SAA1

Summary

Gene Symbol: SAA1
Description: serum amyloid A1
Alias: PIG4, SAA, SAA2, TP53I4, serum amyloid A-1 protein, serum amyloid A protein, tumor protein p53 inducible protein 4
Species: human
Products:     SAA1

Top Publications

  1. Yang R, Lee M, Hu H, Pollin T, Ryan A, Nicklas B, et al. Acute-phase serum amyloid A: an inflammatory adipokine and potential link between obesity and its metabolic complications. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e287 pubmed
    ..Acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) mRNA levels, and A-SAA adipose secretion and serum levels were measured in obese and nonobese individuals, obese ..
  2. Lappalainen T, Kolehmainen M, Schwab U, Pulkkinen L, Laaksonen D, Rauramaa R, et al. Serum concentrations and expressions of serum amyloid A and leptin in adipose tissue are interrelated: the Genobin Study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;158:333-41 pubmed publisher
    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a novel link between increased adipose tissue mass and low-grade inflammation in obesity. Little is known about the factors regulating its serum concentration and mRNA levels...
  3. Sjöholm K, Lundgren M, Olsson M, Eriksson J. Association of serum amyloid A levels with adipocyte size and serum levels of adipokines: differences between men and women. Cytokine. 2009;48:260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to characterize the association between adipocyte enlargement and circulating levels of serum amyloid A (SAA)...
  4. Kumon Y, Suehiro T, Faulkes D, Hosakawa T, Ikeda Y, Woo P, et al. Transcriptional regulation of serum amyloid A1 gene expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells involves CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP) and is distinct from HepG2 cells. Scand J Immunol. 2002;56:504-11 pubmed
    ..To study the cis- and trans-activating promoter element involved in the SAA1 gene expression by HASMCs and HepG2 cells, we constructed plasmid vectors for luciferase reporter gene assay with ..
  5. Malle E, Sodin Semrl S, Kovacevic A. Serum amyloid A: an acute-phase protein involved in tumour pathogenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:9-26 pubmed publisher
    The synthesis of acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) is largely regulated by inflammation- associated cytokines and a high concentration of circulating SAA may represent an ideal marker for acute and chronic inflammatory diseases...
  6. Xu X, Sun X, Pang L, Huang G, Huang J, Shi M, et al. Rs12218 In SAA1 gene was associated with serum lipid levels. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:116 pubmed publisher
    ..This study assessed the correlation between SAA1 gene rs12218 polymorphism and lipid levels in a Chinese population...
  7. Eckhardt E, Witta J, Zhong J, Arsenescu R, Arsenescu V, Wang Y, et al. Intestinal epithelial serum amyloid A modulates bacterial growth in vitro and pro-inflammatory responses in mouse experimental colitis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2010;10:133 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant levels of SAA1/SAA2 RNA and SAA protein were detected by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in mouse colonic epithelium...
  8. Dowling P, Clarke C, Hennessy K, Torralbo Lopez B, Ballot J, Crown J, et al. Analysis of acute-phase proteins, AHSG, C3, CLI, HP and SAA, reveals distinctive expression patterns associated with breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:911-23 pubmed publisher
    ..AHSG), complement component C3 (C3), clusterin (CLI), haptoglobin (HP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are significantly altered in serum from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung...
  9. Xu L, Badolato R, Murphy W, Longo D, Anver M, Hale S, et al. A novel biologic function of serum amyloid A. Induction of T lymphocyte migration and adhesion. J Immunol. 1995;155:1184-90 pubmed
    In the course of an inflammatory response, the concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA), a hepatocyte-derived acute phase protein, increases up to 1000-fold above the normal level...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Ahlin S, Olsson M, Olsson B, Svensson P, Sjöholm K. No evidence for a role of adipose tissue-derived serum amyloid a in the development of insulin resistance or obesity-related inflammation in hSAA1(+/-) transgenic mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72204 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adipose tissue-derived SAA1 on the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related inflammation...
