S100B

Summary

Gene Symbol: S100B
Description: S100 calcium binding protein B
Alias: NEF, S100, S100-B, S100beta, protein S100-B, S-100 calcium-binding protein, beta chain, S-100 protein subunit beta, S100 calcium-binding protein, beta (neural)
Species: human
Products:     S100B

Top Publications

  1. McClintock K, Shaw G. A novel S100 target conformation is revealed by the solution structure of the Ca2+-S100B-TRTK-12 complex. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6251-7 pubmed
    The Alzheimer-linked neural protein S100B is a signaling molecule shown to control the assembly of intermediate filament proteins in a calcium-sensitive manner...
  2. Rothermundt M, Ahn J, Jörgens S. S100B in schizophrenia: an update. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2009;28 Spec No Focus:F76-81 pubmed
    ..b>S100B, a calcium binding astrocyte-specific cytokine, presents a marker of astrocytic activation...
  3. Inman K, Yang R, Rustandi R, Miller K, Baldisseri D, Weber D. Solution NMR structure of S100B bound to the high-affinity target peptide TRTK-12. J Mol Biol. 2002;324:1003-14 pubmed
    The solution NMR structure is reported for Ca(2+)-loaded S100B bound to a 12-residue peptide, TRTK-12, from the actin capping protein CapZ (alpha1 or alpha2 subunit, residues 265-276: TRTKIDWNKILS)...
  4. Yang K, Hu Y, Xie G, Mao F, Su L. No association of the rs9722 C >T in the S100B gene and susceptibility to major depression in a Chinese population. Genet Test. 2008;12:487-9 pubmed publisher
    Astroglial-derived protein S100B is known to play important roles in axonal growth, neural plasticity, and energy regulation...
  5. Liu J, Shi Y, Tang J, Guo T, Li X, Yang Y, et al. SNPs and haplotypes in the S100B gene reveal association with schizophrenia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;328:335-41 pubmed
    The S100B gene locates in 21q22.3 and produces neurotrophin mainly in astrocytes of CNS which can act as an extensive marker of glial cell integrity...
  6. Yang K, Xie G, Hu Y, Mao F, Su L. Association study of astrocyte-derived protein S100B gene polymorphisms with major depressive disorder in Chinese people. Can J Psychiatry. 2009;54:312-9 pubmed
    Astroglial-derived protein S100B is known to play important roles in axonal growth, neural plasticity, and energy regulation. Disturbance of these neurodevelopmental processes is proposed as one possible etiology for mood disorder...
  7. Berger R, Pierce M, Wisniewski S, Adelson P, Kochanek P. Serum S100B concentrations are increased after closed head injury in children: a preliminary study. J Neurotrauma. 2002;19:1405-9 pubmed
    ..b>S100B is a protein that is specific to astrocytes...
  8. Streitbürger D, Arelin K, Kratzsch J, Thiery J, Steiner J, Villringer A, et al. Validating serum S100B and neuron-specific enolase as biomarkers for the human brain - a combined serum, gene expression and MRI study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43284 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular the glial protein S100B, a neuro- and gliotrophin inducing plasticity, seems to be involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of ..
  9. Peric B, Zagar I, Novakovic S, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M. Role of serum S100B and PET-CT in follow-up of patients with cutaneous melanoma. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:328 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with elevated S100 B and/or clinical signs of disease progression PET-CT scan is a valuable tool for discovering metastases and ..

More Information

Publications79

  1. Schroeter M, Steiner J, Mueller K. Glial pathology is modified by age in mood disorders--a systematic meta-analysis of serum S100B in vivo studies. J Affect Disord. 2011;134:32-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the dynamic course of glial pathology in mood disorders across studies measuring the glial marker protein S100B in serum in a systematic and quantitative meta-analysis according to the QUOROM and PRISMA statement...
  2. Kruijff S, Bastiaannet E, Kobold A, van Ginkel R, Suurmeijer A, Hoekstra H. S-100B concentrations predict disease-free survival in stage III melanoma patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:3455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..b>S100-B could be used as a prognostic marker in the stratification of new adjuvant trials to select stage III melanoma ..
