SNAI1

Summary

Gene Symbol: SNAI1
Description: snail family transcriptional repressor 1
Alias: SLUGH2, SNA, SNAH, SNAIL, SNAIL1, dJ710H13.1, zinc finger protein SNAI1, protein sna, protein snail homolog 1, snail 1 homolog, snail 1 zinc finger protein, snail family zinc finger 1, snail homolog 1
Species: human
Products:     SNAI1

Top Publications

  1. Ikenouchi J, Matsuda M, Furuse M, Tsukita S. Regulation of tight junctions during the epithelium-mesenchyme transition: direct repression of the gene expression of claudins/occludin by Snail. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:1959-67 pubmed
    b>Snail is a transcription repressor that plays a central role in the epithelium-mesenchyme transition (EMT), by which epithelial cells lose their polarity...
  2. Hipp S, Berg D, Ergin B, Schuster T, Hapfelmeier A, Walch A, et al. Interaction of Snail and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase results in shorter overall survival of ovarian cancer patients. Virchows Arch. 2010;457:705-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, over-expression of the E-cadherin repressor Snail, a key regulator of EMT, has previously been found to be associated with unfavourable prognostic features...
  3. Kim N, Kim H, Li X, Lee I, Choi H, Kang S, et al. A p53/miRNA-34 axis regulates Snail1-dependent cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:417-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail1 is a zinc finger transcriptional repressor whose pathological expression has been linked to cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs and the induction of tissue-invasive activity, but pro-oncogenic events ..
  4. Larriba M, Martín Villar E, Garcia J, Pereira F, Peña C, De Herreros A, et al. Snail2 cooperates with Snail1 in the repression of vitamin D receptor in colon cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:1459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, Snail1, an inducer of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was reported to inhibit VDR expression...
  5. Lin Y, Wu Y, Li J, Dong C, Ye X, Chi Y, et al. The SNAG domain of Snail1 functions as a molecular hook for recruiting lysine-specific demethylase 1. EMBO J. 2010;29:1803-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of EMT remains unclear. In this study, we identified that Snail1 interacted with histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1)...
  6. Mingot J, Vega S, Maestro B, Sanz J, Nieto M. Characterization of Snail nuclear import pathways as representatives of C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1452-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail proteins are C(2)H(2) class zinc finger transcription factors involved in different processes during embryonic development, as well as in several adult pathologies including cancer and organ fibrosis...
  7. Blechschmidt K, Kremmer E, Hollweck R, Mylonas I, Hofler H, Kremer M, et al. The E-cadherin repressor snail plays a role in tumor progression of endometrioid adenocarcinomas. Diagn Mol Pathol. 2007;16:222-8 pubmed
    ..protein E-cadherin acts as a tumor-suppressor protein and is down-regulated by the transcription factor Snail, whose expression was shown to be associated with estrogen receptor signaling...
  8. Larriba M, Casado Vela J, Pendás Franco N, Peña R, Garcia de Herreros A, Berciano M, et al. Novel snail1 target proteins in human colon cancer identified by proteomic analysis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10221 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor Snail1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process responsible for the acquisition of invasiveness during tumorigenesis...
  9. Yang M, Chen C, Chau G, Chiou S, Su C, Chou T, et al. Comprehensive analysis of the independent effect of twist and snail in promoting metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2009;50:1464-74 pubmed publisher
    ..2% and 51.5% of primary HCC samples, respectively. Overexpression of Snail, Twist, or Slug, the major regulators of EMT, was identified in 56.9%, 43.1%, and 51...

More Information

Publications93

  1. Wanami L, Chen H, Peiro S, Garcia de Herreros A, Bachelder R. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A stimulates Snail expression in breast tumor cells: implications for tumor progression. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:2448-53 pubmed publisher
    The E-cadherin transcriptional repressor Snail is a prognostic marker for metastatic breast carcinoma, as well as a critical determinant of tumor growth and recurrence...
