smooth muscle actin


Gene Symbol: smooth muscle actin
Description: actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta
Alias: ACTSA, actin, aortic smooth muscle, alpha-cardiac actin, cell growth-inhibiting gene 46 protein
Species: human
Products:     smooth muscle actin

Top Publications

  1. Yoder A, Yu D, Dong L, Iyer S, Xu X, Kelly J, et al. HIV envelope-CXCR4 signaling activates cofilin to overcome cortical actin restriction in resting CD4 T cells. Cell. 2008;134:782-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, induction of active cofilin greatly facilitates it. These findings shed light on viral exploitation of cellular machinery in resting T cells, where chemokine receptor signaling becomes obligatory. ..
  2. Guo D, Papke C, Tran Fadulu V, Regalado E, Avidan N, Johnson R, et al. Mutations in smooth muscle alpha-actin (ACTA2) cause coronary artery disease, stroke, and Moyamoya disease, along with thoracic aortic disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;84:617-27 pubmed publisher
  3. Spear M, Guo J, Wu Y. The trinity of the cortical actin in the initiation of HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2012;9:45 pubmed publisher
    ..It is the purpose of this review to examine, in detail, the manifestation of viral dependence on the actin cytoskeleton, and present a model of how HIV utilizes actin dynamics to initiate infection. ..
  4. Liu B, Dai R, Tian C, Dawson L, Gorelick R, Yu X. Interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid with actin. J Virol. 1999;73:2901-8 pubmed
  5. Morisaki H, Akutsu K, Ogino H, Kondo N, Yamanaka I, Tsutsumi Y, et al. Mutation of ACTA2 gene as an important cause of familial and nonfamilial nonsyndromatic thoracic aortic aneurysm and/or dissection (TAAD). Hum Mutat. 2009;30:1406-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings confirm that ACTA2 mutations are important in familial TAAD, while the first sporadic and young-onset TAAD case with an ACTA2 mutation was also identified. ..
  6. Gladnikoff M, Shimoni E, Gov N, Rousso I. Retroviral assembly and budding occur through an actin-driven mechanism. Biophys J. 2009;97:2419-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study show that retroviruses utilize the cell cytoskeleton to expedite their assembly and budding. ..
  7. Renard M, Callewaert B, Baetens M, Campens L, MacDermot K, Fryns J, et al. Novel MYH11 and ACTA2 mutations reveal a role for enhanced TGF? signaling in FTAAD. Int J Cardiol. 2013;165:314-21 pubmed publisher
    ..that build up the contractile apparatus of aortic smooth muscle cells (myosin heavy chain 11, MYH11; smooth muscle actin alpha 2, ACTA2; and MYLK)...
  8. Sakai H, Suzuki S, Mizuguchi T, Imoto K, Yamashita Y, Doi H, et al. Rapid detection of gene mutations responsible for non-syndromic aortic aneurysm and dissection using two different methods: resequencing microarray technology and next-generation sequencing. Hum Genet. 2012;131:591-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Next-generation sequencing was able to detect almost all types of mutation, but requires improved informatics methods. ..
  9. Ott D, Coren L, Kane B, Busch L, Johnson D, Sowder R, et al. Cytoskeletal proteins inside human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions. J Virol. 1996;70:7734-43 pubmed
    ..Our analysis of proteins within virus particles detected proteolytic fragments of alpha-smooth muscle actin and moesin that were cleaved at sites which might be recognized by HIV-1 protease...

More Information

Publications120 found, 100 shown here

  1. Readinger J, Schiralli G, Jiang J, Thomas C, August A, Henderson A, et al. Selective targeting of ITK blocks multiple steps of HIV replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6684-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that inhibition of ITK blocks HIV infection by affecting multiple steps of HIV replication. ..
  2. Milewicz D, Østergaard J, Ala Kokko L, Khan N, Grange D, Mendoza Londono R, et al. De novo ACTA2 mutation causes a novel syndrome of multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction. Am J Med Genet A. 2010;152A:2437-43 pubmed publisher
  3. Rey O, Canon J, Krogstad P. HIV-1 Gag protein associates with F-actin present in microfilaments. Virology. 1996;220:530-4 pubmed
    ..In vivo and in vitro analyses of this interaction indicated that the unprocessed Gag polyprotein is capable of association with polymerized actin (F-actin). Binding of Gag to F-actin may be involved in the assembly or budding of HIV-1. ..