  3. Gross S, Homan van der Heide J, van Son W, Gans R, Foell D, Navis G, et al. Body mass index and creatinine clearance are associated with steady-state serum concentrations of the cell damage marker S100B in renal transplant recipients. Med Sci Monit. 2010;16:CR318-24 pubmed
    b>S100B is a prominent cell damage marker which can lead to sustained pro-inflammatory signaling...
  4. Steiner J, Bielau H, Bernstein H, Bogerts B, Wunderlich M. Increased cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels of S100B in first-onset schizophrenia are not related to a degenerative release of glial fibrillar acidic protein, myelin basic protein and neurone-specific enolase from glia or neurones. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77:1284-7 pubmed
    ..levels of glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP), myelin basic protein (MBP), neurone-specific enolase (NSE) and S100B in patients with first-onset schizophrenia...
  5. Hohoff C, Ponath G, Freitag C, Kästner F, Krakowitzky P, Domschke K, et al. Risk variants in the S100B gene predict elevated S100B serum concentrations in healthy individuals. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010;153B:291-7 pubmed publisher
    Several lines of evidence suggest an important role of the S100B protein and its coding gene in different neuropathological and psychiatric disorders like dementia, bipolar affective disorders and schizophrenia...
  6. Whitaker D, Green A, Stygall J, Harrison M, Newman S. Evaluation of an alternative S100b assay for use in cardiac surgery: relationship with microemboli and neuropsychological outcome. Perfusion. 2007;22:267-72 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between S100b release, neuropsychological outcome and cerebral microemboli...
  7. van der Leeuw C, Marcelis M, Peeters S, Verbeek M, Menheere P, De Haan L, et al. Replicated evidence of absence of association between serum S100B and (risk of) psychotic disorder. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82535 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B is a potential marker of neurological and psychiatric illness. In schizophrenia, increased S100B levels, as well as associations with acute positive and persisting negative symptoms, have been reported...
  8. Uher T, Bob P. Cerebrospinal fluid S100B levels reflect symptoms of depression in patients with non-inflammatory neurological disorders. Neurosci Lett. 2012;529:139-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that glia-derived neurotrophic protein S100B may play a significant role in developing depression...
  9. Rustandi R, Baldisseri D, Weber D. Structure of the negative regulatory domain of p53 bound to S100B(betabeta). Nat Struct Biol. 2000;7:570-4 pubmed
    A Ca2+ dependent conformational change in dimeric S100B(betabeta) is required for it to bind p53 and inhibit phosphorylation of this tumor suppressor in its C-terminal negative regulatory domain...
  10. Mori T, Koyama N, Arendash G, Horikoshi Sakuraba Y, Tan J, Town T. Overexpression of human S100B exacerbates cerebral amyloidosis and gliosis in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Glia. 2010;58:300-14 pubmed publisher
    ..One such molecule, S100B, is highly expressed by reactive astrocytes in close vicinity of beta-amyloid deposits...
  11. Baudier J, Glasser N, Haglid K, Gerard D. Purification, characterization and ion binding properties of human brain S100b protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1984;790:164-73 pubmed
    Human brain S100b (beta beta) protein was purified using zinc-dependent affinity chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose...
  12. Nowotny M, Spiechowicz M, Jastrzebska B, Filipek A, Kitagawa K, Kuznicki J. Calcium-regulated interaction of Sgt1 with S100A6 (calcyclin) and other S100 proteins. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:26923-8 pubmed
    ..Sgt1 binds not only to S100A6 but also to S100B and S100P, other members of the S100 family...
  13. Steiner J, Westphal S, Schroeter M, Schiltz K, Jordan W, Muller U, et al. Increased S100B+ NK cell counts in acutely ill schizophrenia patients are correlated with the free cortisol index, but not with S100B serum levels. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26:564-7 pubmed publisher
    Several studies have provided evidence for increased S100B serum concentrations in schizophrenia...