  2. Stemmer V, de Craene B, Berx G, Behrens J. Snail promotes Wnt target gene expression and interacts with beta-catenin. Oncogene. 2008;27:5075-80 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor snail represses epithelial gene expression and thereby promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) and tumor invasion. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is also involved in EMT and was shown to activate snail...
  3. Sumual S, Saad S, Tang O, Yong R, McGinn S, Chen X, et al. Differential regulation of Snail by hypoxia and hyperglycemia in human proximal tubule cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:1689-97 pubmed publisher
    The centrality of the transcriptional regulator Snail in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), known to occur in models of diabetic nephropathy, has not been established...
  4. Sun M, Guo X, Qian X, Wang H, Yang C, Brinkman K, et al. Activation of the ATM-Snail pathway promotes breast cancer metastasis. J Mol Cell Biol. 2012;4:304-15 pubmed publisher
    ..and this hyperactivity correlates with elevated expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker, Snail. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that ATM regulates Snail stabilization by phosphorylation on Serine-100...
  5. Dave N, Guaita Esteruelas S, Gutarra S, Frias A, Beltran M, Peiro S, et al. Functional cooperation between Snail1 and twist in the regulation of ZEB1 expression during epithelial to mesenchymal transition. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12024-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail1 and Zeb1 are E-cadherin-transcriptional repressors induced during epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this article we have analyzed the factors controlling Zeb1 expression during EMT...
  6. Dhasarathy A, Phadke D, Mav D, Shah R, Wade P. The transcription factors Snail and Slug activate the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in breast cancer. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26514 pubmed publisher
    The transcriptional repressors Snail and Slug are situated at the core of several signaling pathways proposed to mediate epithelial to mesenchymal transition or EMT, which has been implicated in tumor metastasis...
  7. Tran D, Corsa C, Biswas H, Aft R, Longmore G. Temporal and spatial cooperation of Snail1 and Twist1 during epithelial-mesenchymal transition predicts for human breast cancer recurrence. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:1644-57 pubmed publisher
    ..to better mimic in vivo conditions we show, in both nontumorigenic and tumorigenic epithelial cancer cells, that Snail1 is uniquely required for EMT initiation, whereas Twist1 is required to maintain late EMT...
  8. Zhang L, Huang G, Li X, Zhang Y, Jiang Y, Shen J, et al. Hypoxia induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition via activation of SNAI1 by hypoxia-inducible factor -1? in hepatocellular carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:108 pubmed publisher
    ..Luciferase reporter system was used for evaluation of Snail regulation by hypoxia-inducible factor -1? (HIF-1?)...
  9. Huang W, Zhang Y, Varambally S, Chinnaiyan A, Banerjee M, Merajver S, et al. Inhibition of CCN6 (Wnt-1-induced signaling protein 3) down-regulates E-cadherin in the breast epithelium through induction of snail and ZEB1. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:893-904 pubmed publisher
    ..CCN6 knockdown in HME cells resulted in up-regulation of the E-cadherin transcriptional repressors Snail and ZEB1 and enhanced their recruitment and binding to the E-cadherin promoter as analyzed by chromatin ..
  10. Kim H, Litzenburger B, Cui X, Delgado D, Grabiner B, Lin X, et al. Constitutively active type I insulin-like growth factor receptor causes transformation and xenograft growth of immortalized mammary epithelial cells and is accompanied by an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition mediated by NF-kappaB and snail. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:3165-75 pubmed
    ..The EMT was mediated by the induction of the transcriptional repressor Snail and downregulation of E-cadherin...
  11. Wu Y, Deng J, Rychahou P, Qiu S, Evers B, Zhou B. Stabilization of snail by NF-kappaB is required for inflammation-induced cell migration and invasion. Cancer Cell. 2009;15:416-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that Snail is stabilized by the inflammatory cytokine TNFalpha through the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway...
  12. Francí C, Gallén M, Alameda F, Baró T, Iglesias M, Virtanen I, et al. Snail1 protein in the stroma as a new putative prognosis marker for colon tumours. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5595 pubmed publisher
    Over-expression of Snail1 gene transcriptional repressor promotes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in epithelial tumour cell lines...