  4. Bukrinskaya A, Brichacek B, Mann A, Stevenson M. Establishment of a functional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription complex involves the cytoskeleton. J Exp Med. 1998;188:2113-25 pubmed
  5. Wilk T, Gowen B, Fuller S. Actin associates with the nucleocapsid domain of the human immunodeficiency virus Gag polyprotein. J Virol. 1999;73:1931-40 pubmed
    ..The same result was obtained when mature HIV-1 particles were disrupted with detergent. Taken together, these results indicate that actin molecules are associated with the NC domain of the viral polyprotein. ..
  6. Ibarrondo F, Choi R, Geng Y, Canon J, Rey O, Baldwin G, et al. HIV type 1 Gag and nucleocapsid proteins: cytoskeletal localization and effects on cell motility. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001;17:1489-500 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that interactions between HIV-1 Gag and actin in infected cells enhance cell motility. Ultimately this enhanced motility of infected cells could promote the dissemination of virus into the brain and other tissues. ..
  7. Jolly C, Mitar I, Sattentau Q. Requirement for an intact T-cell actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient assembly and spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2007;81:5547-60 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, we propose that HIV-1 requires both actin and tubulin components of the T-cell cytoskeleton to direct its assembly and budding and to elaborate a functional VS. ..
  8. Stolp B, Abraham L, Rudolph J, Fackler O. Lentiviral Nef proteins utilize PAK2-mediated deregulation of cofilin as a general strategy to interfere with actin remodeling. J Virol. 2010;84:3935-48 pubmed publisher
  9. Warrilow D, Harrich D. HIV-1 replication from after cell entry to the nuclear periphery. Curr HIV Res. 2007;5:293-9 pubmed
    ..An actin-transport process may then facilitate the remaining short journey to the nuclear membrane. ..
  10. Gordón Alonso M, Rocha Perugini V, Alvarez S, Moreno Gonzalo O, Ursa A, López Martín S, et al. The PDZ-adaptor protein syntenin-1 regulates HIV-1 entry. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2253-63 pubmed publisher
  11. Nogi M, Satoh K, Sunamura S, Kikuchi N, Satoh T, Kurosawa R, et al. SmgGDS Prevents Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Formation and Rupture by Phenotypic Preservation of Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells. Circulation. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..b>Conclusions -These results suggest that SmgGDS is a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of TAA. ..
  12. Vastrad B, Vastrad C, Tengli A, Iliger S. Identification of differentially expressed genes regulated by molecular signature in breast cancer-associated fibroblasts by bioinformatics analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2018;297:161-183 pubmed publisher
  13. Mitarai H, Wada N, Hasegawa D, Yoshida S, Sonoda M, Tomokiyo A, et al. Transgelin mediates transforming growth factor-?1-induced proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells. J Periodontal Res. 2017;52:984-993 pubmed publisher
    ..highly expressed PDL markers such as periostin (POSTN), tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), ?-smooth muscle actin (ACTA2) and type I collagen A1 (COL1A1), was significantly higher than those in 2-52 cells that expressed ..
  14. Selvan L, Sreenivasamurthy S, Kumar S, Yelamanchi S, Madugundu A, Anil A, et al. Characterization of host response to Cryptococcus neoformans through quantitative proteomic analysis of cryptococcal meningitis co-infected with HIV. Mol Biosyst. 2015;11:2529-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the brain proteome profile of cryptococcal meningitis co-infected with HIV for a better understanding of the host response associated with the disease. ..
  15. Klein S, Frohn F, Magdaleno F, Reker Smit C, Schierwagen R, Schierwagen I, et al. Rho-kinase inhibitor coupled to peptide-modified albumin carrier reduces portal pressure and increases renal perfusion in cirrhotic rats. Sci Rep. 2019;9:2256 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, targeting the ROCK inhibitor Y27 to PDGFRβ decreases portal pressure with potential beneficial effects in the kidney. This unique approach should be tested in human cirrhosis. ..