  2. Su S, Gong W, Gao J, Shen W, Murphy P, Oppenheim J, et al. A seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor, FPRL1, mediates the chemotactic activity of serum amyloid A for human phagocytic cells. J Exp Med. 1999;189:395-402 pubmed
    ..Hale, J.J. Oppenheim, and J.M. Wang. 1995. J. Immunol. 155:1184.) that the acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) is a potent chemoattractant for human leukocytes in vitro and mouse phagocytes in vivo...
  3. Okamoto H, Katagiri Y, Kiire A, Momohara S, Kamatani N. Serum amyloid A activates nuclear factor-kappaB in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts through binding to receptor of advanced glycation end-products. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:752-6 pubmed
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, symmetric polyarticular joint disease and serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase protein that is upregulated during the course of RA. We investigated the role of SAA in the pathogenesis of RA...
  4. Urieli Shoval S, Shubinsky G, Linke R, Fridkin M, Tabi I, Matzner Y. Adhesion of human platelets to serum amyloid A. Blood. 2002;99:1224-9 pubmed
    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase reactant, and its level in the blood is elevated to 1000-fold in response of the body to trauma, infection, inflammation, and neoplasia...
  5. Ducret A, Bruun C, Bures E, Marhaug G, Husby G, Aebersold R. Characterization of human serum amyloid A protein isoforms separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis. 1996;17:866-76 pubmed
    ..SAA1 alpha and SAA2 alpha, respectively, and to the glycosylated and nonglycosylated form of constitutive serum amyloid A protein (C-SAA)...
  6. Nakamura T, Higashi S, Tomoda K, Tsukano M, Baba S, Shono M. Significance of SAA1.3 allele genotype in Japanese patients with amyloidosis secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006;45:43-9 pubmed
    To clarify the clinical significance of the SAA1.3 allele in the development and outcome of AA amyloidosis in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  7. Nakamura T. Amyloid A amyloidosis secondary to rheumatoid arthritis: pathophysiology and treatments. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2011;29:850-7 pubmed
    ..These AA amyloid fibrils derive from the circulatory acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A protein (SAA), and may be controlled by treatment...
  8. Urieli Shoval S, Finci Yeheskel Z, Dishon S, Galinsky D, Linke R, Ariel I, et al. Expression of serum amyloid a in human ovarian epithelial tumors: implication for a role in ovarian tumorigenesis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2010;58:1015-23 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR analysis confirmed the overexpression of the SAA1 and SAA4 genes in ovarian carcinomas compared with normal ovarian tissues...
  9. Farwig Z, McNeal C, Little D, Baisden C, Macfarlane R. Novel truncated isoforms of constitutive serum amyloid A detected by MALDI mass spectrometry. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:352-6 pubmed
    The main focus of the serum amyloid A (SAA) family has been on the acute phase isoforms. However, the constitutive isoform (SAA4) may have a strong effect on the metabolism of human serum lipoproteins...
  10. Ajiro J, Narita I, Sato F, Saga D, Hasegawa H, Kuroda T, et al. SAA1 gene polymorphisms and the risk of AA amyloidosis in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Mod Rheumatol. 2006;16:294-9 pubmed
    To investigate the precise modality of association between SAA1 gene polymorphisms and the development of AA amyloidosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Japanese patients with RA (n=153), among whom 29 were histologically ..
  11. Xie X, Ma Y, Yang Y, Fu Z, Li X, Zheng Y, et al. Polymorphisms in the SAA1 gene are associated with ankle-to-brachial index in Han Chinese healthy subjects. Blood Press. 2011;20:232-8 pubmed publisher
    OBJECTIVE. Recent study suggested that the genetic polymorphisms of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) were linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
  12. Sung H, Jeon S, Ahn J, Seul K, Kim J, Lee J, et al. Large-scale isotype-specific quantification of Serum amyloid A 1/2 by multiple reaction monitoring in crude sera. J Proteomics. 2012;75:2170-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Until now, studies of SAA have been unable to distinguish between SAA1 and SAA2. To overcome the unavailability of a SAA2-specific antibody, we developed MRM methodology for the verification of ..
