SMO

Summary

Gene Symbol: SMO
Description: smoothened, frizzled class receptor
Alias: CRJS, FZD11, SMOH, smoothened homolog, frizzled family member 11, protein Gx, seven transmembrane helix receptor, smoothened, frizzled family receptor, smoothened, seven transmembrane spanning receptor
Species: human
Products:     SMO

Top Publications

  1. Incardona J, Gruenberg J, Roelink H. Sonic hedgehog induces the segregation of patched and smoothened in endosomes. Curr Biol. 2002;12:983-95 pubmed
    ..signal transduction involves the ligand binding Patched1 (Ptc1) protein and a signaling component, Smoothened (Smo)...
  2. Brastianos P, Horowitz P, Santagata S, Jones R, McKenna A, Getz G, et al. Genomic sequencing of meningiomas identifies oncogenic SMO and AKT1 mutations. Nat Genet. 2013;45:285-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of meningiomas lacking NF2 alterations harbored recurrent oncogenic mutations in AKT1 (p.Glu17Lys) and SMO (p.Trp535Leu) and exhibited immunohistochemical evidence of activation of these pathways...
  3. Sweeney R, McClary A, Myers B, Biscocho J, Neahring L, Kwei K, et al. Identification of recurrent SMO and BRAF mutations in ameloblastomas. Nat Genet. 2014;46:722-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in SMO (encoding Smoothened, SMO) are common in ameloblastomas of the maxilla, whereas BRAF mutations are predominant in ..
  4. Xie J, Murone M, Luoh S, Ryan A, Gu Q, Zhang C, et al. Activating Smoothened mutations in sporadic basal-cell carcinoma. Nature. 1998;391:90-2 pubmed
    ..of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) to its receptor, PTCH, is thought to prevent normal inhibition by PTCH of Smoothened (SMO), a seven-span transmembrane protein...
  5. Yan T, Angelini M, Alman B, Andrulis I, Wunder J. Patched-one or smoothened gene mutations are infrequent in chondrosarcoma. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:2184-9 pubmed publisher
    ..hedgehog pathway activation such as basal cell cancer frequently harbor PATCHED-ONE (PTCH-1) or SMOOTHENED (SMO) gene mutations...
  6. Chen W, Ren X, Nelson C, Barak L, Chen J, Beachy P, et al. Activity-dependent internalization of smoothened mediated by beta-arrestin 2 and GRK2. Science. 2004;306:2257-60 pubmed
    Binding of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) to Patched (Ptc) relieves the latter's tonic inhibition of Smoothened (Smo), a receptor that spans the cell membrane seven times...
  7. De Rivoyre M, Ruel L, Varjosalo M, Loubat A, Bidet M, Therond P, et al. Human receptors patched and smoothened partially transduce hedgehog signal when expressed in Drosophila cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28584-95 pubmed
    ..We also provide experiments showing that human Smo, when expressed in Schneider cells, is able to bind the alkaloid cyclopamine, suggesting that it is expressed in a ..
  8. Wang C, Wu H, KATRITCH V, Han G, Huang X, Liu W, et al. Structure of the human smoothened receptor bound to an antitumour agent. Nature. 2013;497:338-43 pubmed publisher
    The smoothened (SMO) receptor, a key signal transducer in the hedgehog signalling pathway, is responsible for the maintenance of normal embryonic development and is implicated in carcinogenesis...
  9. Taipale J, Cooper M, Maiti T, Beachy P. Patched acts catalytically to suppress the activity of Smoothened. Nature. 2002;418:892-7 pubmed
    Mutations affecting the transmembrane proteins Patched (Ptc) or Smoothened (Smo) that trigger ligand-independent activity of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway are associated with human tumours such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and ..

More Information

Publications133 found, 100 shown here

  1. Yauch R, Dijkgraaf G, Alicke B, Januario T, Ahn C, Holcomb T, et al. Smoothened mutation confers resistance to a Hedgehog pathway inhibitor in medulloblastoma. Science. 2009;326:572-4 pubmed publisher
    ..GDC-0449, a drug that inhibits Hh signaling by targeting the serpentine receptor Smoothened (SMO), has produced promising anti-tumor responses in early clinical studies of cancers driven by mutations in this ..
  2. Stone D, Hynes M, Armanini M, Swanson T, Gu Q, Johnson R, et al. The tumour-suppressor gene patched encodes a candidate receptor for Sonic hedgehog. Nature. 1996;384:129-34 pubmed
    ..These findings, combined with available genetic evidence from Drosophila, support the hypothesis that Ptc is a receptor for Shh, and that vSmo could be a signalling component that is linked to Ptc. ..
  3. Reifenberger J, Wolter M, Weber R, Megahed M, Ruzicka T, Lichter P, et al. Missense mutations in SMOH in sporadic basal cell carcinomas of the skin and primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. Cancer Res. 1998;58:1798-803 pubmed
    ..transmembrane receptor for the Sonic hedgehog protein (Shh) and interacts with another transmembrane protein called Smoh. To further elucidate the significance of alterations in the Shh signaling pathway, we investigated 31 sporadic ..
