Gene Symbol: SNAP
Description: synaptosome associated protein 25
Alias: CMS18, RIC-4, RIC4, SEC9, SNAP, SNAP-25, SUP, bA416N4.2, dJ1068F16.2, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 4 homolog, synaptosomal-associated protein, 25kDa, synaptosome associated protein 25kDa
Species: human
Products:     SNAP

Top Publications

  1. Maglott D, Feldblyum T, Durkin A, Nierman W. Radiation hybrid mapping of SNAP, PCSK2, and THBD (human chromosome 20p). Mamm Genome. 1996;7:400-1 pubmed
  2. Feng Y, Crosbie J, Wigg K, Pathare T, Ickowicz A, Schachar R, et al. The SNAP25 gene as a susceptibility gene contributing to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2005;10:998-1005, 973 pubmed
    ..Our findings continue to support SNAP25 in the susceptibility to ADHD. ..
  3. Soderqvist S, McNab F, Peyrard Janvid M, Matsson H, Humphreys K, Kere J, et al. The SNAP25 gene is linked to working memory capacity and maturation of the posterior cingulate cortex during childhood. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68:1120-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Identifying such networks could be a key to better understanding cognitive development as well as some of its disorders. ..
  4. Greaves J, Gorleku O, Salaun C, Chamberlain L. Palmitoylation of the SNAP25 protein family: specificity and regulation by DHHC palmitoyl transferases. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24629-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of specific Golgi-localized DHHC proteins active against SNAP25/23 proteins perturbs the normal secretion of human growth hormone from PC12 cells. ..
  5. Gizer I, Ficks C, Waldman I. Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Hum Genet. 2009;126:51-90 pubmed publisher
    ..g., ADHD subtype diagnoses, gender, exposure to environmental risk factors). We conclude with a discussion of these findings in relation to emerging themes relevant to future studies of the genetics of ADHD. ..
  6. Mill J, Curran S, Kent L, Gould A, Huckett L, Richards S, et al. Association study of a SNAP-25 microsatellite and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet. 2002;114:269-71 pubmed
    Several lines of evidence implicate synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) in the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  7. Kustanovich V, Merriman B, McGough J, McCracken J, Smalley S, Nelson S. Biased paternal transmission of SNAP-25 risk alleles in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2003;8:309-15 pubmed
    ..A previous study found an association between ADHD and two polymorphisms in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of SNAP-25, a gene encoding a synaptic vesicle docking protein known to play a role in the hyperactivity observed in the ..
  8. Gosso M, de Geus E, Polderman T, Boomsma D, Heutink P, Posthuma D. Common variants underlying cognitive ability: further evidence for association between the SNAP-25 gene and cognition using a family-based study in two independent Dutch cohorts. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:355-64 pubmed
    The synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) gene, located on chromosome 20 p12-12p11.2 encodes a presynaptic terminal protein...
  9. Prekeris R, Klumperman J, Chen Y, Scheller R. Syntaxin 13 mediates cycling of plasma membrane proteins via tubulovesicular recycling endosomes. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:957-71 pubmed
    ..that, in Triton X-100 extracts, syntaxin 13 is present in a complex(es) comprised of betaSNAP, VAMP 2/3, and SNAP-25...

More Information


  1. Spellmann I, Muller N, Musil R, Zill P, Douhet A, Dehning S, et al. Associations of SNAP-25 polymorphisms with cognitive dysfunctions in Caucasian patients with schizophrenia during a brief trail of treatment with atypical antipsychotics. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008;258:335-44 pubmed publisher
    The synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is part of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) attachment receptor (SNARE), which mediates synaptic neurotransmission...
  2. Zhang H, Zhu S, Zhu Y, Chen J, Zhang G, Chang H. An association study between SNAP-25 gene and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2011;15:48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 kDa (SNAP-25), a presynaptic plasma membrane protein with an integral role in synaptic transmission, has shown association ..
  3. Etain B, Dumaine A, Mathieu F, Chevalier F, Henry C, Kahn J, et al. A SNAP25 promoter variant is associated with early-onset bipolar disorder and a high expression level in brain. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:748-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analyses of this gene, as well as analysis of genes encoding for the SNAP25 protein partners, are required to understand the impact of such molecular mechanisms in BD. ..
