U1A/U2B?/SNF family (hereafter referred to as the SNF family) of RNA binding spliceosomal proteins participates in both ..
  7. Crawford D, Blakeley B, Chen P, Sherpa C, Le Grice S, Laird Offringa I, et al. An Evolved RNA Recognition Motif That Suppresses HIV-1 Tat/TAR-Dependent Transcription. ACS Chem Biol. 2016;11:2206-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously examined the utility of the U1A N-terminal RNA recognition motif as a scaffold for tailoring new RNA hairpin recognition and showed that as few as ..
  8. Kawasaki S, Fujita Y, Nagaike T, Tomita K, Saito H. Synthetic mRNA devices that detect endogenous proteins and distinguish mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:e117 pubmed publisher
    ..The designed devices can efficiently respond to target proteins including human LIN28A and U1A proteins, while the original aptamers failed to do so...
  9. Jiang J, Liu X, Liu C, Liu G, Li S, Wang L. Integrating Omics and Alternative Splicing Reveals Insights into Grape Response to High Temperature. Plant Physiol. 2017;173:1502-1518 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that protein levels of the RNA-binding proteins SR45, SR30, and SR34 and the nuclear ribonucleic protein U1A gradually rose as ambient temperature increased, which revealed a reason why AS events occurred more frequently ..
  10. Hetzer M, Mattaj I. An ATP-dependent, Ran-independent mechanism for nuclear import of the U1A and U2B" spliceosome proteins. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:293-303 pubmed
    Nuclear import of the two uracil-rich small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U snRNP) components U1A and U2B" is mediated by unusually long and complex nuclear localization signals (NLSs)...
  11. Ilyas U, Altaf R, Muhammad S, Qadir M, Nadeem H, Ahmed S. Report: Computational drug designing of newly synthesized triazoles against potential targets of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017;30:2271-2279 pubmed
    ..U1) and4-(2-hydroxybenzalidine) amine-5-(2-hydroxy) phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol(U1A Schiff base) were synthesized by fusion method that showed promising antibacterial activity (U1A: 26mm and U1: 14mm)..
  12. Ray D, Kazan H, Chan E, Pena Castillo L, Chaudhry S, Talukder S, et al. Rapid and systematic analysis of the RNA recognition specificities of RNA-binding proteins. Nat Biotechnol. 2009;27:667-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested RNAcompete by analyzing nine diverse RBPs (HuR, Vts1, FUSIP1, PTB, U1A, SF2/ASF, SLM2, RBM4 and YB1). RNAcompete identified expected and previously unknown RNA binding preferences...
  13. Liu L, Xie N, Rennie P, Challis J, Gleave M, Lye S, et al. Consensus PP1 binding motifs regulate transcriptional corepression and alternative RNA splicing activities of the steroid receptor coregulators, p54nrb and PSF. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1197-210 pubmed publisher
    ..and PSF with transcriptional corepressors such as Sin3A and histone deacetylase 1, and RNA splicing factors such as U1A and U2AF...
  14. Workman E, Veith A, Battle D. U1A regulates 3' processing of the survival motor neuron mRNA. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:3703-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identify the U1A protein as a key regulator of SMN expression...
  15. Hall Pogar T, Liang S, Hague L, Lutz C. Specific trans-acting proteins interact with auxiliary RNA polyadenylation elements in the COX-2 3'-UTR. RNA. 2007;13:1103-15 pubmed
    ..We identified PSF, p54(nrb), PTB, and U1A as proteins specifically bound to the COX-2 USEs...
  16. Simmons A, Aluvihare V, McMichael A. Nef triggers a transcriptional program in T cells imitating single-signal T cell activation and inducing HIV virulence mediators. Immunity. 2001;14:763-77 pubmed
    ..New genes associated with Nef include CDK9, the induction of which enhances Tat function. Thus, Nef acts as a master switch early in the viral life cycle, forcing an environment conducive to dynamic viral production. ..
  17. Nelissen R, Sillekens P, Beijer R, Geurts van Kessel A, van Venrooij W. Structure, chromosomal localization and evolutionary conservation of the gene encoding human U1 snRNP-specific A protein. Gene. 1991;102:189-96 pubmed
    ..The divergence of these avian genomes is probably typical for the class of birds. ..
  18. Klein Gunnewiek J, Hussein R, van Aarssen Y, Palacios D, De Jong R, van Venrooij W, et al. Fourteen residues of the U1 snRNP-specific U1A protein are required for homodimerization, cooperative RNA binding, and inhibition of polyadenylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:2209-17 pubmed
    It was previously shown that the human U1A protein, one of three U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-specific proteins, autoregulates its own production by binding to and inhibiting the polyadenylation of its own pre-mRNA...