  13. Badolato R, Wang J, Murphy W, Lloyd A, Michiel D, Bausserman L, et al. Serum amyloid A is a chemoattractant: induction of migration, adhesion, and tissue infiltration of monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Exp Med. 1994;180:203-9 pubmed
    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein that in the blood is bound to high density lipoproteins; SAA is secreted mainly by hepatocytes, and its concentration increases in the blood up to 1000 times during an inflammatory response...
  14. Lee M, Yoo S, Cho C, Suh P, Kim W, Ryu S. Serum amyloid A binding to formyl peptide receptor-like 1 induces synovial hyperplasia and angiogenesis. J Immunol. 2006;177:5585-94 pubmed
    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute-phase reactant, and has been demonstrated to mediate proinflammatory cellular responses...
  15. Thorn C, Lu Z, Whitehead A. Regulation of the human acute phase serum amyloid A genes by tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and glucocorticoids in hepatic and epithelial cell lines. Scand J Immunol. 2004;59:152-8 pubmed
    ..roles of TNF-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and GCs on the transcriptional regulation of the two human A-SAA genes (SAA1 and SAA2) and show that these stimuli have different effects on the SAA1 and SAA2 promoters in HepG2 hepatoma and ..
  16. Sletten K, Husby G, Natvig J. The complete amino acid sequence of an amyloid fibril protein AA1 of unusual size (64 residues). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1976;69:19-25 pubmed
  17. Cai Z, Cai L, Jiang J, Chang K, van der Westhuyzen D, Luo G. Human serum amyloid A protein inhibits hepatitis C virus entry into cells. J Virol. 2007;81:6128-33 pubmed
    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase protein induced by a variety of inflammatory stimuli, including bacterial and viral infections. SAA was recently found to function as an opsonin for gram-negative bacteria...
  18. Levin M, Franklin E, Frangione B, Pras M. The amino acid sequence of a major nonimmunoglobulin component of some amyloid fibrils. J Clin Invest. 1972;51:2773-6 pubmed
    ..The ASF contains no cysteine, does not resemble any known immunoglobulin, and has not been detected as yet in myeloma-associated amyloid. ..
  19. Mavragani C, Yiannakouris N, Zintzaras E, Melistas L, Ritis K, Skopouli F. Analysis of SAA1 gene polymorphisms in the Greek population: rheumatoid arthritis and FMF patients relative to normal controls. Homogeneous distribution and low incidence of AA amyloidosis. Amyloid. 2007;14:271-5 pubmed
    ..The genotypes of the -13T/C SNP in the 5'-flanking region of the SAA1 gene and the two SNPs within exon 3 of SAA1 (2995C/T and 3010C/T polymorphisms) were determined in 88 Greek ..
  20. Xie X, Ma Y, Yang Y, Fu Z, Li X, Huang D, et al. Polymorphisms in the SAA1/2 gene are associated with carotid intima media thickness in healthy Han Chinese subjects: the Cardiovascular Risk Survey. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13997 pubmed publisher
    b>Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) is not only an inflammatory factor, but also an apolipoprotein that can replace apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) as the major apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which has been linked to ..
  21. Marzi C, Albrecht E, Hysi P, Lagou V, Waldenberger M, Tonjes A, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies two novel regions at 11p15.5-p13 and 1p31 with major impact on acute-phase serum amyloid A. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001213 pubmed publisher
    ..5-p13 and 1p31. The region at 11p15.5-p13 (rs4150642; p?=?3.20×10(-111)) contains serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) and the adjacent general transcription factor 2 H1 (GTF2H1), Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 5 (HPS5), lactate ..
  22. Li B, Dong Z, Liu H, Xia Y, Liu X, Luo B, et al. Serum amyloid A stimulates lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 expression in vitro and in vivo. Atherosclerosis. 2013;228:370-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ApoE(-/-) mice were intravenously injected with murine SAA1 lentivirus...