  4. Rominger C, Bee W, Copeland R, Davenport E, Gilmartin A, Gontarek R, et al. Evidence for allosteric interactions of antagonist binding to the smoothened receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;329:995-1005 pubmed publisher
    The Smoothened receptor (Smo) mediates hedgehog (Hh) signaling critical for development, cell growth, and migration, as well as stem cell maintenance...
  5. Liu M, Su M, Tang D, Hao L, Xun X, Huang Y. Ligustrazin increases lung cell autophagy and ameliorates paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR and hedgehog signalling via increasing miR-193a expression. BMC Pulm Med. 2019;19:35 pubmed publisher
    ..mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), sonic hedgehog (SHH), myosin-like Bcl2 interacting protein (LC3), smoothened (Smo), and glioma-associated oncogene-1 (Gli-1) mRNAs were determined with quantitative real-time PCR...
  6. Martens M, Seebode C, Lehmann J, Emmert S. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies: An Update. Anticancer Res. 2018;38:1153-1158 pubmed
    ..Preventative measures include adequate use of sun protection and skin cancer screening at regular intervals, as well as the use of chemopreventative agents. ..
  7. Shen X, Cheng S, Peng Y, Song H, Li H. Attenuation of early liver fibrosis by herbal compound "Diwu Yanggan" through modulating the balance between epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:418 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that after DWYG treatment the expressions of Hh ligand Shh, receptor Smo and Ptc, and transcription factor Gli1 in CCl4-induced fibrotic liver tissues were dramatically repressed...
  8. Audsley N, Down R. G protein coupled receptors as targets for next generation pesticides. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;67:27-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence fundamental knowledge of the roles and functions of receptors is vital for development to proceed. ..
  9. Li Y, Fu C, Yang W, Wang X, Feng D, Wang X, et al. Investigation of constituents from Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl and evaluation of their anti-inflammatory properties in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;221:37-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Episesaminone (SMO, 22) and 3S-(+)-9-oxonerolidol (NLD, 24) blocked NF-?B activation via inducing I?B? expression...
  10. Smirnova O, Keinänen T, Ivanova O, Hyvonen M, Khomutov A, Kochetkov S, et al. Hepatitis C virus alters metabolism of biogenic polyamines by affecting expression of key enzymes of their metabolism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;483:904-909 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, both HCV core and NS5A induce sustained expression of spermine oxidase (SMO), an enzyme that catalyzes conversion of spermine into spermidine...
  11. Du K, Hyun J, Premont R, Choi S, Michelotti G, Swiderska Syn M, et al. Hedgehog-YAP Signaling Pathway Regulates Glutaminolysis to Control Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells. Gastroenterology. 2018;154:1465-1479.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary HSCs were isolated from C57BL/6 or Smoflox/flox mice; we also performed studies with rat and human myofibroblastic HSCs...
  12. Datta I, Mishra S, Mohanty L, Pulikkot S, Joshi P. Neuronal plasticity of human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells to the dopaminergic cell type compared with human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Cytotherapy. 2011;13:918-32 pubmed publisher
    ..populations of cells in both sources of MSC were positive for the SHH receptors [patched (PTCH) and smoothened (SMO)]...
  13. Zhu S, Jiang N, Yang J, Tu J, Zhou Y, Xiao X, et al. Silybum marianum oil attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in high fat diet-fed mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;100:191-197 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, the effects of Silybum marianum oil (SMO) on hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress were investigated during the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
  14. Arisan E, Obakan P, Coker Gurkan A, Calcabrini A, Agostinelli E, Unsal N. CDK inhibitors induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through the activation of polyamine catabolic pathway in LNCaP, DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20:180-8 pubmed
    ..Similarly to classical chemotherapeutic agents, both drugs could up-regulate polyamine catabolic enzymes (SSAT, SMO and PAO) in cell type dependent manner...
  15. Chen J, Wu D, Li T, Yang K, Cheng L, Zhou Z, et al. Arylurea Derivatives: A Class of Potential Cancer Targeting Agents. Curr Top Med Chem. 2017;17:3099-3130 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF-1R), Fmslike Tyrosine Kinase 3 (FLT3), c-Kit, MET, and Smoothened (Smo); (3) PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway inhibitors; (4) cell cycle inhibitors, their targets include Checkpoint ..
  16. Lv T, Shen L, Yang L, Diao W, Yang Z, Zhang Y, et al. Polydatin ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by decreasing oxidative stress and apoptosis partially via Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Int Immunopharmacol. 2018;64:256-263 pubmed publisher
    ..After polydatin treatment, the main components of the Shh pathway, including Shh, Patched (Ptc), Smoothened (Smo), and glioblastoma-1 (Gli1), were upregulated at the mRNA and protein levels...