  13. Massoumi R, Kuphal S, Hellerbrand C, Haas B, Wild P, Spruss T, et al. Down-regulation of CYLD expression by Snail promotes tumor progression in malignant melanoma. J Exp Med. 2009;206:221-32 pubmed publisher
    High malignancy and early metastasis are hallmarks of melanoma. Here, we report that the transcription factor Snail1 inhibits expression of the tumor suppressor CYLD in melanoma...
  14. Bezdekova M, Brychtova S, Sedlakova E, Langova K, Brychta T, Belej K. Analysis of Snail-1, E-cadherin and claudin-1 expression in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13:1632-43 pubmed publisher
    We report the expression of Snail-1, E-cadherin and claudin-1 by indirect immunohistochemistry in colonic neoplasia...
  15. Dominguez D, Montserrat Sentis B, Virgós Soler A, Guaita S, Grueso J, Porta M, et al. Phosphorylation regulates the subcellular location and activity of the snail transcriptional repressor. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5078-89 pubmed
    The Snail gene product is a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin expression and an inducer of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in several epithelial tumor cell lines...
  16. Yook J, Li X, Ota I, Fearon E, Weiss S. Wnt-dependent regulation of the E-cadherin repressor snail. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:11740-8 pubmed
    ..The zinc finger transcription factor, Snail, functions as a potent repressor of E-cadherin expression that can, acting alone or in concert with the Wnt/beta-..
  17. Viñas Castells R, Beltran M, Valls G, Gomez I, Garcia J, Montserrat Sentis B, et al. The hypoxia-controlled FBXL14 ubiquitin ligase targets SNAIL1 for proteasome degradation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3794-805 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor SNAIL1 is a master regulator of epithelial to mesenchymal transition...
  18. Bachelder R, Yoon S, Franci C, De Herreros A, Mercurio A. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is an endogenous inhibitor of Snail transcription: implications for the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:29-33 pubmed
    ..Importantly, GSK-3 inhibition also stimulates the transcription of Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin and an inducer of the EMT...
  19. Zhu L, Hu Y, Yang C, Xu X, Ning T, Wang Z, et al. Snail overexpression induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-like properties in SCC9 cells. Lab Invest. 2012;92:744-52 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Snail is a transcriptional factor that can induce EMT and preserve stem-cell function, which may induce resistance to ..
  20. Lim S, Kim H, Jung G. p53 inhibits tumor cell invasion via the degradation of snail protein in hepatocellular carcinoma. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:2231-6 pubmed publisher
    The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a key regulator of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Snail protein regulates cancer-associated malignancies...
  21. Batlle E, Sancho E, Franci C, Dominguez D, Monfar M, Baulida J, et al. The transcription factor snail is a repressor of E-cadherin gene expression in epithelial tumour cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:84-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the transcription factor Snail, which is expressed by fibroblasts and some E-cadherin-negative epithelial tumour cell lines, binds to three E-..
  22. Ohkubo T, Ozawa M. The transcription factor Snail downregulates the tight junction components independently of E-cadherin downregulation. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1675-85 pubmed
    b>Snail, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin expression, is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transitions during development. We demonstrate that Snail activity is not restricted to E-cadherin downregulation...
  23. Lin T, Ponn A, Hu X, Law B, Lu J. Requirement of the histone demethylase LSD1 in Snai1-mediated transcriptional repression during epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Oncogene. 2010;29:4896-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Members of the Snai1 family of zinc finger transcription factors are central mediators of EMT and induce EMT in part by directly ..
  24. McKeithen D, Graham T, Chung L, Odero Marah V. Snail transcription factor regulates neuroendocrine differentiation in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2010;70:982-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail transcription factor induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via decreased cell adhesion-associated molecules like E-cadherin, and increased mesenchymal markers like vimentin...
  25. Kojc N, Zidar N, Gale N, Poljak M, Fujs Komlos K, Cardesa A, et al. Transcription factors Snail, Slug, Twist, and SIP1 in spindle cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Virchows Arch. 2009;454:549-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim is to analyze the expression of transcription repressors Snail, Slug, Twist, and SIP1 in SpCC of the head and neck in comparison to SCC, matched for location and stage...