  14. Qi L, Xiu M, Chen D, Wang F, Kosten T, Kosten T, et al. Increased serum S100B levels in chronic schizophrenic patients on long-term clozapine or typical antipsychotics. Neurosci Lett. 2009;462:113-7 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mainly produced and secreted by astrocytes, and it mediates the interaction among glial cells and between glial cells and neurons...
  15. Petzold A, Jenkins R, Watt H, Green A, Thompson E, Keir G, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid S100B correlates with brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2003;336:167-70 pubmed
    b>S100B is a predominantly astrocytic protein with dose-dependent cytotoxic and neurotrophic properties encoded on chromosome 21q22.3...
  16. Holtkamp K, Bühren K, Ponath G, von Eiff C, Herpertz Dahlmann B, Hebebrand J, et al. Serum levels of S100B are decreased in chronic starvation and normalize with weight gain. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2008;115:937-40 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B protein is mainly synthesized in glial cells and modulates the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation in neurons and glial cells...
  17. Chaves M, Camozzato A, Ferreira E, Piazenski I, Kochhann R, Dall Igna O, et al. Serum levels of S100B and NSE proteins in Alzheimer's disease patients. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:6 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated serum levels of S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in 54 mild, moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in 66 ..
  18. Lambert J, Ferreira S, Gussekloo J, Christiansen L, Brysbaert G, Slagboom E, et al. Evidence for the association of the S100beta gene with low cognitive performance and dementia in the elderly. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:870-80 pubmed
    Variations in the S100beta gene may be instrumental in producing a continuum from mild cognitive decline to overt dementia...
  19. James M, Blessing R, Phillips Bute B, Bennett E, Laskowitz D. S100B and brain natriuretic peptide predict functional neurological outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage. Biomarkers. 2009;14:388-94 pubmed publisher
    To determine the predictive value of S100b and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in order to determine accurately and quickly a discharge prognosis after primary supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH)...
  20. Gazzolo D, Marinoni E, Di Iorio R, Lituania M, Bruschettini P, Michetti F. Circulating S100beta protein is increased in intrauterine growth-retarded fetuses. Pediatr Res. 2002;51:215-9 pubmed
    To determine whether S100beta, an acidic calcium-binding protein previously demonstrated as a reliable indicator of a brain lesion, could be helpful in the detection of brain distress in intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) fetuses, we ..
  21. Falcone T, Fazio V, Lee C, Simon B, Franco K, Marchi N, et al. Serum S100B: a potential biomarker for suicidality in adolescents?. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11089 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum S100B is a marker of BBB function commonly used to study cerebrovascular wall function...
  22. Lin J, Yang Q, Wilder P, Carrier F, Weber D. The calcium-binding protein S100B down-regulates p53 and apoptosis in malignant melanoma. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:27487-98 pubmed publisher
    The S100B-p53 protein complex was discovered in C8146A malignant melanoma, but the consequences of this interaction required further study...
  23. Smith S, Shaw G. Assignment and secondary structure of calcium-bound human S100B. J Biomol NMR. 1997;10:77-88 pubmed
    The NMR assignments of backbone 1H, 13C, and 15N resonances for calcium-bound human S100B were completed via heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques...
  24. Steiner J, Bogerts B, Schroeter M, Bernstein H. S100B protein in neurodegenerative disorders. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49:409-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Because S100B is expressed in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, its concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum has been ..
  25. Steiner J, Bernstein H, Bielau H, Berndt A, Brisch R, Mawrin C, et al. Evidence for a wide extra-astrocytic distribution of S100B in human brain. BMC Neurosci. 2007;8:2 pubmed
    b>S100B is considered an astrocytic in-situ marker and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum are often used as biomarker for astrocytic damage or dysfunction. However, studies on S100B in the human brain are rare...