  17. Zhang F, Hao M, Jin H, Yao Z, Lian N, Wu L, et al. Canonical hedgehog signalling regulates hepatic stellate cell-mediated angiogenesis in liver fibrosis. Br J Pharmacol. 2017;174:409-423 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiogenesis was concomitant with up-regulation of Smoothened (SMO) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in rat fibrotic liver...
  18. Cheng L, Schneider B, Li L. A bioinformatics approach for precision medicine off-label drug drug selection among triple negative breast cancer patients. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016;23:741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Tyrosine Kinase 6 (PTK6), Topoisomerase (DNA) I, Mitochondrial (TOP1MT), Smoothened, Frizzled Class Receptor (SMO), etc...
  19. Qin T, Li B, Feng X, Fan S, Liu L, Liu D, et al. Abnormally elevated USP37 expression in breast cancer stem cells regulates stemness, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cisplatin sensitivity. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018;37:287 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of USP37 significantly decreased hedgehog (Hh) pathway components Smo and Gli-1. Gli-1 was stabilized by USP37 and they interacted with each other...
  20. Yuzawa S, Nishihara H, Yamaguchi S, Mohri H, Wang L, Kimura T, et al. Clinical impact of targeted amplicon sequencing for meningioma as a practical clinical-sequencing system. Mod Pathol. 2016;29:708-16 pubmed publisher
    ..designed amplicon-sequencing panels targeting eight genes including NF2 (neurofibromin 2), TRAF7, KLF4, AKT1, and SMO. Libraries prepared with genomic DNA extracted from PAXgene-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 103 meningioma ..
  21. Patel S, Mahindroo N, Udayabanu M. Urtica dioica leaves modulates hippocampal smoothened-glioma associated oncogene-1 pathway and cognitive dysfunction in chronically stressed mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;83:676-686 pubmed publisher
    ..05) as compared to control mice. CUS significantly downregulated Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.01), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.01), TrKB (p<0.01) and MAPK1 (p<0...
  22. Sun Q, Bai J, Lv R. Hedgehog/Gli1 signal pathway facilitates proliferation, invasion, and migration of cutaneous SCC through regulating VEGF. Tumour Biol. 2016;: pubmed
    ..effects of the HH signaling pathway, and cyclopamine on patched 1 (Ptch1), smoothened/frizzled class receptor (Smo) and VEGF expressions were assessed in A431 cells based on western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain ..
  23. McVeigh P, McCammick E, McCusker P, Wells D, Hodgkinson J, Paterson S, et al. Profiling G protein-coupled receptors of Fasciola hepatica identifies orphan rhodopsins unique to phylum Platyhelminthes. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2018;8:87-103 pubmed publisher
    ..This catalogue of liver fluke GPCRs provides a platform for new avenues into our understanding of flatworm biology and anthelmintic discovery. ..
  24. Dobbs R, Kalmanek E, Choe S, Harrington D, Stupp S, McVary K, et al. Sonic hedgehog regulation of cavernous nerve regeneration and neurite formation in aged pelvic plexus. Exp Neurol. 2019;312:10-19 pubmed publisher
    ..of growth cones normalized by tissue perimeter (mm) and immunohistochemistry for SHH, patched1 (PTCH1), smoothened (SMO), GLI1-3, and GAP43 were performed. SHH treatment increased neurites 3.5-fold, in uninjured adult, and 5...
  25. Skoda A, Simovic D, Karin V, Kardum V, Vranic S, Serman L. The role of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in cancer: A comprehensive review. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2018;18:8-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Sonic Hh [SHh], Indian Hh [IHh], and Desert Hh [DHh]), Patched receptor (Ptch1, Ptch2), Smoothened receptor (Smo), Suppressor of fused homolog (Sufu), kinesin protein Kif7, protein kinase A (PKA), and cyclic adenosine ..
  26. Lee J, Kim E, Han S, Kang K, Heo J. Evaluating the oxysterol combination of 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 20(S)-hydroxycholesterol in periodontal regeneration using periodontal ligament stem cells and alveolar bone healing models. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:276 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxysterols also increased protein levels of the hedgehog (Hh) receptor Smo and the transcription factor Gli1. We further confirmed the reciprocal reaction between the LXRs and Hh signaling...
  27. Xu T, Xu G, Gu Z, Wu H. Hedgehog signal expression in articular cartilage of rat temporomandibular joint and association with adjuvant-induced osteoarthritis. J Oral Pathol Med. 2017;46:284-291 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of Hh signal-related proteins including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), patched-1 (Ptch1), smoothened (Smo), glioma-associated oncogene homologue1 (Gli1) in cartilage was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot...
  28. Hu B, Liu J, Wu Z, Liu T, Ullenbruch M, Ding L, et al. Reemergence of hedgehog mediates epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk in pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2015;52:418-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that SHH could induce myofibroblast differentiation in human lung fibroblasts in a Smo- and Gli1-dependent manner...
  29. Choe C, Shin Y, Kim C, Choi S, Lee J, Kim S, et al. Crosstalk with cancer-associated fibroblasts induces resistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition. Onco Targets Ther. 2015;8:3665-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that crosstalk with CAFs plays a critical role in resistance of lung cancer to EGFR TKIs through induction of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and may be an ideal therapeutic target in lung cancer. ..