  26. Hsu D, Lan H, Huang C, Tai S, Chang S, Tsai T, et al. Regulation of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 by Snail contributes to cisplatin resistance in head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:4561-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopic expression of Snail or short-interference RNA-mediated repression of Snail or ERCC1 was done in HNSCC cell lines...
  27. Wang H, Wang H, Zhou B, Li C, Zhang F, Wang X, et al. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by TNF-? requires AKT/GSK-3?-mediated stabilization of snail in colorectal cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56664 pubmed publisher
    ..TNF? treatment also increased the expression of transcription factor Snail, but not Slug, ZEB1 and Twist...
  28. Medici D, Hay E, Olsen B. Snail and Slug promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition through beta-catenin-T-cell factor-4-dependent expression of transforming growth factor-beta3. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4875-87 pubmed publisher
    Members of the Snail family of transcription factors have been shown to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a fundamental mechanism of embryogenesis and progressive disease...
  29. Thuault S, Tan E, Peinado H, Cano A, Heldin C, Moustakas A. HMGA2 and Smads co-regulate SNAIL1 expression during induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these, we analyzed in detail the zinc-finger transcription factor SNAIL1, which plays key roles in tumor progression and EMT...
  30. Kroepil F, Fluegen G, Totikov Z, Baldus S, Vay C, Schauer M, et al. Down-regulation of CDH1 is associated with expression of SNAI1 in colorectal adenomas. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46665 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we tested whether the important regulators of E-cadherin expression SNAI1 and TWIST1 are already detectable in human colorectal adenomas...
  31. Roy H, Smyrk T, Koetsier J, Victor T, Wali R. The transcriptional repressor SNAIL is overexpressed in human colon cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:42-6 pubmed
    Overexpression of the transcriptional repressor, SNAIL, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of malignancies; however, there are no previous reports on the role of SNAIL in colorectal cancers (CRCs)...
  32. Zhou B, Deng J, Xia W, Xu J, Li Y, Gunduz M, et al. Dual regulation of Snail by GSK-3beta-mediated phosphorylation in control of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:931-40 pubmed
    ..b>Snail, a zinc-finger transcription factor, triggers this process by repressing E-cadherin expression; however, the ..
  33. Ota I, Li X, Hu Y, Weiss S. Induction of a MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP-dependent basement membrane transmigration program in cancer cells by Snail1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20318-23 pubmed publisher
    ..the invasive phenotype has been linked to the aberrant expression of zinc-finger transcriptional repressors, like Snail1, which act by triggering an epithelial-mesenchymal cell-like transformation (EMT-like) via the regulation of ..
  34. Pena C, Garcia J, Larriba M, Barderas R, Gomez I, Herrera M, et al. SNAI1 expression in colon cancer related with CDH1 and VDR downregulation in normal adjacent tissue. Oncogene. 2009;28:4375-85 pubmed publisher
    b>SNAI1, ZEB1, E-cadherin (CDH1), and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes regulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that initiates the invasion process of many tumor cells...
  35. Kim C, Jeon H, Lee S, Ju M, Moon J, Park H, et al. Implication of snail in metabolic stress-induced necrosis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18000 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the transcription factor Snail, a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is induced in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent ..
  36. Yokoyama K, Kamata N, Fujimoto R, Tsutsumi S, Tomonari M, Taki M, et al. Increased invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression by Snail-induced mesenchymal transition in squamous cell carcinomas. Int J Oncol. 2003;22:891-8 pubmed
    ..b>Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor that triggers the EMT and is one of the recently identified E-cadherin ..
  37. Imai T, Horiuchi A, Wang C, Oka K, Ohira S, Nikaido T, et al. Hypoxia attenuates the expression of E-cadherin via up-regulation of SNAIL in ovarian carcinoma cells. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:1437-47 pubmed
    ..In addition, hypoxia-induced change in the expression of SNAIL, a transcriptional factor repressing E-cadherin expression, was also analyzed...