  16. van der Veen J, Lingrell S, Gao X, Quiroga A, Takawale A, Armstrong E, et al. Pioglitazone attenuates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G526-38 pubmed publisher
    ..and lowered mRNA levels of collagen type I?1 (Col1a1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (Timp1), ?-smooth muscle actin (Acta2), and transforming growth factor-? (Tgf-?)...
  17. Rodansky E, Johnson L, Huang S, Spence J, Higgins P. Intestinal organoids: a model of intestinal fibrosis for evaluating anti-fibrotic drugs. Exp Mol Pathol. 2015;98:346-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified myofibroblasts, the key effector cells of fibrosis, by immunofluorescence staining for alpha-smooth muscle actin (?SMA), vimentin, and desmin...
  18. Lacey M, Baribault C, Ehrlich K, Ehrlich M. Atherosclerosis-associated differentially methylated regions can reflect the disease phenotype and are often at enhancers. Atherosclerosis. 2019;280:183-191 pubmed publisher
    ..SMC-related genes that exhibited hypermethylated DMRs at aorta enhancer chromatin were ACTA2 (aorta α2 smooth muscle actin), ELN (elastin), MYOCD (myocardin), C9orf3 (miR-23b and miR-27b host gene), and MYH11 (smooth muscle myosin)..
  19. Liu J, Yang P, Zuo G, He S, Tan W, Zhang X, et al. Long-chain fatty acid activates hepatocytes through CD36 mediated oxidative stress. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17:153 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrated that LCFA facilitates hepatocyte activation by up-regulating oxidative stress through CD36, which could be an important mechanism in the development of hepatic fibrosis. ..
  20. Morrison M, Mulder P, Salic K, Verheij J, Liang W, van Duyvenvoorde W, et al. Intervention with a caspase-1 inhibitor reduces obesity-associated hyperinsulinemia, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in LDLR-/-.Leiden mice. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016;40:1416-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the importance of inflammasome/caspase-1 in the development of NASH and demonstrate that therapeutic intervention in the already ongoing disease process is feasible. ..
  21. Cho E, Kang H, Kang D, Lee Y. Myocardial-specific ablation of Jumonji and AT-rich interaction domain-containing 2 (Jarid2) leads to dilated cardiomyopathy in mice. J Biol Chem. 2019;294:4981-4996 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we demonstrate that ablation of Jarid2 in cardiomyocytes results in DCM and suggest that Jarid2 plays important roles in cardiomyocyte maturation during neonatal stages. ..
  22. Kikuchi A, Pradhan Sundd T, Singh S, Nagarajan S, Loizos N, Monga S. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor α Contributes to Human Hepatic Stellate Cell Proliferation and Migration. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2273-2287 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support a distinct contribution of PDGFRα signaling to HSC proliferation and migration and provide evidence that inhibition of PDGFRα signaling could alter the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. ..
  23. Livingston M, Ding H, Huang S, Hill J, Yin X, Dong Z. Persistent activation of autophagy in kidney tubular cells promotes renal interstitial fibrosis during unilateral ureteral obstruction. Autophagy. 2016;12:976-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, proliferation and activation of fibroblasts, as indicated by the expression of ACTA2/?-smooth muscle actin and VIM (vimentin), was inhibited in PT-Atg7 KO mice, so was the accumulation of extracellular matrix ..
  24. Thiersch M, Rimann M, Panagiotopoulou V, Öztürk E, Biedermann T, Textor M, et al. The angiogenic response to PLL-g-PEG-mediated HIF-1α plasmid DNA delivery in healthy and diabetic rats. Biomaterials. 2013;34:4173-4182 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that - depending on the selection of the therapeutic target gene - PLL-g-PEG nanocondensates are a promising alternative to viral DNA delivery approaches, which might pose a risk to health. ..
  25. Goulet C, Champagne A, Bernard G, Vandal D, Chabaud S, Pouliot F, et al. Cancer-associated fibroblasts induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition of bladder cancer cells through paracrine IL-6 signalling. BMC Cancer. 2019;19:137 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CAFs promote aggressive phenotypes of non-invasive bladder cancer cells through an EMT induced by the secretion of IL-6. ..