  30. Desch P, Asslaber D, Kern D, Schnidar H, Mangelberger D, Alinger B, et al. Inhibition of GLI, but not Smoothened, induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Oncogene. 2010;29:4885-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Profiling of cognate Hh pathway members revealed reduced expression of two key Hh signaling effectors, Smoothened (SMOH) and GLI, in CLL cells, whereas transcription levels of other investigated members resembled normal B-lymphocyte ..
  31. Garcia N, Bozzini N, Baiocchi G, da Cunha I, Maciel G, Soares Júnior J, et al. May Sonic Hedgehog proteins be markers for malignancy in uterine smooth muscle tumors?. Hum Pathol. 2016;50:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical analysis showed that SMO, SUFU, GLI1, GLI3, and BMP4 expression gradually increased depending on to the histologic tissue type...
  32. Gu D, Schlotman K, Xie J. Deciphering the role of hedgehog signaling in pancreatic cancer. J Biomed Res. 2016;30:353-360 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the canonical hedgehog signaling, we will also discuss several non-canonical hedgehog signaling mechanisms. ..
  33. Chen P, Zhou Z, Yao X, Pang S, Liu M, Jiang W, et al. Capping Enzyme mRNA-cap/RNGTT Regulates Hedgehog Pathway Activity by Antagonizing Protein Kinase A. Sci Rep. 2017;7:2891 pubmed publisher
    ..the transcription factor Cubitus interruptus (Ci) and G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family protein Smoothened (Smo) in Drosophila, but how PKA activity is regulated remains elusive...
  34. Zhou X, Pace J, Filichia E, Lv T, Davis B, Hoffer B, et al. Effect of the sonic hedgehog receptor smoothened on the survival and function of dopaminergic neurons. Exp Neurol. 2016;283:235-45 pubmed publisher
    To determine the influence of the sonic hedgehog (shh) pathway and its receptor smoothened (smo), on the survival and functionality of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. During early development, shh induces the differentiation of DA neurons...
  35. Wang Y, Jin G, Li Q, Wang Z, Hu W, Li P, et al. Hedgehog Signaling Non-Canonical Activated by Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. J Cancer. 2016;7:2067-2076 pubmed
    ..Moreover, GLI1 promoter-reporter assay in combination with blocking either NF-?B or Smoothened (SMO) suggested that TNF-? and IL-1? could transcriptionally up-regulate expression of GLI1 completely via NF-?B, ..
  36. Di Mauro C, Rosa R, D Amato V, Ciciola P, Servetto A, Marciano R, et al. Hedgehog signalling pathway orchestrates angiogenesis in triple-negative breast cancers. Br J Cancer. 2017;116:1425-1435 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the translational relevance of our findings, the combination of paclitaxel with the Smo inhibitor NVP-LDE225 was tested in TNBC xenografted mice...
  37. Sharpe H, De Sauvage F. Grking the Smoothened signal. Sci Signal. 2018;11: pubmed publisher
    ..Two reports by Li et al and Pusapati et al in this issue of Science Signaling provide new insights into the role of GRK2 in HH signaling. ..
  38. Jiang K, Liu Y, Fan J, Zhang J, Li X, Evers B, et al. PI(4)P Promotes Phosphorylation and Conformational Change of Smoothened through Interaction with Its C-terminal Tail. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002375 pubmed publisher
    ..binding of Hh to the Patched-Interference Hh (Ptc-Ihog) receptor complex relieves Ptc inhibition on Smoothened (Smo). A longstanding question is how Ptc inhibits Smo and how such inhibition is relieved by Hh stimulation...
  39. Keurhorst M, Heinen M, Colom J, Linderoth C, Müssener U, Okulicz Kozaryn K, et al. Strategies in primary healthcare to implement early identification of risky alcohol consumption: why do they work or not? A qualitative evaluation of the ODHIN study. BMC Fam Pract. 2016;17:70 pubmed publisher
    ..ClinicalTrials.gov. Trial identifier: NCT01501552 . ..
  40. Pedersen L, Mogensen J, Christensen S. Endocytic Control of Cellular Signaling at the Primary Cilium. Trends Biochem Sci. 2016;41:784-797 pubmed publisher
    ..including movement of receptors such as the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) receptor Patched 1 (PTCH1), Smoothened (SMO), and various other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), as well as transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) ..
  41. Sinha A, Jayaraman L, Punhani D, Chowbey P. Enhanced Recovery after Bariatric Surgery in the Severely Obese, Morbidly Obese, Super-Morbidly Obese and Super-Super Morbidly Obese Using Evidence-Based Clinical Pathways: a Comparative Study. Obes Surg. 2017;27:560-568 pubmed publisher
    ..9 kg/m2), morbidly obese (MO: BMI 40-49.9 kg/m2), super-morbidly obese (SMO: BMI 50-59.9 kg/m2), and super-super morbidly obese (SSMO: BMI >60 kg/m2)...