  38. MacPherson M, Molina P, Souchelnytskyi S, Wernstedt C, Martin Perez J, Portillo F, et al. Phosphorylation of serine 11 and serine 92 as new positive regulators of human Snail1 function: potential involvement of casein kinase-2 and the cAMP-activated kinase protein kinase A. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:244-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail1 is a major factor for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important event in tumor metastasis and in other pathologies. Snail1 is tightly regulated at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels...
  39. Fan F, Samuel S, Evans K, Lu J, Xia L, Zhou Y, et al. Overexpression of snail induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and a cancer stem cell-like phenotype in human colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Med. 2012;1:5-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, EMT was shown to be associated with the cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype in breast cancer. Snail is a transcription factor that mediates EMT in a number of tumor types, including colorectal cancer (CRC)...
  40. Guaita S, Puig I, Franci C, Garrido M, Dominguez D, Batlle E, et al. Snail induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in tumor cells is accompanied by MUC1 repression and ZEB1 expression. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39209-16 pubmed
    ..Recent evidence implicates the transcription factor Snail in the blockage of E-cadherin expression in fibroblasts and some epithelial tumor cells through direct binding to ..
  41. Heebøll S, Borre M, Ottosen P, Dyrskjøt L, Orntoft T, Tørring N. Snail1 is over-expressed in prostate cancer. APMIS. 2009;117:196-204 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factor Snail1 is a mediator of cell migration and survival, and expression is elevated in several cancer types. The Snail1 gene is reportedly amplified in prostate cancer (PC), and we investigated Snail1 expression in PC...
  42. Deshiere A, Duchemin Pelletier E, Spreux E, Ciais D, Combes F, Vandenbrouck Y, et al. Unbalanced expression of CK2 kinase subunits is sufficient to drive epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by Snail1 induction. Oncogene. 2013;32:1373-83 pubmed publisher
    ..EMT-like morphological changes, enhanced migration, and anchorage-independent growth, all of which require Snail1 induction...
  43. Hu Z, Liu X, Tang Z, Zhou Y, Qiao L. Possible regulatory role of Snail in NF-?B-mediated changes in E-cadherin in gastric cancer. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:993-1000 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the involvement of Snail in NF-?B-mediated changes of E-cadherin in gastric cancer...
  44. Lee S, Lee S, Jung Y, Xu Y, Kang H, Ha N, et al. Blocking of p53-Snail binding, promoted by oncogenic K-Ras, recovers p53 expression and function. Neoplasia. 2009;11:22-31, 6p following 31 pubmed
    ..abrogates p53 function and expression through induction of Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related mediated Snail stabilization...
  45. Colvin Wanshura L, Galvin K, Ye H, Fernandez Zapico M, Wetmore C. Sequential activation of Snail1 and N-Myc modulates sonic hedgehog-induced transformation of neural cells. Cancer Res. 2011;71:5336-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that the transcription factor and oncogene Snail1 (Sna1) is directly induced by Shh pathway activity in GCPs, murine medulloblastomas, and human medulloblastoma ..
  46. Hipp S, Walch A, Schuster T, Losko S, Laux H, Bolton T, et al. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor results in snail protein but not mRNA overexpression in endometrial cancer. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:3858-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor Snail is known as one of the most prominent transcriptional E-cadherin repressors; its regulation in cancer tissues, ..
  47. Evans A, Russell R, Roche O, Burry T, Fish J, Chow V, et al. VHL promotes E2 box-dependent E-cadherin transcription by HIF-mediated regulation of SIP1 and snail. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:157-69 pubmed
    ..cells markedly reduced the expression of E2 box-dependent E-cadherin-specific transcriptional repressors Snail and SIP1 and concomitantly restored E-cadherin expression...
  48. Smith B, Odero Marah V. The role of Snail in prostate cancer. Cell Adh Migr. 2012;6:433-41 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Snail, a master regulator of EMT, has been extensively studied and reported in cancers such as breast and colon; however,..
  49. Hajra K, Chen D, Fearon E. The SLUG zinc-finger protein represses E-cadherin in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2002;62:1613-8 pubmed
    ..Two zinc-finger transcription factors known to bind E-box elements, SLUG and SNAIL, repressed E-cadherin-driven reporter gene constructs containing wild-type promoter sequences but not those with ..