  4. Renner T, Walitza S, Dempfle A, Eckert L, Romanos M, Gerlach M, et al. Allelic variants of SNAP25 in a family-based sample of ADHD. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2008;115:317-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In our German ADHD sample no preferential transmission of either variant could be observed. Further investigation considering sub-sample analysis regarding response to D-amphetamine could enlight the role of SNAP25 in ADHD. ..
  5. Thompson P, Egbufoama S, Vawter M. SNAP-25 reduction in the hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2003;27:411-7 pubmed
    In this study, the authors sought to replicate the findings of reduced synaptosomal associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia...
  6. Guerini F, Bolognesi E, Chiappedi M, Manca S, Ghezzo A, Agliardi C, et al. SNAP-25 single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders. Pharmacol Res. 2011;64:283-8 pubmed publisher
    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25kD (SNAP-25), a protein participating in the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and in calcium homeostasis, was recently involved in neuropsychiatric conditions...
  7. Golimbet V, Alfimova M, Gritsenko I, Lezheiko T, Lavrushina O, Abramova L, et al. Association between a synaptosomal protein (SNAP-25) gene polymorphism and verbal memory and attention in patients with endogenous psychoses and mentally healthy subjects. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2010;40:461-5 pubmed publisher
    Synaptosomal protein SNAP-25 is involved in the process of transmitting nerve spikes in the CNS and in the consolidation of memory traces in the hippocampus...
  8. Smith R, Klein P, Koc Schmitz Y, Waldvogel H, Faull R, Brundin P, et al. Loss of SNAP-25 and rabphilin 3a in sensory-motor cortex in Huntington's disease. J Neurochem. 2007;103:115-23 pubmed
    ..N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP 25) in HD brains of grades I-IV...
  9. Ghezzo A, Guerini F, Bolognesi E, Matteoli M, Manca S, Sotgiu S, et al. Neuropsycological gender differences in healthy individuals and in pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders. A role for SNAP-25. Med Hypotheses. 2009;73:978-80 pubmed publisher
    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 KD (SNAP-25) is a protein that participates in synaptic vesicle exocytosis through the formation of a SNARE complex; SNAP-25 also plays a pivotal role in modulating calcium homeostasis through ..
  10. Choi T, Lee H, Kim J, Park T, Song D, Yook K, et al. Support for the MnlI polymorphism of SNAP25; a Korean ADHD case-control study. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:224-6 pubmed
  11. Pazvantoglu O, Gunes S, Karabekiroglu K, Yegin Z, Erenkus Z, Akbas S, et al. The relationship between the presence of ADHD and certain candidate gene polymorphisms in a Turkish sample. Gene. 2013;528:320-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and six polymorphisms in five candidate genes [5-HT2A (rs6311), NET1 (rs2242447), COMT (rs4818), NTF3 (rs6332), SNAP-25 (rs3746544) and (rs1051312)]...
  12. Gosso M, de Geus E, van Belzen M, Polderman T, Heutink P, Boomsma D, et al. The SNAP-25 gene is associated with cognitive ability: evidence from a family-based study in two independent Dutch cohorts. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11:878-86 pubmed
    The synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) gene plays an integral role in synaptic transmission, and is differentially expressed in the mammalian brain in the neocortex, hippocampus, anterior thalamic nuclei, substantia nigra ..
  13. Guerini F, Agliardi C, Sironi M, Arosio B, Calabrese E, Zanzottera M, et al. Possible association between SNAP-25 single nucleotide polymorphisms and alterations of categorical fluency and functional MRI parameters in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;42:1015-28 pubmed publisher
    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is an age-regulated vesicular SNARE protein involved in the exocytosis of neurotransmitters from synapses, a process that is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  14. Kim J, Biederman J, Arbeitman L, Fagerness J, Doyle A, Petty C, et al. Investigation of variation in SNAP-25 and ADHD and relationship to co-morbid major depressive disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:781-90 pubmed
    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), a protein involved in presynaptic neurotransmitter release, is a candidate gene for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  15. Li Y, Chin L, Weigel C, Li L. Spring, a novel RING finger protein that regulates synaptic vesicle exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:40824-33 pubmed
    The synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) interacts with syntaxin 1 and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) to form a ternary soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) ..