  42. Sukhotnik I, Dorfman T, Halabi S, Pollak Y, Kreizman Shefer H, Coran A, et al. Accelerated intestinal epithelial cell turnover after bowel resection in a rat is correlated with inhibited hedgehog signaling cascade. Pediatr Surg Int. 2016;32:1133-1140 pubmed
    ..SBS rats also demonstrated a significant three- to fourfold decrease in SMO, GIL, and PTCH mRNA, and protein levels (determined by Real-Time PCR and Western blot) compared to control animals...
  43. Ueno H, Kondo S, Yoshikawa S, Inoue K, André V, Tajimi M, et al. A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of taladegib, a Smoothened inhibitor, in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors. Invest New Drugs. 2018;36:647-656 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusions Taladegib doses of 100 mg and 200 mg, but not the global recommended dose of 400 mg, were well tolerated in this population of Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors. ..
  44. Jeng K, Jeng C, Jeng W, Sheen I, Chang C, Hsiau H, et al. Sonic hedgehog pathway inhibitor mitigates mouse hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Surg. 2015;210:554-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression of Shh pathway molecules was altered, including upregulated Shh expression and downregulated smoothened expression in tumor fractions after GDC-0449 treatment. GDC-0449 could effectively mitigate HCC growth in vivo. ..
  45. Dash R, Maschinot C, Hadden M. A molecular dynamics approach to identify an oxysterol-based hedgehog pathway inhibitor. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:168-177 pubmed publisher
    ..Computational modeling and molecular dynamics simulations can be used to predict whether a small molecule that binds the Smoothened CRD will be an agonist or antagonist of the pathway. ..
  46. Colli L, Machiela M, Zhang H, Myers T, Jessop L, Delattre O, et al. Landscape of Combination Immunotherapy and Targeted Therapy to Improve Cancer Management. Cancer Res. 2017;77:3666-3671 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF, NF1, NRAS, and PTEN We also noted a high burden of NsM in cases with targetable mutations in SMO, DDR2, FGFR1, PTCH1, FGFR2, and MET Our results indicate that a significant proportion of solid tumor ..
  47. Surana P, Gowda C, Tripathi V, Broday L, Das R. Structural and functional analysis of SMO-1, the SUMO homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186622 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans is a well known model system for studying metazoan development and has a single SUMO homolog, SMO-1. Interestingly, SMO-1 modification is linked to embryogenesis and development in the nematode...
  48. Zhang Y, Zhu Z, Zhang D, Zhang Z, Ma B, Zhao S, et al. Lentivirus-mediated silencing of the PTC1 and PTC2 genes promotes recovery from spinal cord injury by activating the Hedgehog signaling pathway in a rat model. Exp Mol Med. 2017;49:e412 pubmed publisher
    ..performed to examine the mRNA and protein levels of PTC1, PTC2, Shh, glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli-1), Smo and Nestin...
  49. Ay F, Xu F, Kahveci T. Scalable steady state analysis of Boolean biological regulatory networks. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7992 pubmed publisher
    ..analyzing the steady state profile of Hedgehog network, we were able to find the highly co-expressed gene pair GL1-SMO together with other such pairs. Source code of this work is available at http://bioinformatics.cise.ufl...
  50. Douglas A, Heim J, Shen F, Almada L, Riobo N, Fernandez Zapico M, et al. The alpha subunit of the G protein G13 regulates activity of one or more Gli transcription factors independently of smoothened. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30714-22 pubmed publisher
    Smoothened (Smo) is a seven-transmembrane (7-TM) receptor that is essential to most actions of the Hedgehog family of morphogens...
  51. Wu J, Chen J, Wang Y, Xia B, Wang R, Zhao Y, et al. Effect of Mono-2-ethyhexyl Phthalate on DNA Methylation in Human Prostate Cancer LNCaP Cells. Biomed Environ Sci. 2017;30:641-648 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate whether mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) affects genomic DNA methylation and the methylation status of some specific genes such as patched gene (PTCH) and smoothened gene (SMO) in LNCaP cells.
  52. Shimizu Y, Ishii T, Ogawa K, Sasaki S, Matsui H, Nakayama M. Biochemical characterization of smoothened receptor antagonists by binding kinetics against drug-resistant mutant. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;764:220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although antagonism of the smoothened receptor (SMO), which mediates Hh signaling, is an attractive therapeutic target, a drug-resistant mutation in SMO (SMO-D473H) ..
  53. Infante P, Alfonsi R, Botta B, Mori M, Di Marcotullio L. Targeting GLI factors to inhibit the Hedgehog pathway. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2015;36:547-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Major progress has been made in the development of SMOOTHENED (SMO) antagonists, although they have shown several limitations due to downstream SMO pathway activation or the ..