  26. Zhai J, Cheng L, Dong J, Shen Q, Zhang Q, Chen M, et al. S100B gene polymorphisms predict prefrontal spatial function in both schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals. Schizophr Res. 2012;134:89-94 pubmed publisher
    Animal studies have strongly implicated a role of S100B in spatial ability and our recent study of humans found that S100B gene polymorphisms (rs9722, rs1051169, and rs2839357) were associated with schizophrenia patients' spatial ability ..
  27. Rothermundt M, Ponath G, Glaser T, Hetzel G, Arolt V. S100B serum levels and long-term improvement of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:1004-11 pubmed
    b>S100B, a calcium-binding protein produced by astroglial cells, mediates paracrine and autocrine effects on neurons and glial cells...
  28. Gos T, Schroeter M, Lessel W, Bernstein H, Dobrowolny H, Schiltz K, et al. S100B-immunopositive astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the hippocampus are differentially afflicted in unipolar and bipolar depression: a postmortem study. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47:1694-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, it has been hypothesized that elevated S100B serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels may represent a suitable surrogate marker...
  29. Hamberg A, Korse C, Bonfrer J, de Gast G. Serum S100B is suitable for prediction and monitoring of response to chemoimmunotherapy in metastatic malignant melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2003;13:45-9 pubmed
    Serum S100B and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were evaluated for their ability to predict response in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma and to determine their usefulness in monitoring the results of chemoimmunotherapy...
  30. Millward T, Heizmann C, Schafer B, Hemmings B. Calcium regulation of Ndr protein kinase mediated by S100 calcium-binding proteins. EMBO J. 1998;17:5913-22 pubmed
    ..In vitro, S100B binds directly to and activates Ndr in a Ca2+-dependent manner...
  31. Oades R, Dauvermann M, Schimmelmann B, Schwarz M, Myint A. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and glial integrity: S100B, cytokines and kynurenine metabolism--effects of medication. Behav Brain Funct. 2010;6:29 pubmed publisher
    ..We pursued one test of the idea with measures of a neurotrophin reflecting glial integrity (S100B) and the influences of 8 cytokines on the metabolism of amino-acids, and of tryptophan/kynurenine to ..
  32. Kleindienst A, Meissner S, Eyupoglu I, Parsch H, Schmidt C, Buchfelder M. Dynamics of S100B release into serum and cerebrospinal fluid following acute brain injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2010;106:247-50 pubmed publisher
    High S100B serum levels are considered to reflect brain injury severity. However, the dynamics of S100B passage from the cerebral compartment into the blood remain unclear...
  33. Sorci G, Giovannini G, Riuzzi F, Bonifazi P, Zelante T, Zagarella S, et al. The danger signal S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001315 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which the danger molecule S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation...
  34. Steiner J, Schiltz K, Walter M, Wunderlich M, Keilhoff G, Brisch R, et al. S100B serum levels are closely correlated with body mass index: an important caveat in neuropsychiatric research. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35:321-4 pubmed publisher
    Elevated blood levels of S100B in neuropsychiatric disorders have so far been mainly attributed to glial pathologies. However, increases or dysfunction of adipose tissue may be alternatively responsible...
  35. Yelmo Cruz S, Morera Fumero A, Abreu Gonzalez P. S100B and schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2013;67:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In the last 2 decades, the S100B protein has made its own room in this area of research...
  36. Schroeter M, Steiner J. Elevated serum levels of the glial marker protein S100B are not specific for schizophrenia or mood disorders. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14:235-7 pubmed publisher
  37. Roche S, Cassidy F, Zhao C, Badger J, Claffey E, Mooney L, et al. Candidate gene analysis of 21q22: support for S100B as a susceptibility gene for bipolar affective disorder with psychosis. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:1094-6 pubmed
    ..Although this linkage only approaches significance, the peak marker is located 12 Kb upstream of S100B, a neurotrophic factor implicated in the pathology of psychiatric disorders, including BPAD and schizophrenia...