  16. Ravichandran V, Chawla A, Roche P. Identification of a novel syntaxin- and synaptobrevin/VAMP-binding protein, SNAP-23, expressed in non-neuronal tissues. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:13300-3 pubmed
    ..These proteins, together with SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa), form a complex which serves as a binding site for the general ..
  17. Thompson P, Kelley M, Yao J, Tsai G, Van Kammen D. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid SNAP-25 in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53:1132-7 pubmed
    ..We previously demonstrated increased synaptosomal associated protein, 25 kDa (SNAP-25), a member of the exocytotic mechanism, in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of schizophrenia subjects...
  18. Ilardi J, Mochida S, Sheng Z. Snapin: a SNARE-associated protein implicated in synaptic transmission. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:119-24 pubmed
    ..which include the synaptic vesicle membrane protein VAMP/synaptobrevin and the plasmalemmal proteins syntaxin and SNAP-25. We have now identified another SNAP-25-binding protein, called Snapin...
  19. Kovacs Nagy R, Sarkozy P, Hu J, Guttman A, Sasvari Szekely M, Ronai Z. Haplotyping of putative microRNA-binding sites in the SNAP-25 gene. Electrophoresis. 2011;32:2013-20 pubmed publisher
    Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) plays a crucial role in exocitosis...
  20. Rizzi T, Beunders G, Rizzu P, Sistermans E, Twisk J, Van Mechelen W, et al. Supporting the generalist genes hypothesis for intellectual ability/disability: the case of SNAP25. Genes Brain Behav. 2012;11:767-71 pubmed publisher
    ..02; OR?=?1.24) in cases as compared to controls. These results are consistent with a role of SNAP25 in ID, and also support the notion that ID reflects the lower extreme of the quantitative distribution of intellectual ability. ..
  21. Sarkar K, Bhaduri N, Ghosh P, Sinha S, Ray A, Chatterjee A, et al. Role of SNAP25 explored in eastern Indian attention deficit hyperactivity disorder probands. Neurochem Res. 2012;37:349-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Data obtained in this preliminary study indicates that rs3746544 'T' allele may have some role in the disease etiology in the studied Indian population. ..
  22. Bark I, Wilson M. Human cDNA clones encoding two different isoforms of the nerve terminal protein SNAP-25. Gene. 1994;139:291-2 pubmed
    Two distinct cDNA sequences, corresponding to alternative isoforms of the human nerve terminal protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa), were cloned and characterized...
  23. Breidenbach M, Brunger A. Substrate recognition strategy for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A. Nature. 2004;432:925-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1 A: botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) protease bound to human SNAP-25...
  24. Raiborg C, Bremnes B, Mehlum A, Gillooly D, D Arrigo A, Stang E, et al. FYVE and coiled-coil domains determine the specific localisation of Hrs to early endosomes. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:2255-63 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the FYVE domain as well as the second coiled-coil domain, which has been shown to bind to SNAP-25, were required for targeting of Hrs to early endosomes...
  25. Forero D, Arboleda G, Vasquez R, Arboleda H. Candidate genes involved in neural plasticity and the risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of 8 common variants. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2009;34:361-6 pubmed
    ..We identified a weak consistent association with a common SNP in the SNAP25 gene, a molecule that is known to be central for synaptic transmission and plasticity mechanisms. ..
  26. Hirling H, Steiner P, Chaperon C, Marsault R, Regazzi R, Catsicas S. Syntaxin 13 is a developmentally regulated SNARE involved in neurite outgrowth and endosomal trafficking. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:1913-23 pubmed
    In addition to its role in exocytosis, SNAP-25 is essential for axonal outgrowth...
  27. Dulubova I, Sugita S, Hill S, Hosaka M, Fernandez I, Sudhof T, et al. A conformational switch in syntaxin during exocytosis: role of munc18. EMBO J. 1999;18:4372-82 pubmed
    ..The SNARE motif binds to synaptobrevin and SNAP-25 to assemble the core complex, whereas almost the entire cytoplasmic sequence participates in a complex with ..