  54. Singh M, Chaudhry P, Merchant A. Primary cilia are present on human blood and bone marrow cells and mediate Hedgehog signaling. Exp Hematol. 2016;44:1181-1187.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..that treatment of blood cells with the Hh pathway ligand Sonic Hedgehog (SHh) causes translocation of Smoothened (SMO) to the primary cilia and activation of Hh target genes, demonstrating that primary cilia in blood cells are ..
  55. Dong X, Wang C, Chen Z, Zhao W. Overcoming the resistance mechanisms of Smoothened inhibitors. Drug Discov Today. 2018;23:704-710 pubmed publisher
    Smoothened (Smo), the main transducer of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, is a promising target for anticancer therapy...
  56. Guo W, Yi X, Ren F, Liu L, Wu S, Yang J. Activation of SHH signaling pathway promotes vasculogenesis in post-myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:12464-72 pubmed
    ..significantly increased by SHH application, as well as the SHH signal proteins including Patch-1, Gli1, Gli2 and SMO (P<0.05)...
  57. Minami H, Ando Y, Ma B, Hsiang Lee J, Momota H, Fujiwara Y, et al. Phase I, multicenter, open-label, dose-escalation study of sonidegib in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors. Cancer Sci. 2016;107:1477-1483 pubmed publisher
    ..The RD in East Asian patients (400 mg q.d.) was lower than in patients from Europe and the USA (800 mg q.d. and 250 mg twice daily). (Registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01208831.). ..
  58. Liang R, Šumová B, Cordazzo C, Mallano T, Zhang Y, Wohlfahrt T, et al. The transcription factor GLI2 as a downstream mediator of transforming growth factor-?-induced fibroblast activation in SSc. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76:756-764 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides canonical hedgehog signalling with smoothened (SMO)-dependent activation of GLI transcription factors, GLI can be activated independently of classical hedgehog ..
  59. Uno K, Seki Y, Kasama K, Wakamatsu K, Umezawa A, Yanaga K, et al. A Comparison of the Bariatric Procedures that Are Performed in the Treatment of Super Morbid Obesity. Obes Surg. 2017;27:2537-2545 pubmed publisher
    We have experienced numerous cases of super morbid obesity (SMO), defined by a BMI of ≥50 kg/m2, in which laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was not able to achieve a sufficient weight loss effect...
  60. Zhao X, Huang B, El Aooiti M, Rousseau D. Demulsification to control solute release from Pickering crystal-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2018;509:360-368 pubmed publisher
    ..A second surfactant, sorbitan monooleate (SMO), added to the emulsion post-preparation to controllably demulsify, resulted in concentration-dependent removal of ..
  61. Gruber W, Peer E, Elmer D, Sternberg C, Tesanovic S, Del Burgo P, et al. Targeting class I histone deacetylases by the novel small molecule inhibitor 4SC-202 blocks oncogenic hedgehog-GLI signaling and overcomes smoothened inhibitor resistance. Int J Cancer. 2018;142:968-975 pubmed publisher
    ..HH pathway antagonists targeting smoothened (SMO), an essential effector of canonical HH/GLI signaling, show significant clinical success in BCC patients and have ..
  62. Finetti F, Patrussi L, Galgano D, Cassioli C, Perinetti G, Pazour G, et al. The small GTPase Rab8 interacts with VAMP-3 to regulate the delivery of recycling T-cell receptors to the immune synapse. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:2541-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results identify Rab8 as a new player in vesicular traffic to the immune synapse and provide insight into the pathways co-opted by different cell types for immune synapse assembly and ciliogenesis. ..
  63. Arnhold V, Boos J, Lanvers Kaminsky C. Targeting hedgehog signaling pathway in pediatric tumors: in vitro evaluation of SMO and GLI inhibitors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016;77:495-505 pubmed publisher
    The successful use of SMO inhibitors in tumors with activating mutations in hedgehog signaling raised interests in their exploitation against other malignancies. The role of hedgehog signaling in pediatric malignancies remains unclear...
  64. Tena T, Philipp M. Assessing Smoothened-mediated Hedgehog signaling in zebrafish. Methods Cell Biol. 2016;132:147-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The zebrafish has emerged as a valuable tool for the assessment of Smoothened-mediated Hh signaling. In this chapter we thus describe how Smoothened-mediated Hh signaling can be monitored and also quantified using zebrafish embryos. ..
  65. Tolosa E, Fernández Zapico M, Battiato N, Rovasio R. Sonic hedgehog is a chemotactic neural crest cell guide that is perturbed by ethanol exposure. Eur J Cell Biol. 2016;95:136-52 pubmed publisher
    ..or to their conditioned medium, a response inhibited by anti-Shh antibody, receptor inhibitor cyclopamine and anti-Smo morpholino (MO). Expression of the Ptch-Smo receptor complex on in vitro NCCs was also shown...
  66. Amendola G, Di Maio D, La Pietra V, Cosconati S. Best Matching Protein Conformations and Docking Programs for a Virtual Screening Campaign Against SMO Receptor. Mol Inform. 2016;35:340-9 pubmed publisher
    b>SMO receptor is one of the main components of the Hedgehog biochemical pathway. In the last decades compelling body of evidence demonstrated that this receptor is a pertinent target for the treatment of various types of solid tumors...