  23. Beach C, De Beer M, Sipe J, Loose L, de Beer F. Human serum amyloid A protein. Complete amino acid sequence of a new variant. Biochem J. 1992;282 ( Pt 2):615-20 pubmed
    b>Serum amyloid A protein (SAA), an acute-phase reactant and apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein, is a polymorphic protein with six reported isoforms. These are the products of three genes, i.e...
  24. Wang L, Lashuel H, Walz T, Colon W. Murine apolipoprotein serum amyloid A in solution forms a hexamer containing a central channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:15947-52 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with the recent discovery that human SAA1.1 forms a membrane channel and have important implications for understanding the 3D structure, multiple functions, ..
  25. Cai L, de Beer M, de Beer F, van der Westhuyzen D. Serum amyloid A is a ligand for scavenger receptor class B type I and inhibits high density lipoprotein binding and selective lipid uptake. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2954-61 pubmed
    ..In this study we investigated whether SAA is a ligand for the HDL receptor, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), and how SAA may influence SR-BI-..
  26. Ribeiro F, Furlaneto C, Hatanaka E, Ribeiro W, Souza G, Cassatella M, et al. mRNA expression and release of interleukin-8 induced by serum amyloid A in neutrophils and monocytes. Mediators Inflamm. 2003;12:173-8 pubmed
    ..In humans, serum amyloid A (SAA) is one of the most prominent of these proteins...
  27. Lee H, Kim S, Baek S, Choi J, Cho K, Zabel B, et al. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;433:18-23 pubmed publisher
    Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation...
  28. Xie X, Ma Y, Yang Y, Fu Z, Li X, Ma X, et al. [Association of genetic polymorphisms of serum amyloid protein A1 with plasma high density lipoproteins cholesterol]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;90:1824-6 pubmed
    To explore the association of genetic polymorphism (rs12218) of serum amyloid protein A1 (SAA1) with serum high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C)...
  29. Walder K, Kantham L, McMillan J, Trevaskis J, Kerr L, de Silva A, et al. Tanis: a link between type 2 diabetes and inflammation?. Diabetes. 2002;51:1859-66 pubmed
    ..Yeast-2 hybrid screening identified serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute-phase inflammatory response protein, as an interacting protein of Tanis, and this was confirmed by ..
  30. Sung H, Ahn J, Yoon Y, Rhim T, Park C, Park J, et al. Identification and validation of SAA as a potential lung cancer biomarker and its involvement in metastatic pathogenesis of lung cancer. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:1383-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified both SAA1 and SAA2 in the pooled sera of lung cancer patients but not in the healthy control, by LC-MS/MS analysis...
  31. Lee H, Kim S, Shim J, Lee S, Lee H, Cho K, et al. Serum amyloid A induces CCL2 production via formyl peptide receptor-like 1-mediated signaling in human monocytes. J Immunol. 2008;181:4332-9 pubmed
    Although the presence of an elevated level of serum amyloid A (SAA) has been regarded as a cardiovascular risk factor, the role of SAA on the progress of atherosclerosis has not been fully elucidated...
  32. Gershoni Baruch R, Brik R, Zacks N, Shinawi M, Lidar M, Livneh A. The contribution of genotypes at the MEFV and SAA1 loci to amyloidosis and disease severity in patients with familial Mediterranean fever. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:1149-55 pubmed
    ..In this study, we analyzed the contribution of genotypes at the MEFV and SAA1 loci to disease severity and to the development of amyloidosis, and further defined the factors affecting the ..
  33. Benditt E, Eriksen N, Hermodson M, Ericsson L. The major proteins of human and monkey amyloid substance: Common properties including unusual N-terminal amino acid sequences. FEBS Lett. 1971;19:169-173 pubmed
  34. Connolly M, Mullan R, McCormick J, Matthews C, Sullivan O, Kennedy A, et al. Acute-phase serum amyloid A regulates tumor necrosis factor ? and matrix turnover and predicts disease progression in patients with inflammatory arthritis before and after biologic therapy. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:1035-45 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the relationship between acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) and joint destruction in inflammatory arthritis...