  28. Mill J, Richards S, Knight J, Curran S, Taylor E, Asherson P. Haplotype analysis of SNAP-25 suggests a role in the aetiology of ADHD. Mol Psychiatry. 2004;9:801-10 pubmed
    Several lines of evidence suggest a role for SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa) in the genetic aetiology of ADHD...
  29. Hawi Z, Matthews N, Wagner J, Wallace R, Butler T, Vance A, et al. DNA variation in the SNAP25 gene confers risk to ADHD and is associated with reduced expression in prefrontal cortex. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60274 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that DNA variation at SNAP25 confers risk to ADHD and reduces the expression of the transcript in a region of the brain that is critical for the regulation of attention and inhibition. ..
  30. Valente P, Castroflorio E, Rossi P, Fadda M, Sterlini B, Cervigni R, et al. PRRT2 Is a Key Component of the Ca(2+)-Dependent Neurotransmitter Release Machinery. Cell Rep. 2016;15:117-131 pubmed publisher
    ..PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2...
  31. Barrios C, Spector T, Menni C. Blood, urine and faecal metabolite profiles in the study of adult renal disease. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2016;589:81-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These metabolite levels capture a snap-shot of the metabolic profile of the individual, allowing for the potential identification of early biomarkers, and ..
  32. Biswal S, Das D, Barhwal K, Kumar A, Nag T, Thakur M, et al. Epigenetic Regulation of SNAP25 Prevents Progressive Glutamate Excitotoxicty in Hypoxic CA3 Neurons. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:6133-6147 pubmed publisher
    ..investigations involving western blot and real-time PCR showed duration-dependent decrease in the expression of SNAP-25 resulting in reduced vesicular docking and synaptic remodeling...
  33. Qi H, Huang Q, Hung Y. Effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing water treatment in removing pesticide residues and its effect on produce quality. Food Chem. 2018;239:561-568 pubmed publisher
    ..EO) water treatment on the removal of pesticide residues (diazinon, cyprodinil and phosmet) from spinach, snap beans and grapes, and the effect on produce quality...
  34. Attaie R, Bsharat M, Mora Gutierrez A. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats. J Food Prot. 2016;79:1013-20 pubmed publisher
    ..the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests...
  35. Jarnecke A, Miller M, South S. Daily diary study of personality disorder traits: Momentary affect and cognitive appraisals in response to stressful events. Personal Disord. 2017;8:75-86 pubmed publisher
    ..noninterpersonal). PD features were measured with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2 (SNAP-2) diagnostic scores...
  36. Ujike H, Nomura A, Morita Y, Morio A, Okahisa Y, Kotaka T, et al. Multiple genetic factors in olanzapine-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients: a cohort study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:1416-22 pubmed
  37. Turriziani B, von Kriegsheim A, Pennington S. Protein-Protein Interaction Detection Via Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;919:383-396 pubmed
    ..complimentary methods, such as co-purification of entire complexes based on physico-chemical attributes, can give a snap-shot of the composition and dynamics of protein complexes on a global scale...
  38. Balkarli A, Sengul C, Tepeli E, Balkarlı H, Cobankara V. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap-25) gene polymorphism frequency in fibromyalgia syndrome and relationship with clinical symptoms. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014;15:191 pubmed publisher
    b>SNAP-25 protein is contributory to plasma membrane and synaptic vesicle fusions that are critical points in neurotransmission. SNAP-25 gene is associated with behavioral symptoms, personality and psychological disorders...
  39. Qin T, Liang T, Zhu D, Kang Y, Xie L, Dolai S, et al. Munc18b Increases Insulin Granule Fusion, Restoring Deficient Insulin Secretion in Type-2 Diabetes Human and Goto-Kakizaki Rat Islets with Improvement in Glucose Homeostasis. EBioMedicine. 2017;16:262-274 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Munc18b overexpression in normal islets increased only newcomer SG fusion. Therefore, Munc18b could potentially be deployed in human T2D to rescue the deficient GSIS. ..
  40. Wang B, Liu H, Cai C, Thabit M, Wang P, Li G, et al. Effect of dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum fertilizer on soil microbial community composition, enzyme activities and snap bean growth. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23:20728-20738 pubmed
    ..its effects on soil properties, phytotoxicity, microbial community composition, enzyme activities, and growth of snap bean in greenhouse...