  19. Kormos B, Pieniazek S, Beveridge D, Baranger A. U1A protein-stem loop 2 RNA recognition: prediction of structural differences from protein mutations. Biopolymers. 2011;95:591-606 pubmed publisher
    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to compare the free and bound structures of wild type U1A protein with several Phe56 mutant U1A proteins that bind the target stem loop 2 (SL2) RNA with a range of affinities...
  20. Schonk D, van Dijk P, Riegmann P, Trapman J, Holm C, Willcocks T, et al. Assignment of seven genes to distinct intervals on the midportion of human chromosome 19q surrounding the myotonic dystrophy gene region. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1990;54:15-9 pubmed
    ..lipase (LIPE), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide A (SNRPA) to various regions of 19q13.1; the cellular receptor for poliovirus sensitivity (PVS) to 19q13...
  21. Allain F, Howe P, Neuhaus D, Varani G. Structural basis of the RNA-binding specificity of human U1A protein. EMBO J. 1997;16:5764-72 pubmed
    ..Two structures of human U1A in complex with distinct RNA substrates have revealed important aspects of RNP-RNA recognition, but have also ..
  22. Nagai K, Oubridge C, Jessen T, Li J, Evans P. Crystal structure of the RNA-binding domain of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein A. Nature. 1990;348:515-20 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the RNA binding domain of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein A, which forms part of the ribonucleoprotein complex involved in the excision of introns, has been solved...
  23. Jessen T, Oubridge C, Teo C, Pritchard C, Nagai K. Identification of molecular contacts between the U1 A small nuclear ribonucleoprotein and U1 RNA. EMBO J. 1991;10:3447-56 pubmed
    We recently determined the crystal structure of the RNP domain of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein A and identified Arg and Lys residues involved in U1 RNA binding...
  24. Oubridge C, Ito N, Evans P, Teo C, Nagai K. Crystal structure at 1.92 A resolution of the RNA-binding domain of the U1A spliceosomal protein complexed with an RNA hairpin. Nature. 1994;372:432-8 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the RNA-binding domain of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein U1A bound to a 21-nucleotide RNA hairpin has been determined at 1.92 A resolution...
  25. Hoffman D, Query C, Golden B, White S, Keene J. RNA-binding domain of the A protein component of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein analyzed by NMR spectroscopy is structurally similar to ribosomal proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:2495-9 pubmed
    ..The secondary structure and topology of the RRM are similar to those of ribosomal proteins L12 and L30, suggesting a distant evolutionary relationship between these two types of RNA-associated proteins. ..
  26. Lutz C, Cooke C, O Connor J, Kobayashi R, Alwine J. The snRNP-free U1A (SF-A) complex(es): identification of the largest subunit as PSF, the polypyrimidine-tract binding protein-associated splicing factor. RNA. 1998;4:1493-9 pubmed
    We have previously shown that a specific monoclonal antibody prepared against the U1A protein, MAb 12E12, is unique in its ability to recognize a form of U1A which is not associated with the U1snRNP...
  27. Weber G, Trowitzsch S, Kastner B, Luhrmann R, Wahl M. Functional organization of the Sm core in the crystal structure of human U1 snRNP. EMBO J. 2010;29:4172-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The intricate, multi-layered interplay of proteins and RNA rationalizes the hierarchical assembly of U snRNPs in vitro and in vivo. ..
  28. Guan F, Caratozzolo R, Goraczniak R, Ho E, Gunderson S. A bipartite U1 site represses U1A expression by synergizing with PIE to inhibit nuclear polyadenylation. RNA. 2007;13:2129-40 pubmed
    b>U1A protein negatively autoregulates itself by polyadenylation inhibition of its own pre-mRNA by binding as two molecules to a 3'UTR-located Polyadenylation Inhibitory Element (PIE)...
  29. Qiu F, Fu Y, Lu C, Feng Y, Wang Q, Huo Z, et al. Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Polypeptide A-Mediated Alternative Polyadenylation of STAT5B during Th1 Cell Differentiation. J Immunol. 2017;199:3106-3115 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide A (SNRPA) was found to bind directly to STAT5B 3' UTR and facilitate its APA switching...
  30. Lu J, Hall K. Tertiary structure of RBD2 and backbone dynamics of RBD1 and RBD2 of the human U1A protein determined by NMR spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1997;36:10393-405 pubmed
    The human U1A protein has two putative RNA binding domains, one at the N-terminal region of the protein (RBD1) and the other at the C-terminal end (RBD2)...
  31. Gu J, Xia Z, Luo Y, Jiang X, Qian B, Xie H, et al. Spliceosomal protein U1A is involved in alternative splicing and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight the critical role of AtU1A as a regulator of pre-mRNA processing and salt tolerance in plants...