  67. Clark V, Harmanci A, Bai H, Youngblood M, Lee T, Baranoski J, et al. Recurrent somatic mutations in POLR2A define a distinct subset of meningiomas. Nat Genet. 2016;48:1253-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to mutations in POLR2A, NF2, SMARCB1, TRAF7, KLF4, AKT1, PIK3CA, and SMO, we also report somatic mutations in AKT3, PIK3R1, PRKAR1A, and SUFU in meningiomas...
  68. Tu J, Li J, Song L, Zhai H, Wang J, Zhang X. Molecular modeling study on resistance of WT/D473H SMO to antagonists LDE-225 and LEQ-506. Pharmacol Res. 2018;129:491-499 pubmed publisher
    The smoothened (SMO) receptor, an essential signal transducer in the Hedgehog pathway, was targeted with antagonists to suppress the tumor...
  69. Nozaki S, Katoh Y, Kobayashi T, Nakayama K. BBS1 is involved in retrograde trafficking of ciliary GPCRs in the context of the BBSome complex. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0195005 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus indicate that the intact BBSome is required for retrograde trafficking of GPCRs out of cilia. ..
  70. Zhang Y, He J, Zhang F, Li H, Yue D, Wang C, et al. SMO expression level correlates with overall survival in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2013;32:7 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite current combined regimen, its prognosis remains dismal, calling for more effective targeted therapies. We investigated whether aberrant Hh activation may play a role in mesothelioma...
  71. Bai X, Zhang X, Yang S, An S, Chen Z, Su J, et al. Blockade of Hedgehog Signaling Synergistically Increases Sensitivity to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149370 pubmed publisher
    ..001) in EGFR-TKI-sensitive cells. Blockade of the Hh signaling pathway using the SMO antagonist SANT-1 restored E-cadherin expression and downregulate Snail and ABCG2 in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells...
  72. Heine T, Scholtissek A, Westphal A, van Berkel W, Tischler D. N-terminus determines activity and specificity of styrene monooxygenase reductases. Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2017;1865:1770-1780 pubmed publisher
    ..The genome of Rhodococcus opacus 1CP encodes two SMO systems. One system, which we define as E1-type, displays homology to the SMO from Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120...
  73. Zhang Y, Hu Y, Zhang Y, Hu L, Kong X. Distinguishing three subtypes of hematopoietic cells based on gene expression profiles using a support vector machine. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018;1864:2255-2265 pubmed publisher
    ..feature selection (IFS) and a support vector machine (SVM) optimized with a sequential minimum optimization (SMO) algorithm were employed to access the optimal classifier with the highest Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) ..
  74. Höing S, Yeh T, Baumann M, Martinez N, Habenberger P, Kremer L, et al. Dynarrestin, a Novel Inhibitor of Cytoplasmic Dynein. Cell Chem Biol. 2018;25:357-369.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Available inhibitors target Smoothened (Smo), which can acquire mutations causing drug resistance...
  75. Roudaut H, Traiffort E, Gorojankina T, Vincent L, Faure H, Schoenfelder A, et al. Identification and mechanism of action of the acylguanidine MRT-83, a novel potent Smoothened antagonist. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;79:453-60 pubmed publisher
    There is a clear need to develop novel pharmacological tools to improve our understanding of Smoothened (Smo) function in normal and pathological states...
  76. Bidet M, Joubert O, Lacombe B, Ciantar M, Nehmé R, Mollat P, et al. The hedgehog receptor patched is involved in cholesterol transport. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23834 pubmed publisher
    ..This activity is likely responsible for the inhibition of the enrichment of Smoothened in the plasma membrane, which is an important step in Shh pathway activation. ..
  77. Polizio A, Chinchilla P, Chen X, Manning D, Riobo N. Sonic Hedgehog activates the GTPases Rac1 and RhoA in a Gli-independent manner through coupling of smoothened to Gi proteins. Sci Signal. 2011;4:pt7 pubmed publisher
    ..Hh) bind to the receptors Patched1 and Patched2, resulting in inhibition of their repressive effect on Smoothened (Smo)...
  78. Pricl S, Cortelazzi B, Dal Col V, Marson D, Laurini E, Fermeglia M, et al. Smoothened (SMO) receptor mutations dictate resistance to vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma. Mol Oncol. 2015;9:389-97 pubmed publisher
    ..PTCH1 normally functions by repressing the activity of the Smoothened (SMO) receptor...
  79. Rodriguez Blanco J, Pednekar L, Penas C, Li B, Martin V, Long J, et al. Inhibition of WNT signaling attenuates self-renewal of SHH-subgroup medulloblastoma. Oncogene. 2017;36:6306-6314 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, our data suggest combination therapy with WNT and SHH inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy in patients with SHH-subgroup MB, in order to decrease the tumor recurrence commonly observed in patients treated with vismodegib...