  26. Kurahara L, Sumiyoshi M, Aoyagi K, Hiraishi K, Nakajima K, Nakagawa M, et al. Intestinal myofibroblast TRPC6 channel may contribute to stenotic fibrosis in Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015;21:496-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar changes observed in stenotic areas of patients with CD suggest the therapeutic significance of targeting TRPC6. ..
  27. Grgurevic L, Erjavec I, Grgurevic I, Dumic Cule I, Brkljacic J, Verbanac D, et al. Systemic inhibition of BMP1-3 decreases progression of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Growth Factors. 2017;35:201-215 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that BMP1-3 inhibitors have significant potential for decreasing the progression of fibrosis in liver cirrhosis. ..
  28. Zou X, Ramachandran P, Kendall T, Pellicoro A, Dora E, Aucott R, et al. 11?HSD1 deficiency or inhibition enhances hepatic myofibroblast activation in murine liver fibrosis. Hepatology. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo UE2316 administration prior to chemical injury recapitulated findings in Hsd11b1-/- mice, including greater fibrosis...
  29. Gao Y, Duran S, Lydon J, DeMayo F, Burghardt R, Bayless K, et al. Constitutive activation of transforming growth factor Beta receptor 1 in the mouse uterus impairs uterine morphology and function. Biol Reprod. 2015;92:34 pubmed publisher
    ..TGFB ligands activated SMAD2/3 and stimulated the expression of a smooth muscle maker gene, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), in human uterine smooth muscle cells...
  30. McGowan S, McCoy D. Regulation of fibroblast lipid storage and myofibroblast phenotypes during alveolar septation in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;307:L618-31 pubmed publisher
  31. Iaconetti C, De Rosa S, Polimeni A, Sorrentino S, Gareri C, Carino A, et al. Down-regulation of miR-23b induces phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;107:522-33 pubmed publisher
    ..By luciferase reporter assay, we validated the transcription factor FoxO4 as a direct target of miR-23b in VSMCs. We identify miR-23b as a novel regulator of VSMC phenotypic switch in vitro and following vascular injury in vivo. ..
  32. Wang Z, Martorell B, Wälchli T, Vogel O, Fischer J, Born W, et al. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors are important to maintain cerebrovascular reactivity in chronic hypertension. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0123697 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in wt only Calclr expression was reduced by about 70% parallel to an increase of smooth muscle actin (Acta2) expression...
  33. Chen Y, Wei J, Wang J, Lee H, Chiang E, Lai H, et al. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from human ligamentum flavum: implicating etiology of ligamentum flavum hypertrophy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:E1193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..To demonstrate the existence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in ligamentum flavum (LF) and their pathogenic role in LF hypertrophy...
  34. Lerner Ellis J, Aldubayan S, Hernandez A, Kelly M, Stuenkel A, Walsh J, et al. The spectrum of FBN1, TGF?R1, TGF?R2 and ACTA2 variants in 594 individuals with suspected Marfan Syndrome, Loeys-Dietz Syndrome or Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections (TAAD). Mol Genet Metab. 2014;112:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The evaluation of patients by individuals with expertise in the field may decrease the likelihood of ordering unnecessary molecular testing. Nevertheless, genetic testing supports the diagnosis of MFS, LDS and TAAD. ..
  35. Kamada S, Nakano Y, Kakunaga T. Structure of 3'-downstream segment of the human smooth muscle (aortic-type) alpha-actin-encoding gene and isolation of the specific DNA probe. Gene. 1989;84:455-62 pubmed
    ..7-kb RNA transcript in an aortic tissue-specific manner. ..
  36. Takano K, Kawasaki Y, Imaizumi T, Matsuura H, Nozawa R, Tannji M, et al. Development of glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes and mesangial cells in the human fetus and infant. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2007;212:81-90 pubmed staining fetal and infant kidneys for CD31, CD34 and FB21, markers for endothelial cells, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), a marker for mesangial cells, and nephrin, a marker for podocytes...