  32. Avis J, Allain F, Howe P, Varani G, Nagai K, Neuhaus D. Solution structure of the N-terminal RNP domain of U1A protein: the role of C-terminal residues in structure stability and RNA binding. J Mol Biol. 1996;257:398-411 pubmed
    The solution structure of a fragment of the human U1A spliceosomal protein containing residues 2 to 117 (U1A117) determined using multi-dimensional heteronuclear NMR is presented...
  33. Bronzoni R, Madrid M, Duarte D, Pellegrini V, Pacca C, Carmo A, et al. The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein U1A interacts with NS5 from yellow fever virus. Arch Virol. 2011;156:931-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows for the first time that the yellow fever virus (YFV) NS5 protein is able to interact with U1A, a protein involved in splicing and polyadenylation...
  34. Sillekens P, Habets W, Beijer R, van Venrooij W. cDNA cloning of the human U1 snRNA-associated A protein: extensive homology between U1 and U2 snRNP-specific proteins. EMBO J. 1987;6:3841-8 pubmed
    ..This structural relationship indicates that proteins A and B", although located in different snRNP particles, may have identical functions. ..
  35. Allain F, Gubser C, Howe P, Nagai K, Neuhaus D, Varani G. Specificity of ribonucleoprotein interaction determined by RNA folding during complex formulation. Nature. 1996;380:646-50 pubmed
    ..The human U1A protein binds an RNA hairpin during splicing, and regulates its own expression by binding an internal loop in the 3'..
  36. Varani L, Gunderson S, Mattaj I, Kay L, Neuhaus D, Varani G. The NMR structure of the 38 kDa U1A protein - PIE RNA complex reveals the basis of cooperativity in regulation of polyadenylation by human U1A protein. Nat Struct Biol. 2000;7:329-35 pubmed
    ..Poly(A) tail regulation requires cooperative binding of two human U1A proteins to an RNA regulatory region called the polyadenylation inhibition element (PIE)...
  37. Shajani Z, Varani G. 13C NMR relaxation studies of RNA base and ribose nuclei reveal a complex pattern of motions in the RNA binding site for human U1A protein. J Mol Biol. 2005;349:699-715 pubmed
    ..The U1A protein-RNA complexes provide some of the best-studied examples of the role of RNA motional changes upon protein ..
  38. Ke S, Anquetil V, Zamalloa J, Maity A, Yang A, Arias M, et al. Saturation mutagenesis reveals manifold determinants of exon definition. Genome Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..complexes between the mutant molecules and proteins associated with spliceosome formation (U2AF35, U2AF65, U1A, and U1-70K) correlated with splicing efficiencies, suggesting exon definition as the step affected by most ..
  39. Howe P, Nagai K, Neuhaus D, Varani G. NMR studies of U1 snRNA recognition by the N-terminal RNP domain of the human U1A protein. EMBO J. 1994;13:3873-81 pubmed
    ..Using multidimensional heteronuclear NMR, we have mapped intermolecular contacts between the human U1A protein 102 amino acid N-terminal RNP domain and a 31-mer oligonucleotide derived from stem-loop II of U1 snRNA...
  40. Anunciado D, Dhar A, Gruebele M, Baranger A. Multistep kinetics of the U1A-SL2 RNA complex dissociation. J Mol Biol. 2011;408:896-908 pubmed publisher
    The U1A-SL2 RNA complex is a model system for studying interactions between RNA and the RNA recognition motif (RRM), which is one of the most common RNA binding domains...
  41. Lutz Freyermuth C, Query C, Keene J. Quantitative determination that one of two potential RNA-binding domains of the A protein component of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex binds with high affinity to stem-loop II of U1 RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:6393-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that class II proteins may function as bridges between RNA components of RNP complexes such as the spliceosome. ..
  42. Ferré D Amaré A, Zhou K, Doudna J. Crystal structure of a hepatitis delta virus ribozyme. Nature. 1998;395:567-74 pubmed
  43. Pabis M, Neufeld N, Steiner M, Bojic T, Shav Tal Y, Neugebauer K. The nuclear cap-binding complex interacts with the U4/U6·U5 tri-snRNP and promotes spliceosome assembly in mammalian cells. RNA. 2013;19:1054-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the data support a model whereby CBC promotes pre-mRNA splicing through a network of interactions with and among spliceosomal snRNPs during cotranscriptional spliceosome assembly. ..
  44. Komander D, Reyes Turcu F, Licchesi J, Odenwaelder P, Wilkinson K, Barford D. Molecular discrimination of structurally equivalent Lys 63-linked and linear polyubiquitin chains. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:466-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight remarkable specificity determinants within the ubiquitin system. ..