  38. Ostendorp T, Leclerc E, Galichet A, Koch M, Demling N, Weigle B, et al. Structural and functional insights into RAGE activation by multimeric S100B. EMBO J. 2007;26:3868-78 pubmed
    ..The EF-hand protein S100B is highly expressed in human brain...
  39. Sen J, Belli A. S100B in neuropathologic states: the CRP of the brain?. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:1373-80 pubmed
    In recent years there has been a proliferation of interest in the brain-specific protein S100B, its many physiologic roles, and its behaviour in various neuropathologic conditions...
  40. Bhattacharya S, Large E, Heizmann C, Hemmings B, Chazin W. Structure of the Ca2+/S100B/NDR kinase peptide complex: insights into S100 target specificity and activation of the kinase. Biochemistry. 2003;42:14416-26 pubmed
    ..The activity of NDR kinase is modulated in a Ca(2+)/S100B-dependent manner by phosphorylation of Ser281 in the catalytic domain and Thr444 in the C-terminal regulatory ..
  41. Suchankova P, Baghaei F, Rosmond R, Holm G, Anckarsater H, Ekman A. Genetic variability within the S100B gene influences the personality trait self-directedness. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36:919-23 pubmed publisher
    Elevated serum levels of S100B have proven useful as an indicator of brain-injury but have also been shown in patients diagnosed with psychiatric disorders...
  42. Liu J, Wang H, Zhang L, Xu Y, Deng W, Zhu H, et al. S100B transgenic mice develop features of Parkinson's disease. Arch Med Res. 2011;42:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook this study to establish the brain-specific S100B gene transgenic mice and investigate the role of S100B in the development of PD...
  43. Steiner J, Marquardt N, Pauls I, Schiltz K, Rahmoune H, Bahn S, et al. Human CD8(+) T cells and NK cells express and secrete S100B upon stimulation. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25:1233-41 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of S100B as a surrogate marker of brain-related pathologies, e.g. neuropsychiatric disorders, and melanoma progression, which have an inflammatory component...
  44. Netto C, Portela L, Ferreira C, Kieling C, Matte U, Felix T, et al. Ontogenetic changes in serum S100B in Down syndrome patients. Clin Biochem. 2005;38:433-5 pubmed
    It has been shown that Down syndrome (DS) patients have elevated S100B levels in brain tissue. Measurements of S100B were performed in serum samples from 48 DS patients and 42 ostensibly healthy age-matched controls...
  45. Tsoporis J, Izhar S, Leong Poi H, Desjardins J, Huttunen H, Parker T. S100B interaction with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE): a novel receptor-mediated mechanism for myocyte apoptosis postinfarction. Circ Res. 2010;106:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..infarction ventricular remodeling is associated with the expression of a variety of factors including S100B that can potentially modulate myocyte apoptosis...
  46. Liu Y, Buck D, Neve K. Novel interaction of the dopamine D2 receptor and the Ca2+ binding protein S100B: role in D2 receptor function. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:371-8 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B is a calcium-binding protein with both extracellular and intracellular regulatory activities in the mammalian brain. We have identified a novel interaction between S100B and the dopamine D(2) receptor...
  47. Rothermundt M, Peters M, Prehn J, Arolt V. S100B in brain damage and neurodegeneration. Microsc Res Tech. 2003;60:614-32 pubmed
    b>S100B is a calcium-binding peptide produced mainly by astrocytes that exert paracrine and autocrine effects on neurons and glia...
  48. Steiner J, Walter M, Wunderlich M, Bernstein H, Panteli B, Brauner M, et al. A new pathophysiological aspect of S100B in schizophrenia: potential regulation of S100B by its scavenger soluble RAGE. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;65:1107-10 pubmed publisher
    Several studies have reported elevated S100B serum levels in schizophrenia. Our study focused on its scavenger, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE)...
  49. Hofmann M, Drury S, Fu C, Qu W, Taguchi A, Lu Y, et al. RAGE mediates a novel proinflammatory axis: a central cell surface receptor for S100/calgranulin polypeptides. Cell. 1999;97:889-901 pubmed
    b>S100/calgranulin polypeptides are present at sites of inflammation, likely released by inflammatory cells targeted to such loci by a range of environmental cues...