  35. Urieli Shoval S, Cohen P, Eisenberg S, Matzner Y. Widespread expression of serum amyloid A in histologically normal human tissues. Predominant localization to the epithelium. J Histochem Cytochem. 1998;46:1377-84 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR analysis of selected tissues revealed expression of the SAA1, SAA2, and SAA4 genes but not of SAA3, consistent with expression of these genes in the liver...
  36. Cai H, Song C, Endoh I, Goyette J, Jessup W, Freedman S, et al. Serum amyloid A induces monocyte tissue factor. J Immunol. 2007;178:1852-60 pubmed
    C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) increase in the blood of patients with inflammatory conditions and CRP-induced monocyte tissue factor (TF) may contribute to inflammation-associated thrombosis...
  37. Faty A, Ferre P, Commans S. The acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A induces lipolysis and inflammation in human adipocytes through distinct pathways. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34031 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum Amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein mainly associated with High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)...
  38. Kisilevsky R, Tam S. Acute phase serum amyloid A, cholesterol metabolism, and cardiovascular disease. Pediatr Pathol Mol Med. 2002;21:291-305 pubmed
    ..In this context, the possible role of serum amyloid A as a prognostic indicator of unstable angina and its significance in relation to cardiovascular disease is discussed. ..
  39. Patke S, Srinivasan S, Maheshwari R, Srivastava S, Aguilera J, Colon W, et al. Characterization of the oligomerization and aggregation of human Serum Amyloid A. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64974 pubmed publisher
    ..characterized the oligomerization, misfolding, and aggregation of a disease-associated isoform of human SAA - human SAA1.1 (hSAA1...
  40. Srinivasan S, Patke S, Wang Y, Ye Z, Litt J, Srivastava S, et al. Pathogenic serum amyloid A 1.1 shows a long oligomer-rich fibrillation lag phase contrary to the highly amyloidogenic non-pathogenic SAA2.2. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:2744-55 pubmed publisher
    ..1. Conversely, the CE/J type mouse expresses a single non-pathogenic SAA2.2 protein that is 94% identical to SAA1.1. Here we show that SAA1.1 and SAA2...
  41. Cheng N, He R, Tian J, Ye P, Ye R. Cutting edge: TLR2 is a functional receptor for acute-phase serum amyloid A. J Immunol. 2008;181:22-6 pubmed
    Induced secretion of acute-phase serum amyloid A (SAA) is a host response to danger signals and a clinical indication of inflammation...
  42. Bakkaloglu A, Duzova A, Ozen S, Balci B, Besbas N, Topaloglu R, et al. Influence of Serum Amyloid A (SAA1) and SAA2 gene polymorphisms on renal amyloidosis, and on SAA/C-reactive protein values in patients with familial mediterranean fever in the Turkish population. J Rheumatol. 2004;31:1139-42 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of serum amyloid A (SAA) 1 and SAA2 gene polymorphisms on SAA levels and renal amyloidosis in Turkish patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF)...
  43. Badolato R, Johnston J, Wang J, McVicar D, Xu L, Oppenheim J, et al. Serum amyloid A induces calcium mobilization and chemotaxis of human monocytes by activating a pertussis toxin-sensitive signaling pathway. J Immunol. 1995;155:4004-10 pubmed
    We have previously reported that serum amyloid A (SAA) induces adhesion and chemotaxis of human monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils, in vitro as well as in vivo...
  44. Sellar G, Jordan S, Bickmore W, Fantes J, van Heyningen V, Whitehead A. The human serum amyloid A protein (SAA) superfamily gene cluster: mapping to chromosome 11p15.1 by physical and genetic linkage analysis. Genomics. 1994;19:221-7 pubmed
    The human serum amyloid A protein (SAA) family comprises a number of small, hepatically produced, differentially expressed apolipoproteins encoded by genes localized on the short arm of chromosome 11...