  41. Al Daghri N, Costa A, Alokail M, Zanzottera M, Alenad A, Mohammed A, et al. Synaptosomal Protein of 25 kDa (Snap25) Polymorphisms Associated with Glycemic Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Patients. J Diabetes Res. 2016;2016:8943092 pubmed publisher
  42. Quinault A, Gausserès B, Bailbe D, Chebbah N, Portha B, Movassat J, et al. Disrupted dynamics of F-actin and insulin granule fusion in INS-1 832/13 beta-cells exposed to glucotoxicity: partial restoration by glucagon-like peptide 1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1862:1401-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of the subcortical actin network with a rupture of its interactions with t-SNARE proteins (Syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25), promoting insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13 β-cells...
  43. Gonelle Gispert C, Molinete M, Halban P, Sadoul K. Membrane localization and biological activity of SNAP-25 cysteine mutants in insulin-secreting cells. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 18):3197-205 pubmed
    The tSNARE SNAP-25 is expressed in pancreatic (beta)-cells and is involved in the regulated release of insulin...
  44. Brinkmalm A, Brinkmalm G, Honer W, Frölich L, Hausner L, Minthon L, et al. SNAP-25 is a promising novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarker for synapse degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Mol Neurodegener. 2014;9:53 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that synaptic proteins such as synaptotagmin and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) could be detected in pooled samples of cerebrospinal fluid, however these assays were not sensitive enough for ..
  45. Zhang P, Zhu S, Li Y, Zhao M, Liu M, Gao J, et al. Quantitative proteomics analysis to identify diffuse axonal injury biomarkers in rats using iTRAQ coupled LC-MS/MS. J Proteomics. 2016;133:93-99 pubmed publisher
  46. Kreutzberger A, Liang B, Kiessling V, Tamm L. Assembly and Comparison of Plasma Membrane SNARE Acceptor Complexes. Biophys J. 2016;110:2147-50 pubmed publisher
    ..dependent on interactions between the vesicle SNARE synaptobrevin-2 and the plasma membrane SNAREs syntaxin-1a and SNAP-25 with a 1:1:1 stoichiometry...
  47. Zhou M, Bavencoffe A, Pan H. Molecular Basis of Regulating High Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels by S-Nitrosylation. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:30616-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) rapidly reduced N-type currents when Cav2.2 was coexpressed with the Cavβ1 or Cavβ3 subunits in HEK293 cells...
  48. McGough J, McCracken J, Loo S, Manganiello M, Leung M, Tietjens J, et al. A candidate gene analysis of methylphenidate response in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48:1155-64 pubmed publisher
  49. Metzler Zebeli B, Lawlor P, Magowan E, Zebeli Q. Effect of Freezing Conditions on Fecal Bacterial Composition in Pigs. Animals (Basel). 2016;6: pubmed publisher
    ..collected and five aliquots of each prepared: (1) total DNA extracted immediately; (2) stored at -20 °C; (3) snap frozen and stored at -20 °C; (4) stored at -80 °C; and (5) snap frozen and stored at -80 °C...
  50. Sandirasegarane L, Charles R, Bourbon N, Kester M. NO regulates PDGF-induced activation of PKB but not ERK in A7r5 cells: implications for vascular growth arrest. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000;279:C225-35 pubmed
    ..Preincubation of A7r5 cells with the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) resulted in a biphasic regulation of PDGF-stimulated PKB-alpha phosphorylation and bioactivity...
  51. Unick J, Lang W, Williams S, Bond D, Egan C, Espeland M, et al. Objectively-assessed physical activity and weight change in young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14:165 pubmed publisher
    ..The SNAP Trial previously reported that two self-regulation approaches to weight gain prevention reduced weight gain over a ..
  52. Yamaletdinov R, Ivakhnenko O, Sedelnikova O, Shevchenko S, Pershin Y. Snap-through transition of buckled graphene membranes for memcapacitor applications. Sci Rep. 2018;8:3566 pubmed publisher
    Using computational and theoretical approaches, we investigate the snap-through transition of buckled graphene membranes...
  53. Sim Y, Koh A, Lim S, Yew S. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties. Forensic Sci Int. 2015;255:50-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without...