  50. Dagdan E, Morris D, Campbell M, Hill M, Rothermundt M, Kästner F, et al. Functional assessment of a promoter polymorphism in S100B, a putative risk variant for bipolar disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011;156B:691-9 pubmed publisher
    Calcium-binding protein S100B has been implicated in the pathology of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) and schizophrenia (SZ). S100B protein levels are elevated in serum of patients with both disorders compared to controls...
  51. Jensen R, Marshak D, Anderson C, Lukas T, Watterson D. Characterization of human brain S100 protein fraction: amino acid sequence of S100 beta. J Neurochem. 1985;45:700-5 pubmed
    Two major components of human brain S100 fraction were purified by HPLC and an amino acid sequence was elucidated for the S100 beta component...
  52. Gazzolo D, Monego G, Corvino V, Bruschettini M, Bruschettini P, Zelano G, et al. Human milk contains S100B protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1619:209-12 pubmed
    The present study constitutes the first finding of the calcium-binding protein S100B and of its mRNA in human milk, as revealed by a quantitative immunoluminometric assay, by Western blot analysis and by reverse transcription-polymerase ..
  53. Baudier J, Mochly Rosen D, Newton A, Lee S, Koshland D, Cole R. Comparison of S100b protein with calmodulin: interactions with melittin and microtubule-associated tau proteins and inhibition of phosphorylation of tau proteins by protein kinase C. Biochemistry. 1987;26:2886-93 pubmed
    To gauge similarities between S100b protein and calmodulin, interactions were observed between S100b and melittin and between S100b and tau, the microtubule-associated proteins...
  54. Zhai J, Zhang Q, Cheng L, Chen M, Wang K, Liu Y, et al. Risk variants in the S100B gene, associated with elevated S100B levels, are also associated with visuospatial disability of schizophrenia. Behav Brain Res. 2011;217:363-8 pubmed publisher
    Rs9722 and rs1051169 have been reported as affecting the levels of S100B in the serum or the brain, and haplotypes containing these two SNPs have been associated with schizophrenia...
  55. McClintock K, Van Eldik L, Shaw G. The C-terminus and linker region of S100B exert dual control on protein-protein interactions with TRTK-12. Biochemistry. 2002;41:5421-8 pubmed
    S100B, an EF-hand calcium-binding protein composed of two S100beta monomers, undergoes a calcium-dependent conformational change that provides a surface for target interactions...
  56. Malik S, Revington M, Smith S, Shaw G. Analysis of the structure of human apo-S100B at low temperature indicates a unimodal conformational distribution is adopted by calcium-free S100 proteins. Proteins. 2008;73:28-42 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B is one of the best-characterized members of the calcium-signaling S100 protein family. Most S100 proteins are dimeric, with each monomer containing two EF-hand calcium-binding sites (EF1, EF2)...
  57. Leclerc E, Fritz G, Weibel M, Heizmann C, Galichet A. S100B and S100A6 differentially modulate cell survival by interacting with distinct RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) immunoglobulin domains. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31317-31 pubmed
    ..Here we compared the interaction of two S100 proteins, S100B and S100A6, with RAGE by in vitro assay and in culture of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells...
  58. Esposito G, Imitola J, Lu J, De Filippis D, Scuderi C, Ganesh V, et al. Genomic and functional profiling of human Down syndrome neural progenitors implicates S100B and aquaporin 4 in cell injury. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:440-57 pubmed
    ..Network analyses suggested that upregulated expression of chromosome 21 genes such as S100B and amyloid precursor protein activated the stress response kinase pathways, and furthermore, could be linked to ..
  59. Wilder P, Lin J, Bair C, Charpentier T, Yang D, Liriano M, et al. Recognition of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and other protein targets by the calcium-binding protein S100B. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1284-97 pubmed
    b>S100B is an EF-hand containing calcium-binding protein of the S100 protein family that exerts its biological effect by binding and affecting various target proteins...