  37. Moller H, Fledelius H, Milewicz D, Regalado E, Ostergaard J. Eye features in three Danish patients with multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:1227-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The ophthalmologist should act in close collaboration with other specialists owing to the risk of aortic and cerebrovascular diseases and other complications associated with this disorder. ..
  38. Seet L, Toh L, Chu S, Finger S, Chua J, Wong T. Upregulation of distinct collagen transcripts in post-surgery scar tissue: a study of conjunctival fibrosis. Dis Model Mech. 2017;10:751-760 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that distinct collagen transcripts are expressed at high levels in the conjunctiva after surgery and their unique expression profiles may imply differential influences on the fibrotic outcome. ..
  39. Liu Z, Chang A, Grinnell F, Trybus K, Milewicz D, Stull J, et al. Vascular disease-causing mutation, smooth muscle ?-actin R258C, dominantly suppresses functions of ?-actin in human patient fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E5569-E5578 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cellular defects due to this ACTA2 mutation in both aortic smooth muscle cells and adventitial fibroblasts may contribute to development of TAAD and proliferative occlusive vascular disease. ..
  40. Okayasu I, Yoshida T, Mikami T, Hana K, Yokozawa M, Araki K, et al. Mucosal remodeling in long-standing ulcerative colitis with colorectal neoplasia: significant alterations of NCAM+ or alpha-SMA+ subepithelial myofibroblasts and interstitial cells. Pathol Int. 2009;59:701-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Heterogeneous phenotypes of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)+ and/or alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA)+ subepithelial myofibroblasts and interstitial cells were demonstrated, corresponding to ..
  41. Anand A, Zhao H, Nagaraja T, Robinson L, Ganju R. N-terminal Slit2 inhibits HIV-1 replication by regulating the actin cytoskeleton. Retrovirology. 2013;10:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study, thus, provides insights into the role of Slit2N in HIV-1 infection and underscores its potential in limiting viral replication in T-cells...
  42. Mullin B, Mamotte C, Prince R, Wilson S. Influence of ARHGEF3 and RHOA knockdown on ACTA2 and other genes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98116 pubmed publisher
    ..This adds further evidence to previous studies suggesting a role for the ARHGEF3 and RHOA genes in bone metabolism. ..
  43. Bu S, Kuijer R, van der Worp R, Postma G, Renardel de Lavalette V, Li X, et al. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Idiopathic Epiretinal Membranes and In Vitro Studies on the Effect of TGF-β on Müller Cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:6506-14 pubmed publisher idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) and the role of TGF-β in the expression of collagens and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in retinal Müller cells...
  44. Al Mohaissen M, Allanson J, O Connor M, Veinot J, Brandys T, Maharajh G, et al. Brachial artery occlusion in a young adult with an ACTA2 thoracic aortic aneurysm. Vasc Med. 2012;17:326-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This expands the spectrum of vascular disease associated with ACTA2 mutation to include acute limb ischemia. ..
  45. Kerviel A, Thomas A, Chaloin L, Favard C, Muriaux D. Virus assembly and plasma membrane domains: which came first?. Virus Res. 2013;171:332-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism involves the trapping of acidic lipids by the viral Gag protein by means of ionic protein-lipid interactions, inducing thereby formation of acidic lipid-enriched microdomains (ALEM). ..
  46. Eriksson O, Asplund A, Hegde G, Edqvist P, Navani S, Ponten F, et al. A stromal cell population in the large intestine identified by tissue factor expression that is lost during colorectal cancer progression. Thromb Haemost. 2016;116:1050-1059 pubmed
    ..Our results highlight the role of the tumour stroma in this cancer type and suggest TF to be a potential prognostic biomarker in rectal cancers through the identification of pericryptal sheath cells. ..
  47. Zhang D, Jin N, Sun W, Li X, Liu B, Xie Z, et al. Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 promotes cancer cell migration independent of its metabolic activity. Oncogene. 2017;36:2900-2909 pubmed publisher
    ..A proteomic study identified α-smooth muscle actin (ACTA2) as a PGAM1-associated protein...