  80. Sprick J, Soller B, Rickards C. The efficacy of novel anatomical sites for the assessment of muscle oxygenation during central hypovolemia. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2016;241:2007-2013 pubmed
    Muscle tissue oxygenation (SmO2) can track central blood volume loss associated with hemorrhage. Traditional peripheral measurement sites (e.g., forearm) may not be practical due to excessive movement or injury (e.g...
  81. Monkkonen T, Landua J, Visbal A, Lewis M. Epithelial and non-epithelial Ptch1 play opposing roles to regulate proliferation and morphogenesis of the mouse mammary gland. Development. 2017;144:1317-1327 pubmed publisher
    ..showed no evidence of canonical hedgehog signaling, and hyperproliferation was not blocked by smoothened (SMO) inhibition, suggesting a non-canonical function of PTCH1...
  82. Wu C, Li J, Peterson A, Tao K, Wang B. Loss of dynein-2 intermediate chain Wdr34 results in defects in retrograde ciliary protein trafficking and Hedgehog signaling in the mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:2386-2397 pubmed publisher
    ..More interestingly, we show that both Dnchc2 and Wdr34 act between Smo and Gli2/Gli3 in the Hh pathway...
  83. Chen W, Huang H, Hatori R, Kornberg T. Essential basal cytonemes take up Hedgehog in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. Development. 2017;144:3134-3144 pubmed publisher
    ..Hh:GFP after pulsed expression, and analyzed the movement and colocalization of Hh, Patched (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo) proteins tagged with GFP or mCherry and expressed at physiological levels from bacterial artificial chromosome ..
  84. Karpen H, Bukowski J, Hughes T, Gratton J, Sessa W, Gailani M. The sonic hedgehog receptor patched associates with caveolin-1 in cholesterol-rich microdomains of the plasma membrane. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:19503-11 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that caveolin-1 may be integral for sequestering the Hh receptor complex in these caveolin-enriched microdomains, which act as a scaffold for the interactions with the Hh protein. ..
  85. Zhu Z, Sun C, Ting Zhu Y, Wang Y, Wang T, Chi L, et al. Hedgehog signaling contributes to basic fibroblast growth factor-regulated fibroblast migration. Exp Cell Res. 2017;355:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..the RNA-seq analysis, we had identified that the hedgehog (Hh) canonical pathway genes including Smoothened (Smo) and Gli1, were regulated by bFGF...
  86. Liu Y, Yuelling L, Wang Y, Du F, Gordon R, O Brien J, et al. Astrocytes Promote Medulloblastoma Progression through Hedgehog Secretion. Cancer Res. 2017;77:6692-6703 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate an indispensable role for astrocytes in MB tumorigenesis and reveal a novel Ptch1-independent Shh pathway involved in MB progression. Cancer Res; 77(23); 6692-703. ©2017 AACR. ..
  87. Zhuang H, Cao G, Kou C, Liu T. CCL2/CCR2 axis induces hepatocellular carcinoma invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro through activation of the Hedgehog pathway. Oncol Rep. 2018;39:21-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The human HCC cell line MHCC-97H was treated with CCL2. Cyclopamine, a smoothened (SMO) antagonist, was used to inhibit SMO activity...
  88. Shi Y, Fu X, Hua Y, Han Y, Lu Y, Wang J. The side population in human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 is enriched in stem-like cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33358 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the H460 SP cells preferentially express ABCG2 as well as SMO, a critical mediator of the Hedgehog (HH) signaling, which seems to play an important role in H460 lung cancer ..
  89. Stasikowska Kanicka O, Wagrowska Danilewicz M, Białek I, Danilewicz M. The immunoexpression of Shh, Smo and Gli2 in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative gastric biopsies. Pol J Pathol. 2012;63:25-30 pubmed
    ..The immunoexpression of Shh, Smoothened (Smo) and Glioblastoma transcription factor 2 (Gli2) were detected using the immunohistochemical method...
  90. Zaidi A, Komatsu Y, Kelly L, Malhotra U, Rotoloni C, Kosovec J, et al. Smoothened inhibition leads to decreased proliferation and induces apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer Invest. 2013;31:480-9 pubmed publisher
    ..we evaluated the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of inhibition of cancer cell growth by the smoothened (Smo) antagonist BMS-833923 in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cell lines...
  91. Sharpe H, Wang W, Hannoush R, De Sauvage F. Regulation of the oncoprotein Smoothened by small molecules. Nat Chem Biol. 2015;11:246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..that features the transporter-like protein Patched and the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-like Smoothened (SMO). The biochemical interaction between these transmembrane proteins is the subject of intensive efforts...
  92. Onishi H, Yamasaki A, Kawamoto M, Imaizumi A, Katano M. Hypoxia but not normoxia promotes Smoothened transcription through upregulation of RBPJ and Mastermind-like 3 in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Lett. 2016;371:143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is activated under hypoxia through upregulation of transcription of Smoothened (SMO) gene. However, the mechanism of hypoxia-induced activation of SMO transcription remains unclear...