  50. Barberà M, Puig I, Dominguez D, Julien Grille S, Guaita Esteruelas S, Peiro S, et al. Regulation of Snail transcription during epithelial to mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. Oncogene. 2004;23:7345-54 pubmed
    Expression of Snail transcriptional factor is a determinant in the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype by epithelial tumor cells. However, the regulation of the transcription of this gene is still unknown...
  51. Siemens H, Jackstadt R, Hünten S, Kaller M, Menssen A, Götz U, et al. miR-34 and SNAIL form a double-negative feedback loop to regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transitions. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:4256-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that activation of p53 down-regulates the EMT-inducing transcription factor SNAIL via induction of the miR-34a/b/c genes...
  52. Fan X, Wan X, Yang Z, Fu X, Huang Y, Chen D, et al. Snail promotes lymph node metastasis and Twist enhances tumor deposit formation through epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer. Hum Pathol. 2013;44:173-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail and Twist, transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin as well as inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, play pivotal roles in tumor invasion and metastasis...
  53. Yamasaki H, Sekimoto T, Ohkubo T, Douchi T, Nagata Y, Ozawa M, et al. Zinc finger domain of Snail functions as a nuclear localization signal for importin beta-mediated nuclear import pathway. Genes Cells. 2005;10:455-64 pubmed
    b>Snail, a DNA-binding zinc finger protein, functions as a transcriptional repressor for genes including E-cadherin during development and the acquisition of tumor cell invasiveness...
  54. Wu Y, Evers B, Zhou B. Small C-terminal domain phosphatase enhances snail activity through dephosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:640-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Snail, a key transcription repressor of E-cadherin, is a labile protein with a short half-life and is regulated through ..
  55. Franci C, Takkunen M, Dave N, Alameda F, Gomez S, Rodriguez R, et al. Expression of Snail protein in tumor-stroma interface. Oncogene. 2006;25:5134-44 pubmed
    The product of Snail gene is a repressor of E-cadherin transcription and an inductor of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in several epithelial tumor cell lines...
  56. Sato Y, Harada K, Itatsu K, Ikeda H, Kakuda Y, Shimomura S, et al. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by transforming growth factor-{beta}1/Snail activation aggravates invasive growth of cholangiocarcinoma. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:141-52 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-beta1 also induced the nuclear expression of Snail, and the invasive activity was significantly increased in both cell lines...
  57. Hou Z, Peng H, Ayyanathan K, Yan K, Langer E, Longmore G, et al. The LIM protein AJUBA recruits protein arginine methyltransferase 5 to mediate SNAIL-dependent transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3198-207 pubmed publisher
    The SNAIL transcription factor contains C-terminal tandem zinc finger motifs and an N-terminal SNAG repression domain...
  58. Peinado H, Ballestar E, Esteller M, Cano A. Snail mediates E-cadherin repression by the recruitment of the Sin3A/histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1)/HDAC2 complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:306-19 pubmed
    The transcription factor Snail has been described as a direct repressor of E-cadherin expression during development and carcinogenesis; however, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remain largely unknown...
  59. Emadi Baygi M, Soheili Z, Schmitz I, Sameie S, Schulz W. Snail regulates cell survival and inhibits cellular senescence in human metastatic prostate cancer cell lines. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2010;26:553-67 pubmed publisher
    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regarded as an important step in cancer metastasis. Snail, a master regulator of EMT, has been recently proposed to act additionally as a cell survival factor and inducer of motility...
  60. Yoshino J, Monkawa T, Tsuji M, Inukai M, Itoh H, Hayashi M. Snail1 is involved in the renal epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;362:63-8 pubmed
    ..transition (EMT) in kidney diseases is becoming increasingly recognized, and the transcription factor Snail1 plays a critical role in EMT...
  61. Mikami S, Katsube K, Oya M, Ishida M, Kosaka T, Mizuno R, et al. Expression of Snail and Slug in renal cell carcinoma: E-cadherin repressor Snail is associated with cancer invasion and prognosis. Lab Invest. 2011;91:1443-58 pubmed publisher
    The Snail family transcription factors have been proposed as important mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition because of their role in down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)...