  48. Alsafadi H, Staab Weijnitz C, Lehmann M, Lindner M, Peschel B, Königshoff M, et al. An ex vivo model to induce early fibrosis-like changes in human precision-cut lung slices. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;312:L896-L902 pubmed publisher
  49. Kedes L, Ng S, Lin C, Gunning P, Eddy R, Shows T, et al. The human beta-actin multigene family. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1985;98:42-6 pubmed
  50. Pilloni L, Bianco P, Manieli C, Senes G, Coni P, Atzori L, et al. Immunoreactivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin characterizes a potentially aggressive subgroup of little basal cell carcinomas. Eur J Histochem. 2009;53:113-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to verify if also little (<3 cm) basal cell carcinomas can express immunohistochemical markers typical for an aggressive behaviour. ..
  51. Milewicz D, Trybus K, Guo D, Sweeney H, Regalado E, KAMM K, et al. Altered Smooth Muscle Cell Force Generation as a Driver of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:26-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, disruption of the ability of the aortic SMC to generate force through the elastin-contractile units in response to pulsatile blood flow may be a primary driver for thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. ..
  52. Shimojima K, Yamamoto T. ACTA2 is not a major disease-causing gene for moyamoya disease. J Hum Genet. 2009;54:687-8 pubmed publisher
  53. Schiralli Lester G, Akiyama H, Evans E, Singh J, Gummuluru S, Henderson A. Interleukin 2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) facilitates efficient egress of HIV-1 by coordinating Gag distribution and actin organization. Virology. 2013;436:235-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide insight as to how ITK influences HIV-1 replication and suggest that targeting host factors that regulate HIV-1 egress provides an innovative strategy for controlling HIV infection. ..
  54. Arora P, McCulloch C. Dependence of collagen remodelling on alpha-smooth muscle actin expression by fibroblasts. J Cell Physiol. 1994;159:161-75 pubmed
    To study the relation between expression of the putative myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin and the remodelling of extracellular matrix, immunocytochemical, gel electrophoresis, and collagen gel contraction studies were ..
  55. Lu F, Ogawa R, Nguyen D, Chen B, Guo D, Helm D, et al. Microdeformation of three-dimensional cultured fibroblasts induces gene expression and morphological changes. Ann Plast Surg. 2011;66:296-300 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Smooth muscle actin alpha 2 (Acta2, ?-SMA) was up-regulated after 72 hours...
  56. Augière C, Mégy S, El Malti R, Boland A, el Zein L, Verrier B, et al. A Novel Alpha Cardiac Actin (ACTC1) Mutation Mapping to a Domain in Close Contact with Myosin Heavy Chain Leads to a Variety of Congenital Heart Defects, Arrhythmia and Possibly Midline Defects. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0127903 pubmed publisher
    ..Alpha-cardiac actin mutations lead to congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathies and eventually midline defects. The consequence of an ACTC1 mutation may in part be dependent on the interaction surface between actin and myosin. ..
  57. Rumora A, Ferris L, Wheeler T, Kelm R. Electrostatic and Hydrophobic Interactions Mediate Single-Stranded DNA Recognition and Acta2 Repression by Purine-Rich Element-Binding Protein B. Biochemistry. 2016;55:2794-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings establish the repertoire of noncovalent interactions that account for the unique structural and functional properties of Purβ. ..
  58. Yeung K, Bogunovic N, Keekstra N, Beunders A, Pals J, van der Kuij K, et al. Transdifferentiation of Human Dermal Fibroblasts to Smooth Muscle-Like Cells to Study the Effect of MYH11 and ACTA2 Mutations in Aortic Aneurysms. Hum Mutat. 2017;38:439-450 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, direct conversion of human dermal fibroblasts into SMC-like cells is a highly efficient method to investigate the pathogenicity of variants in proteins of the SMC contractile apparatus. ..
  59. Reddy S, Ozgur K, Lu M, Chang W, Mohan S, Kumar C, et al. Structure of the human smooth muscle alpha-actin gene. Analysis of a cDNA and 5' upstream region. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:1683-7 pubmed
    ..Conserved sequences encompass a region required for expression and tissue-specific regulation of chicken smooth muscle alpha-actin and therefore are probably also important for expression of the human gene. ..