  54. Babaei Ghazani A, Roomizadeh P, Forogh B, Moeini Taba S, Abedini A, Kadkhodaie M, et al. Ultrasound-Guided Versus Landmark-Guided Local Corticosteroid Injection for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018;99:766-775 pubmed publisher
    ..4 electrodiagnostic parameters, including compound muscle action potential (CMAP), sensory nerve action potential (SNAP), distal motor latency (DML), and distal sensory latency (DSL)...
  55. Remenyi R, Roberts G, Zothner C, Merits A, Harris M. SNAP-tagged Chikungunya Virus Replicons Improve Visualisation of Non-Structural Protein 3 by Fluorescence Microscopy. Sci Rep. 2017;7:5682 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we used a microscopy-based approach to image CHIKV nsP3 inside human cells. The SNAP system consists of a self-labelling enzyme tag, which catalyses the covalent linking of exogenously supplemented ..
  56. Fernández Montes R, Blasi J, Busquets J, Montanya E, Nacher M. Fibronectin enhances soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein expression in cultured human islets. Pancreas. 2011;40:1153-5 pubmed publisher
  57. Barakauskas V, Moradian A, Barr A, Beasley C, Rosoklija G, Mann J, et al. Quantitative mass spectrometry reveals changes in SNAP-25 isoforms in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2016;177:44-51 pubmed publisher
    b>SNAP-25 and syntaxin are presynaptic terminal SNARE proteins altered in amount and function in schizophrenia...
  58. Hohman T, Dumitrescu L, Oksol A, Wagener M, Gifford K, Jefferson A. APOE allele frequencies in suspected non-amyloid pathophysiology (SNAP) and the prodromal stages of Alzheimer's Disease. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188501 pubmed publisher
    ..neurodegeneration (ND+) without β-amyloidosis (Aβ-) and labeled them with suspected non-AD pathophysiology (SNAP)...
  59. Goudie M, Pant J, Handa H. Liquid-infused nitric oxide-releasing (LINORel) silicone for decreased fouling, thrombosis, and infection of medical devices. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13623 pubmed publisher
    ..LINORel) material is created by incorporating the nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitroso-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and silicone oil in commercial medical grade silicone rubber tubing through a solvent swelling process...
  60. Sukumaran S, Lewandowski B, Qin Y, Kotha R, Bachmanov A, Margolskee R. Whole transcriptome profiling of taste bud cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7595 pubmed publisher
  61. Login G. A 5-year perspective on a removable overdenture appliance for a patient with osteonecrosis of the jaw, a mandibular resection, and rampant caries. J Prosthet Dent. 2016;116:172-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A Snap-On-Smile overdenture restored his opportunity for natural speech, occlusal function, and esthetics.
  62. da Silva R, Valadares Souza C, Souza G, Ambrosano G, Freitas D, Sant Ana E, et al. Changes in condylar volume and joint spaces after orthognathic surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018;47:511-517 pubmed publisher
    ..volumetric analysis of changes in condylar volume were performed using Dolphin 3D Imaging in association with ITK-SNAP 3.0.0 segmentation software...
  63. Lin Y, Liang H, Xu K, Ni H, Dong J, Xiao H, et al. Dissociation of nNOS from PSD-95 promotes functional recovery after cerebral ischaemia in mice through reducing excessive tonic GABA release from reactive astrocytes. J Pathol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The GAT-3/4-selective antagonist SNAP-5114 reduced tonic inhibition and promoted function recovery, suggesting that increased tonic inhibition in the ..
  64. Steele Adjognon M, Weatherspoon D. Double Up Food Bucks program effects on SNAP recipients' fruit and vegetable purchases. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:946 pubmed publisher
    ..Policy recommendations include either removing or lowering the purchase hurdle for incentive eligibility and dropping the Michigan grown requirement to better align with the customers' preferences for fresh fruits and vegetables. ..
  65. Costello N, Deighton K, Dyson J, McKenna J, Jones B. Snap-N-Send: A valid and reliable method for assessing the energy intake of elite adolescent athletes. Eur J Sport Sci. 2017;17:1044-1055 pubmed publisher
    ..players recorded their energy intake via an estimated food diary (est-FD) and photography-based mobile assessment ('Snap-n-Send'), combined with a 24-h dietary recall interview...