  60. Zhang Y, Rothermundt M, Peters M, Wiesmann M, Hoy L, Arolt V, et al. S100B serum levels and word memory processing in remitted major depression as reflected by brain potentials. Neuropsychobiology. 2009;59:172-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This variability might be partly explained by biological factors. S100B is a glial calcium-binding protein with neuroplastic properties; S100B serum levels have been shown to be ..
  61. O Connell K, Thakore J, Dev K. Levels of S100B are raised in female patients with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:146 pubmed publisher
    The neurotrophic factor, S100B, is released primarily from astrocytes, with serum and CSF levels of S100B reported as altered in schizophrenia. However, many of these reports are contradictory...
  62. Pelinka L, Toegel E, Mauritz W, Redl H. Serum S 100 B: a marker of brain damage in traumatic brain injury with and without multiple trauma. Shock. 2003;19:195-200 pubmed
    ..693-0.783). Thus, though S 100 B may be a reliable marker of brain damage in TBI without multiple trauma 24 h after trauma and thereafter, it appears to be less reliable in TBI with multiple trauma. ..
  63. Esposito G, Scuderi C, Lu J, Savani C, De Filippis D, Iuvone T, et al. S100B induces tau protein hyperphosphorylation via Dickopff-1 up-regulation and disrupts the Wnt pathway in human neural stem cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:914-27 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies suggest that levels of the astrocyte-derived S100B protein, such as those occurring in brain extra-cellular spaces consequent to persistent astroglial activation, may have a pathogenetic role in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  64. Beer C, Blacker D, Bynevelt M, Hankey G, Puddey I. Systemic markers of inflammation are independently associated with S100B concentration: results of an observational study in subjects with acute ischaemic stroke. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:71 pubmed publisher
    ..vascular dysfunction and inflammation are independently associated with concentrations of the astroglial protein S100B, a marker of brain injury, in participants with acute ischaemic stroke...
  65. Yang K, Xie G, Hu Y, Mao F, Su L. The effects of gender and numbers of depressive episodes on serum S100B levels in patients with major depression. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2008;115:1687-94 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B protein is a calcium-binding protein mostly derived from glial cells, which exerts trophic or toxic effects on neural cell depending on its concentration...
  66. Weide B, Elsasser M, Buttner P, Pflugfelder A, Leiter U, Eigentler T, et al. Serum markers lactate dehydrogenase and S100B predict independently disease outcome in melanoma patients with distant metastasis. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:422-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum lactate dehydrogenases (LDH), S100B, the interval between initial diagnosis and occurrence of distant metastasis, the site of distant metastases, and ..
  67. Dempsey B, Shaw G. Identification of calcium-independent and calcium-enhanced binding between S100B and the dopamine D2 receptor. Biochemistry. 2011;50:9056-65 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B is a dimeric EF-hand protein that undergoes a calcium-induced conformational change and exposes a hydrophobic protein-binding surface...
  68. Schafer B, Heizmann C. The S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins: functions and pathology. Trends Biochem Sci. 1996;21:134-40 pubmed
    ..Novel links between EF-hand proteins, particularly S100 proteins, and specific diseases are now emerging.
  69. Garbuglia M, Verzini M, Donato R. Annexin VI binds S100A1 and S100B and blocks the ability of S100A1 and S100B to inhibit desmin and GFAP assemblies into intermediate filaments. Cell Calcium. 1998;24:177-91 pubmed
    ..phospholipid- and membrane-binding proteins, interacts with the Ca(2+)-regulated EF-hand proteins, S100A1 and S100B, and blocks the ability of these two proteins to inhibit the assembly of desmin and glial fibrillary acidic ..
  70. Goncalves C, Leite M, Nardin P. Biological and methodological features of the measurement of S100B, a putative marker of brain injury. Clin Biochem. 2008;41:755-63 pubmed publisher
    The S100B astroglial protein is widely used as a parameter of glial activation and/or death in several conditions of brain injury...