  60. Itakura T, Peters D, Fini M. Glaucomatous MYOC mutations activate the IL-1/NF-κB inflammatory stress response and the glaucoma marker SELE in trabecular meshwork cells. Mol Vis. 2015;21:1071-84 pubmed
    ..This is the first evidence that glaucoma-causing MYOC mutants can activate the inflammatory response and that wild-type MYOC has anti-inflammatory activity. ..
  61. Karimi A, Milewicz D. Structure of the Elastin-Contractile Units in the Thoracic Aorta and How Genes That Cause Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections Disrupt This Structure. Can J Cardiol. 2016;32:26-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these data suggest that functional SMC elastin-contractile units are important for maintaining the structural integrity of the aorta. ..
  62. Han S, Choi W, Song J, Kim J, Lee S, Choi Y, et al. The Implication of Substance P in the Development of Tendinopathy: A Case Control Study. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Substance P plays a crucial role in tendinopathy development and could be a future therapeutic target for treatment. ..
  63. Coiras M, Camafeita E, Ureña T, Lopez J, Caballero F, Fernández B, et al. Modifications in the human T cell proteome induced by intracellular HIV-1 Tat protein expression. Proteomics. 2006;6 Suppl 1:S63-73 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, in addition to its role in viral mRNA elongation, the proteomic approach has provided insight into the way that Tat modifies host cell gene expression. ..
  64. Lee H, Park Y, Lee S, Cho H, Kim D, Lee J, et al. Alpha-smooth muscle actin (ACTA2) is required for metastatic potential of human lung adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:5879-89 pubmed publisher
    ..identified a link between early brain metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma and amplification of the α-smooth muscle actin (ACTA2) gene...
  65. Uynuk Ool T, Rothdiener M, Walters B, Hegemann M, Palm J, Nguyen P, et al. The geometrical shape of mesenchymal stromal cells measured by quantitative shape descriptors is determined by the stiffness of the biomaterial and by cyclic tensile forces. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2017;11:3508-3522 pubmed publisher
    ..Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd...
  66. Sanchez Diaz P, Chang J, Moses E, Dao T, Chen Y, Hung J. Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (UCHL1) is associated with stem-like cancer cell functions in pediatric high-grade glioma. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176879 pubmed publisher
    ..UCHL1 might act as an oncogene in glioma within the gene network that imparts stem-like characteristics to these cancer cells. ..
  67. Li J, Zhou Q, He X, Cheng Y, Wang D. [Expression of miR-146b in peripheral blood serum and aortic tissues in patients with acute type Stanford A aortic dissection and its clinical significance]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2017;42:1136-1142 pubmed publisher
  68. Disabella E, Grasso M, Gambarin F, Narula N, Dore R, Favalli V, et al. Risk of dissection in thoracic aneurysms associated with mutations of smooth muscle alpha-actin 2 (ACTA2). Heart. 2011;97:321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Timely diagnosis of TAAD in the probands, genetic counselling and family screening identify predisposed relatives and prevent catastrophic aortic dissections. ..
  69. Yoo E, Choi S, Jang S, Suh Y, Lee I, Song J, et al. Clinical, pathological, and genetic analysis of a Korean family with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections carrying a novel Asp26Tyr mutation. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2010;40:278-84 pubmed
    ..This study expands the spectrum of mutations of the ACTA2 gene by identifying a novel missense mutation. This is the first report of a pathologically- and genetically-confirmed family with TAAD in Korea. ..
  70. Grigore D, Simionescu C, Stepan A, Mărgăritescu C, Bălăşoiu M, Georgescu C, et al. Assessment of CD105, ?-SMA and VEGF expression in gastric carcinomas. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2013;54:701-7 pubmed
    ..05). Angiogenesis evaluated through the VEGF and MVD (CD105+ and ?-SMA+) expression is correlated with the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer and could be considered a prognostic marker of these tumors. ..
  71. Yeung H. Large Pupils in Infancy. . .Suspected Aniridia. Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome secondary to an ACTA2 mutation. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:7-8 pubmed publisher
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    ..01). Y27632 inhibited SiO?-induced ?-SMA expression significantly, and the inhibition rate of 20 and 30 ?mol/L Y27632 was 68% and 75%, respectively (P<0.01). Rho signaling pathway may mediate SiO? induced ?-SMA expression in HBECs. ..
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