  45. Parmelee D, Titani K, Ericsson L, Eriksen N, Benditt E, Walsh K. Amino acid sequence of amyloid-related apoprotein (apoSAA1) from human high-density lipoprotein. Biochemistry. 1982;21:3298-303 pubmed
  46. Thorn C, Whitehead A. Differential glucocorticoid enhancement of the cytokine-driven transcriptional activation of the human acute phase serum amyloid A genes, SAA1 and SAA2. J Immunol. 2002;169:399-406 pubmed
    The human acute phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) genes, SAA1 and SAA2, have a high degree of sequence identity that extends approximately 450 bp upstream of their transcription start sites...
  47. Sipe J, Colten H, Goldberger G, Edge M, Tack B, Cohen A, et al. Human serum amyloid A (SAA): biosynthesis and postsynthetic processing of preSAA and structural variants defined by complementary DNA. Biochemistry. 1985;24:2931-6 pubmed
    To study structural variants of human serum amyloid A (SAA), an apoprotein of high-density lipoprotein, complementary DNA clones were isolated from a human liver library with the use of two synthetic oligonucleotide mixtures containing ..
  48. Song C, Shen Y, Yamen E, Hsu K, Yan W, Witting P, et al. Serum amyloid A may potentiate prothrombotic and proinflammatory events in acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis. 2009;202:596-604 pubmed publisher
    Elevated serum amyloid A (SAA) levels, like C-reactive protein (CRP), predict coronary events...
  49. Akar N, Hasipek M, Akar E, Ekim M, Yalcinkaya F, Cakar N. Serum amyloid A1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha alleles in Turkish familial Mediterranean fever patients with and without amyloidosis. Amyloid. 2003;10:12-6 pubmed
    ..Our analysis of SAA1.1 frequency in Turkish FMF-amyloidosis patients, revealed a higher frequency compared to non FMF-amyloidosis ..
  50. O Hara R, Murphy E, Whitehead A, Fitzgerald O, Bresnihan B. Local expression of the serum amyloid A and formyl peptide receptor-like 1 genes in synovial tissue is associated with matrix metalloproteinase production in patients with inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:1788-99 pubmed
    To evaluate the regulation of acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) production in inflamed synovial tissue, and to elucidate a possible pathophysiologic role in the induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) release by fibroblast-like ..
  51. Miida T, Yamada T, Seino U, Ito M, Fueki Y, Takahashi A, et al. Serum amyloid A (SAA)-induced remodeling of CSF-HDL. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1761:424-33 pubmed
    Inflammation is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein that dissociates apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) from plasma HDL...
  52. Annema W, Nijstad N, Tölle M, de Boer J, Buijs R, Heeringa P, et al. Myeloperoxidase and serum amyloid A contribute to impaired in vivo reverse cholesterol transport during the acute phase response but not group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2). J Lipid Res. 2010;51:743-54 pubmed publisher
    ..001). In the absence of systemic inflammation, overexpression of serum amyloid A (SAA, adenovirus) reduced overall RCT (P < 0...
  53. Egashira M, Takase H, Yamamoto I, Tanaka M, Saito H. Identification of regions responsible for heparin-induced amyloidogenesis of human serum amyloid A using its fragment peptides. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;511:101-6 pubmed publisher
    Human serum amyloid A (SAA) is a precursor protein of amyloid fibrils. Although several studies have been performed, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanism for SAA fibrillation remains elusive...
  54. Feng Z, Li X, Jiang R, Deng H, Yang M, Zhou Q, et al. Associations of SAA1 gene polymorphism with lipid lelvels and osteoporosis in Chinese women. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:39 pubmed publisher
    ..This study assessed the correlation between SAA1 gene rs12218 polymorphism and HDL-C lelvels and osteoporosis in a population of Chinese women...
  55. Steinkasserer A, Weiss E, Schwaeble W, Linke R. Heterogeneity of human serum amyloid A protein. Five different variants from one individual demonstrated by cDNA sequence analysis. Biochem J. 1990;268:187-93 pubmed
    Serum amyloid A (SAA), a chemically polymorphic protein, is the most sensitive marker protein of the acute phase and the precursor of reactive amyloidosis, which is characterized by deposits of amyloid A protein (AA)...