  62. Yook J, Li X, Ota I, Hu C, Kim H, Kim N, et al. A Wnt-Axin2-GSK3beta cascade regulates Snail1 activity in breast cancer cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:1398-406 pubmed
    ..tumour cell dedifferentiation and tissue-invasive activity through an Axin2-dependent pathway that stabilizes the Snail1 zinc-transcription factor, a key regulator of normal and neoplastic EMT programmes...
  63. Dong C, Wu Y, Yao J, Wang Y, Yu Y, Rychahou P, et al. G9a interacts with Snail and is critical for Snail-mediated E-cadherin repression in human breast cancer. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1469-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, Snail interacted with G9a, a major euchromatin methyltransferase responsible for H3K9me2, and recruited G9a and DNA ..
  64. Franz M, Spiegel K, Umbreit C, Richter P, Codina Canet C, Berndt A, et al. Expression of Snail is associated with myofibroblast phenotype development in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Histochem Cell Biol. 2009;131:651-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail is a regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and considered crucial to carcinoma metastasis, myofibroblast transdifferentiation, and fibroblast activation...
  65. Geradts J, De Herreros A, Su Z, Burchette J, Broadwater G, Bachelder R. Nuclear Snail1 and nuclear ZEB1 protein expression in invasive and intraductal human breast carcinomas. Hum Pathol. 2011;42:1125-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail1 and ZEB1 are transcriptional repressors that drive tumor initiation and metastasis in animal models...
  66. Rosivatz E, Becker K, Kremmer E, Schott C, Blechschmidt K, Hofler H, et al. Expression and nuclear localization of Snail, an E-cadherin repressor, in adenocarcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Virchows Arch. 2006;448:277-87 pubmed
    Transcriptional E-cadherin down-regulation can be mediated by Snail, a zinc finger transcription factor...
  67. Yang M, Chang S, Chiou S, Liu C, Chi C, Chen P, et al. Overexpression of NBS1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and co-expression of NBS1 and Snail predicts metastasis of head and neck cancer. Oncogene. 2007;26:1459-67 pubmed
    ..NBS1 overexpression upregulated the expression of an EMT regulator Snail and its downstream target matrix metalloproteinase-2...
  68. Olmeda D, Moreno Bueno G, Flores J, Fabra A, Portillo F, Cano A. SNAI1 is required for tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. Cancer Res. 2007;67:11721-31 pubmed
    The transcription factor, SNAI1 (Snail), has recently been proposed as an important mediator of tumor invasion because of its role in E-cadherin down-regulation and induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
  69. van Nes J, de Kruijf E, Putter H, Faratian D, Munro A, Campbell F, et al. Co-expression of SNAIL and TWIST determines prognosis in estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;133:49-59 pubmed publisher
    ..EMT is loss of E-cadherin and gain of N-cadherin expression, which are regulated by transcription factors, such as SNAIL, SLUG, and TWIST...
  70. Peña C, Garcia J, Silva J, Garcia V, Rodriguez R, Alonso I, et al. E-cadherin and vitamin D receptor regulation by SNAIL and ZEB1 in colon cancer: clinicopathological correlations. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:3361-70 pubmed
    E-cadherin (CDH1) gene expression is strictly regulated. The transcriptional factors SNAIL and ZEB1 are involved in its repression, whereas activation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) by vitamin D induces its transcription...
  71. Pérez Mancera P, Perez Caro M, González Herrero I, Flores T, Orfao A, de Herreros A, et al. Cancer development induced by graded expression of Snail in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:3449-61 pubmed
    The zinc-finger transcription factor Snail is believed to trigger epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) during cancer progression...
  72. Zhang K, Rodriguez Aznar E, Yabuta N, Owen R, Mingot J, Nojima H, et al. Lats2 kinase potentiates Snail1 activity by promoting nuclear retention upon phosphorylation. EMBO J. 2012;31:29-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail1 is a central regulator of epithelial cell adhesion and movement in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) during embryo development; a process reactivated during cancer metastasis...
  73. Rodriguez M, González Flores A, Dantzer F, Collard J, de Herreros A, Oliver F. Poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent regulation of Snail1 protein stability. Oncogene. 2011;30:4365-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail1 is a master regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and has been implicated in key tumor biological processes such as invasion and metastasis...
  74. Blanco M, Moreno Bueno G, Sarrio D, Locascio A, Cano A, Palacios J, et al. Correlation of Snail expression with histological grade and lymph node status in breast carcinomas. Oncogene. 2002;21:3241-6 pubmed
    b>Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor that triggers the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by directly repressing E-cadherin expression...
  75. Peinado H, Del Carmen Iglesias de la Cruz M, Olmeda D, Csiszar K, Fong K, Vega S, et al. A molecular role for lysyl oxidase-like 2 enzyme in snail regulation and tumor progression. EMBO J. 2005;24:3446-58 pubmed
    The transcription factor Snail controls epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) by repressing E-cadherin expression and other epithelial genes...
  76. Blechschmidt K, Sassen S, Schmalfeldt B, Schuster T, Hofler H, Becker K. The E-cadherin repressor Snail is associated with lower overall survival of ovarian cancer patients. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:489-95 pubmed
    ..The role of the E-cadherin repressor Snail in ovarian cancer progression remains to be elucidated...
  77. Elloul S, Elstrand M, Nesland J, Trope C, Kvalheim G, Goldberg I, et al. Snail, Slug, and Smad-interacting protein 1 as novel parameters of disease aggressiveness in metastatic ovarian and breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2005;103:1631-43 pubmed
    It was demonstrated previously that the Snail family of transcription factors and Smad-interacting protein 1 (Sip1) regulate E-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) expression, cellular morphology, and invasion in carcinoma...
  78. Beach S, Tang H, Park S, Dhillon A, Keller E, Kolch W, et al. Snail is a repressor of RKIP transcription in metastatic prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2008;27:2243-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the expression of RKIP negatively correlates with that of Snail zinc-transcriptional repressor, a key modulator of normal and neoplastic epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) ..
  79. Tuhkanen H, Soini Y, Kosma V, Anttila M, Sironen R, Hamalainen K, et al. Nuclear expression of Snail1 in borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours is associated with tumour progression. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:289 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factor Snail1 has a central role in induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
  80. Kajita M, McClinic K, Wade P. Aberrant expression of the transcription factors snail and slug alters the response to genotoxic stress. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7559-66 pubmed
    b>Snail and Slug are closely related transcriptional repressors involved in embryonic patterning during metazoan development...
  81. Jouppila Mättö A, Tuhkanen H, Soini Y, Pukkila M, Närkiö Mäkelä M, Sironen R, et al. Transcription factor snail1 expression and poor survival in pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Histol Histopathol. 2011;26:443-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail1, a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays an important role in tumour progression. Previous studies of snail1 have mainly focused on the epithelial tumour cells...
  82. Park S, Kim H, Kim N, Ji S, Cha S, Kang J, et al. Snail1 is stabilized by O-GlcNAc modification in hyperglycaemic condition. EMBO J. 2010;29:3787-96 pubmed publisher
    ..O-phosphorylation of serine by glycogen synthase kinase-3? on Snail1, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin and a key regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) ..
  83. Savita U, Karunagaran D. MicroRNA-106b-25 cluster targets ?-TRCP2, increases the expression of Snail and enhances cell migration and invasion in H1299 (non small cell lung cancer) cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;434:841-7 pubmed publisher
    ..TRCP2-3'UTR reporter assay revealed that its activity in CL cells was only 60% of that in EV cells. Snail protein expression was higher in CL than that in EV cells and H1299 cells exhibited an increase in the expression ..
  84. Han S, Kim J, Han M, Sim H, Kim K, Yoon S, et al. SNAI1 is involved in the proliferation and migration of glioblastoma cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011;31:489-96 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SNAI1, an important regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, has been associated with metastasis in various ..