  66. Guerriero G, Behr M, Legay S, Mangeot Peter L, Zorzan S, Ghoniem M, et al. Transcriptomic profiling of hemp bast fibres at different developmental stages. Sci Rep. 2017;7:4961 pubmed publisher
    ..transcriptomic signature and that the major changes in cell wall-related processes take place at the internode containing the snap point. The data generated also identify several interesting candidates for future functional analysis.
  67. Bergmans R, Berger L, Palta M, Robert S, Ehrenthal D, Malecki K. Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and maternal depressive symptoms: Moderation by program perception. Soc Sci Med. 2018;197:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have observed an association between participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and depression, which is contrary to SNAP's potential to alleviate food insecurity and financial strain...
  68. Scherk H, Backens M, Zill P, Schneider Axmann T, Wobrock T, Usher J, et al. SNAP-25 genotype influences NAA/Cho in left hippocampus. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2008;115:1513-8 pubmed publisher
    The SNAP-25 gene is an integral part of the vesicle docking and fusion machinery that controls neurotransmitter release...
  69. Cheema A, Rosenthal S, Ilyas Kamboh M. Proficiency of data interpretation: identification of signaling SNPs/specific loci for coronary artery disease. Database (Oxford). 2017;2017: pubmed publisher;
  70. Shi Y, Qin N, Zhou Q, Chen Y, Huang S, Chen B, et al. Role of IQGAP3 in metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human hepatocellular carcinoma. J Transl Med. 2017;15:176 pubmed publisher
    ..We used 120 archived clinical HCC samples, 9 snap-frozen HCC tumor tissues, and 4 normal liver tissues...
  71. Gnanasekar M, Suleman F, Ramaswamy K, Caldwell J. Identification of sex hormone binding globulin-interacting proteins in the brain using phage display screening. Int J Mol Med. 2009;24:421-6 pubmed
    ..Of the twenty binding proteins analyzed, three were found to be membrane-associated proteins: synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP25), Thy-1 cell surface antigen and zonadhesin...
  72. Yilmaz M, Edgünlü T, Yilmaz N, Cetin E, Çelik S, Emir G, et al. Genetic variants of synaptic vesicle and presynaptic plasma membrane proteins in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2014;34:38-43 pubmed publisher
    ..vesicle proteins (VAMP2 and Synaptotagmin XI) and two presynaptic plasma membrane proteins (Syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25) in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)...
  73. García Martínez A, Alenda C, Irles E, Ochoa E, Quintanar T, Rodriguez Lescure A, et al. Lack of cytomegalovirus detection in human glioma. Virol J. 2017;14:216 pubmed publisher
    ..detect the presence of HCMV in several samples of human glioma (94 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and 28 snap-frozen samples) by different sensitive techniques...
  74. Zhang Z, Takeuchi H, Gao J, Wang D, James D, Martin T, et al. PRIP (phospholipase C-related but catalytically inactive protein) inhibits exocytosis by direct interactions with syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 through its C2 domain. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:7769-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that the C2 domain of PRIP directly interacts with syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 but not with VAMP2. The C2 domain promoted PRIP to co-localize with syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 in PC12 cells...
  75. Schulz R, Dodge K, Lopaschuk G, Clanachan A. Peroxynitrite impairs cardiac contractile function by decreasing cardiac efficiency. Am J Physiol. 1997;272:H1212-9 pubmed
    ..metabolism in isolated working rat hearts and compared them with the NO donor S-nitroso-DL-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP)...
  76. Chang Y, Kim J, Chatterjee S. The Association Between Consumer Competency and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation on Food Insecurity. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2017;49:657-666.e1 pubmed publisher
    To examine whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants exhibited lower food insecurity when they also demonstrated desirable behaviors in the areas of financial management, nutrition literacy, and conscientious ..
  77. Mulik K, Haynes Maslow L. The Affordability of MyPlate: An Analysis of SNAP Benefits and the Actual Cost of Eating According to the Dietary Guidelines. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2017;49:623-631.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..The monthly cost for a family of 4 ranged from $1,109 to $1,249/mo. The monetary amount of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits may be insufficient to support a healthy diet recommended by federal nutrition guidelines. ..