  56. van der Westhuyzen D, Cai L, de Beer M, de Beer F. Serum amyloid A promotes cholesterol efflux mediated by scavenger receptor B-I. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35890-5 pubmed
    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein whose expression is markedly up-regulated during inflammation and infection. The physiological function of SAA is unclear...
  57. Kim M, de Beer M, Wroblewski J, Webb N, de Beer F. SAA does not induce cytokine production in physiological conditions. Cytokine. 2013;61:506-12 pubmed publisher
    b>SAA has been shown to have potential proinflammatory properties in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. These include induction of tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in vitro...
  58. Hagihara K, Nishikawa T, Sugamata Y, Song J, Isobe T, Taga T, et al. Essential role of STAT3 in cytokine-driven NF-kappaB-mediated serum amyloid A gene expression. Genes Cells. 2005;10:1051-63 pubmed
    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a sensitive marker of acute-phase responses and known as a precursor protein of amyloid fibril in amyloid A (AA) (secondary) amyloidosis...
  59. Connolly M, Marrelli A, Blades M, McCormick J, Maderna P, Godson C, et al. Acute serum amyloid A induces migration, angiogenesis, and inflammation in synovial cells in vitro and in a human rheumatoid arthritis/SCID mouse chimera model. J Immunol. 2010;184:6427-37 pubmed publisher
    Serum amyloid A (A-SAA), an acute-phase protein with cytokine-like properties, is expressed at sites of inflammation...
  60. Xie X, Ma Y, Yang Y, Li X, Fu Z, Zheng Y, et al. Serum uric acid levels are associated with polymorphism in the SAA1 gene in Chinese subjects. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40263 pubmed publisher
    Serum uric acid (SUA) is a cardiovascular risk marker associated with inflammation. The serum amyloid A protein (SAA) is an inflammatory factor and is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
  61. Yamada T, Okuda Y, Takasugi K, Wang L, Marks D, Benson M, et al. An allele of serum amyloid A1 associated with amyloidosis in both Japanese and Caucasians. Amyloid. 2003;10:7-11 pubmed
    Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), one of the two isotypes of acute phase SAA, is the predominant precursor to amyloid A (AA) protein, the chief constituent of fibrillar deposits in reactive (AA) amyloidosis...
  62. Zhang L, Yuan B, Li H, Tao S, Yan H, Chang L, et al. Associations of genetic polymorphisms of SAA1 with cerebral infarction. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:130 pubmed publisher
    b>Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) is both an inflammatory factor and an apolipoprotein. However, the relation between genetic polymorphisms of SAA and cerebral infarction (CI) remains unclear...
  63. Cho W, Yip T, Cheng W, Au J. Serum amyloid A is elevated in the serum of lung cancer patients with poor prognosis. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:1731-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A differential protein with m/z 11.6 kDa was detected and identified as an isoform of human serum amyloid A (SAA)...
  64. Kiernan U, Tubbs K, Nedelkov D, Niederkofler E, Nelson R. Detection of novel truncated forms of human serum amyloid A protein in human plasma. FEBS Lett. 2003;537:166-70 pubmed
    b>Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) is a human plasma protein that has been recognized as potential biomarker of multiple ailments including myocardial infarction, inflammatory disease and amyloiosis...
  65. Yilmaz E, Balci B, Kutlay S, Ozen S, Ertürk S, Oner A, et al. Analysis of the modifying effects of SAA1, SAA2 and TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms on development of amyloidosis in FMF patients. Turk J Pediatr. 2003;45:198-202 pubmed
    ..There was a significant difference in the frequency of alpha/alpha genotype at the SAA1 locus between FMF patients with amyloidosis and controls and FMF patients without amyloidosis...
  66. Poitou C, Viguerie N, Cancello R, De Matteis R, Cinti S, Stich V, et al. Serum amyloid A: production by human white adipocyte and regulation by obesity and nutrition. Diabetologia. 2005;48:519-28 pubmed
    The acute-phase proteins, serum amyloid As (SAA), are precursors of amyloid A, involved in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis...