Gene Symbol: S100A9
Description: S100 calcium binding protein A9
Alias: 60B8AG, CAGB, CFAG, CGLB, L1AG, LIAG, MAC387, MIF, MRP14, NIF, P14, protein S100-A9, MRP-14, calgranulin B, calprotectin L1H subunit, leukocyte L1 complex heavy chain, migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14
Species: human
Products:     S100A9

Top Publications

  1. Kong J, Ding F, Zhou C, Wang X, Miao X, Wu M, et al. Loss of myeloid-related proteins 8 and myeloid-related proteins 14 expression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma correlates with poor differentiation. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:1093-7 pubmed
    ..in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and to investigate if there was any correlation between MRP8 and MRP14 expression level and histopathological grade in these tumors...
  2. Hirono K, Foell D, Xing Y, Miyagawa Tomita S, Ye F, Ahlmann M, et al. Expression of myeloid-related protein-8 and -14 in patients with acute Kawasaki disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:1257-64 pubmed
  3. Frosch M, Ahlmann M, Vogl T, Wittkowski H, Wulffraat N, Foell D, et al. The myeloid-related proteins 8 and 14 complex, a novel ligand of toll-like receptor 4, and interleukin-1beta form a positive feedback mechanism in systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:883-91 pubmed publisher
    ..MRP-8/MRP-14 and IL-1beta represent a novel positive feedback mechanism activating phagocytes via 2 major signaling pathways of innate immunity during the pathogenesis of systemic-onset JIA. ..
  4. van Zoelen M, Vogl T, Foell D, van Veen S, van Till J, Florquin S, et al. Expression and role of myeloid-related protein-14 in clinical and experimental sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:1098-106 pubmed publisher
    Myeloid-related protein-8 (MRP8) and MRP14 can form heterodimers that elicit a variety of inflammatory responses...
  5. Endoh Y, Chung Y, Clark I, Geczy C, Hsu K. IL-10-dependent S100A8 gene induction in monocytes/macrophages by double-stranded RNA. J Immunol. 2009;182:2258-68 pubmed publisher
    The S100 calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 are elevated systemically in patients with viral infections...
  6. Bianchi M, Niemiec M, Siler U, Urban C, Reichenbach J. Restoration of anti-Aspergillus defense by neutrophil extracellular traps in human chronic granulomatous disease after gene therapy is calprotectin-dependent. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:1243-52.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..induced NETs from human controls, and CGD neutrophils after GT in the presence or absence of Zn(2+) or ?-S100A9 antibody, and with induced NETs from wild-type or S100A9(-/-) mouse neutrophils...
  7. Nukui T, Ehama R, Sakaguchi M, Sonegawa H, Katagiri C, Hibino T, et al. S100A8/A9, a key mediator for positive feedback growth stimulation of normal human keratinocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:453-64 pubmed
    S100A8 and S100A9 are known to be up-regulated in hyperproliferative and psoriatic epidermis, but their function in epidermal keratinocytes remains largely unknown...
  8. Schelbergen R, Blom A, van den Bosch M, Sloetjes A, Abdollahi Roodsaz S, Schreurs B, et al. Alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 elicit a catabolic effect in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes that is dependent on Toll-like receptor 4. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:1477-87 pubmed publisher
    S100A8 and S100A9 are two Ca(2+) binding proteins classified as damage-associated molecular patterns or alarmins that are found in high amounts in the synovial fluid of osteoarthritis (OA) patients...
  9. Ghavami S, Kerkhoff C, Los M, Hashemi M, Sorg C, Karami Tehrani F. Mechanism of apoptosis induced by S100A8/A9 in colon cancer cell lines: the role of ROS and the effect of metal ions. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;76:169-75 pubmed

More Information


  1. Champaiboon C, Sappington K, Guenther B, Ross K, Herzberg M. Calprotectin S100A9 calcium-binding loops I and II are essential for keratinocyte resistance to bacterial invasion. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:7078-90 pubmed publisher
    Epithelial cells expressing calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins, are more resistant to bacterial invasion...
  2. Voss A, Bode G, Sopalla C, Benedyk M, Varga G, Bohm M, et al. Expression of S100A8/A9 in HaCaT keratinocytes alters the rate of cell proliferation and differentiation. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:440-6 pubmed publisher
    ..S100A8/A9 is induced in epithelial cells in response to stress. Therefore, S100A8/A9-mediated growth arrest could have implications for tissue remodeling and repair. ..
  3. Chen Y, Yan W, Geczy C, Brown M, Thomas R. Serum levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products and of S100 proteins are associated with inflammatory, autoantibody, and classical risk markers of joint and vascular damage in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:R39 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the serum levels of S100A9, S100A8, S100A12 and sRAGE in RA patients, to determine their relationship to inflammation and joint and vascular ..
  4. Ha T, Chang K, Kim J, Kim H, Kim S, Chong Y, et al. S100a9 knockdown decreases the memory impairment and the neuropathology in Tg2576 mice, AD animal model. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8840 pubmed publisher
    ..we performed microarray analysis with APP(V717I)-CT100 transgenic mice, an animal model of AD, and isolated the S100a9 gene, which encodes an inflammation-associated calcium binding protein...
  5. Leukert N, Vogl T, Strupat K, Reichelt R, Sorg C, Roth J. Calcium-dependent tetramer formation of S100A8 and S100A9 is essential for biological activity. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:961-72 pubmed
    ..The heterodimers of S100A8 and S100A9 represent the major calcium-binding proteins in phagocytes...
  6. Kerkhoff C, Hofmann H, Vormoor J, Melkonyan H, Roth J, Sorg C, et al. Binding of two nuclear complexes to a novel regulatory element within the human S100A9 promoter drives the S100A9 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:41879-87 pubmed
    b>S100A9, also referred to as MRP14, is a calcium-binding protein whose expression is tightly regulated during differentiation of myeloid cells...
  7. Vogl T, Ludwig S, Goebeler M, Strey A, Thorey I, Reichelt R, et al. MRP8 and MRP14 control microtubule reorganization during transendothelial migration of phagocytes. Blood. 2004;104:4260-8 pubmed
    MRP14 (S100A9) is the major calcium-binding protein of neutrophils and monocytes. Targeted gene disruption reveals an essential role of this S100 protein for transendothelial migration of phagocytes...
  8. Qin F, Song Y, Li Z, Zhao L, Zhang Y, Geng L. S100A8/A9 induces apoptosis and inhibits metastasis of CasKi human cervical cancer cells. Pathol Oncol Res. 2010;16:353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Deregulated expression of S100 proteins, including S100A9 and its partner S100A8, was reported to be associated with neoplastic disorders...
  9. Turovskaya O, Foell D, Sinha P, Vogl T, Newlin R, Nayak J, et al. RAGE, carboxylated glycans and S100A8/A9 play essential roles in colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:2035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In human colon tumor tissues and in a mouse model of CAC, we found that myeloid progenitors expressing S100A8 and S100A9 infiltrate regions of dysplasia and adenoma. mAbGB3...
  10. Propper C, Huang X, Roth J, Sorg C, Nacken W. Analysis of the MRP8-MRP14 protein-protein interaction by the two-hybrid system suggests a prominent role of the C-terminal domain of S100 proteins in dimer formation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:183-8 pubmed
    ..Using the two-hybrid system we analyzed the dimerization of MRP8 (S100A8) and MRP14 (S100A9), two S100 proteins expressed in myeloid cells...
  11. Ghavami S, Eshragi M, Ande S, Chazin W, Klonisch T, Halayko A, et al. S100A8/A9 induces autophagy and apoptosis via ROS-mediated cross-talk between mitochondria and lysosomes that involves BNIP3. Cell Res. 2010;20:314-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that S100A8/A9-promoted cell death occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via ROS and the process involves BNIP3. ..
  12. Kerkhoff C, Klempt M, Kaever V, Sorg C. The two calcium-binding proteins, S100A8 and S100A9, are involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid in human neutrophils. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:32672-9 pubmed
    Recently, we identified the two myeloid related protein-8 (MRP8) (S100A8) and MRP14 (S100A9) as fatty acid-binding proteins (Klempt, M., Melkonyan, H., Nacken, W., Wiesmann, D., Holtkemper, U., and Sorg, C. (1997) FEBS Lett. 408, 81-84)...
  13. Roth J, Burwinkel F, van den Bos C, Goebeler M, Vollmer E, Sorg C. MRP8 and MRP14, S-100-like proteins associated with myeloid differentiation, are translocated to plasma membrane and intermediate filaments in a calcium-dependent manner. Blood. 1993;82:1875-83 pubmed
    MRP8 and MRP14 are two Ca(2+)-binding proteins of the S-100 family expressed by myelomonocytic cells. Both proteins assemble to noncovalently associated complexes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner...
  14. Anceriz N, Vandal K, Tessier P. S100A9 mediates neutrophil adhesion to fibronectin through activation of beta2 integrins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;354:84-9 pubmed
    ..S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 are small abundant proteins found in human neutrophil cytosol and presumed to be involved in ..
  15. Edgeworth J, Freemont P, Hogg N. Ionomycin-regulated phosphorylation of the myeloid calcium-binding protein p14. Nature. 1989;342:189-92 pubmed
    ..are variously referred to as the cystic fibrosis antigen, the L1 light chain, MRP-8 or p8, and the L1 heavy chain, MRP14 or p14, respectively...
  16. Hoyaux D, Decaestecker C, Heizmann C, Vogl T, Schafer B, Salmon I, et al. S100 proteins in Corpora amylacea from normal human brain. Brain Res. 2000;867:280-8 pubmed
    ..the presence of different S100 proteins (S100A1, S100A2, S100A3, S100A4, S100A5, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A12 and S100B) in C.A. from normal human brain...
  17. Rodriguez Otero P, Porcher R, Peffault De Latour R, Contreras M, Bouhnik Y, Xhaard A, et al. Fecal calprotectin and alpha-1 antitrypsin predict severity and response to corticosteroids in gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease. Blood. 2012;119:5909-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that fecal calprotectin and ?(1)-AT levels at the time of diagnosis are predictive for responses to treatment but are not diagnostic markers for initial stage 1 to 3 GI-GVHD. ..
  18. Kerkhoff C, Klempt M, Sorg C. Novel insights into structure and function of MRP8 (S100A8) and MRP14 (S100A9). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1448:200-11 pubmed
    The two migration inhibitory factor- (MIF)-related protein-8 (MRP8; S100A8) and MRP14 (S100A9) are two calcium-binding proteins of the S100 family...
  19. Sunahori K, Yamamura M, Yamana J, Takasugi K, Kawashima M, Yamamoto H, et al. The S100A8/A9 heterodimer amplifies proinflammatory cytokine production by macrophages via activation of nuclear factor kappa B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R69 pubmed
    S100A8 and S100A9, two Ca2+-binding proteins of the S100 family, are secreted as a heterodimeric complex (S100A8/A9) from neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages...
  20. Newton R, Hogg N. The human S100 protein MRP-14 is a novel activator of the beta 2 integrin Mac-1 on neutrophils. J Immunol. 1998;160:1427-35 pubmed
    ..protein (MRP-14) and its heterodimeric partner, MRP-8, are members of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins (S100A9 and S100A8, respectively)...
  21. Ghavami S, Kerkhoff C, Chazin W, Kadkhoda K, Xiao W, Zuse A, et al. S100A8/9 induces cell death via a novel, RAGE-independent pathway that involves selective release of Smac/DIABLO and Omi/HtrA2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:297-311 pubmed
    ..Together, these data indicate that S100A8/A9-induced cell death involves Bak, selective release of Smac/DIABLO and Omi/HtrA2 from mitochondria, and modulation of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. ..
  22. Atallah M, Krispin A, Trahtemberg U, Ben Hamron S, Grau A, Verbovetski I, et al. Constitutive neutrophil apoptosis: regulation by cell concentration via S100 A8/9 and the MEK-ERK pathway. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29333 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism is suggested to have a fine-tuning role in regulating the neutrophil number in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and inflammatory sites. ..
  23. Odink K, Cerletti N, Bruggen J, Clerc R, Tarcsay L, Zwadlo G, et al. Two calcium-binding proteins in infiltrate macrophages of rheumatoid arthritis. Nature. 1987;330:80-2 pubmed
    ..Characterization of MRP-8 and MRP-14 could therefore be useful to the understanding of cellular processes induced in chronic inflammation. ..
  24. Nacken W, Kerkhoff C. The hetero-oligomeric complex of the S100A8/S100A9 protein is extremely protease resistant. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5127-30 pubmed
    S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 proteins are associated with inflammation and tissue remodelling, both processes known to be associated with high protease activity...
  25. Fagerberg U, Lööf L, Lindholm J, Hansson L, Finkel Y. Fecal calprotectin: a quantitative marker of colonic inflammation in children with inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007;45:414-20 pubmed
    ..Normalized FC concentration seems to indicate complete mucosal healing. FC is simple to obtain and analyze; this should facilitate objective assessment and monitoring of IBD activity. ..
  26. Moon A, Yong H, Song J, Cukovic D, Salagrama S, Kaplan D, et al. Global gene expression profiling unveils S100A8/A9 as candidate markers in H-ras-mediated human breast epithelial cell invasion. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:1544-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We then tested whether S100A8 and S100A9, two of the genes which are most highly up-regulated in an H-Ras-specific manner, play a causative role for H-Ras-..
  27. Kawai H, Minamiya Y, Takahashi N. Prognostic impact of S100A9 overexpression in non-small cell lung cancer. Tumour Biol. 2011;32:641-6 pubmed publisher
    S100 proteins have been implicated in the progression and metastasis of several cancers. Among the S100 family, S100A9 is reportedly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), though the clinical significance and prognostic value of ..
  28. Hermani A, Hess J, De Servi B, Medunjanin S, Grobholz R, Trojan L, et al. Calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 as novel diagnostic markers in human prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:5146-52 pubmed
    ..We examined the expression of two members of this family, S100A8 and S100A9, together with the S100 receptor RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) in human prostate ..
  29. Ryckman C, Vandal K, Rouleau P, Talbot M, Tessier P. Proinflammatory activities of S100: proteins S100A8, S100A9, and S100A8/A9 induce neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion. J Immunol. 2003;170:3233-42 pubmed
    S100A8 and S100A9 are small calcium-binding proteins that are highly expressed in neutrophil and monocyte cytosol and are found at high levels in the extracellular milieu during inflammatory conditions...
  30. Nacken W, Roth J, Sorg C, Kerkhoff C. S100A9/S100A8: Myeloid representatives of the S100 protein family as prominent players in innate immunity. Microsc Res Tech. 2003;60:569-80 pubmed
    ..As unspecific phagocytes, they belong to the so-called innate immunity. Two S100 proteins, namely S100A9 (MRP14) and S100A8 (MRP8), constitute roughly 40% of the cytosolic protein in these cells, implying by their pure ..
  31. Broome A, Ryan D, Eckert R. S100 protein subcellular localization during epidermal differentiation and psoriasis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2003;51:675-85 pubmed
    ..Our present studies compare the level of expression, and cellular localization of S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, and S100A11 in normal and psoriatic epidermis...
  32. Klingelhofer J, Senolt L, Baslund B, Nielsen G, Skibshøj I, Pavelka K, et al. Up-regulation of metastasis-promoting S100A4 (Mts-1) in rheumatoid arthritis: putative involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:779-89 pubmed
    ..The pattern of S100A4 expression differed significantly from that of the proinflammatory proteins S100A9 and S100A12, which were restricted to phagocytes and granulocytes...
  33. Ichikawa M, Williams R, Wang L, Vogl T, Srikrishna G. S100A8/A9 activate key genes and pathways in colon tumor progression. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:133-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice lacking S100A9 showed significantly reduced tumor incidence, growth and metastasis, reduced chemokine levels, and reduced ..
  34. Wang J, Cai Y, Xu H, Zhao J, Xu X, Han Y, et al. Expression of MRP14 gene is frequently down-regulated in Chinese human esophageal cancer. Cell Res. 2004;14:46-53 pubmed
    Migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14 (MRP14) is one of calcium-binding proteins, referred as S100A9. The heterodimeric molecule formed by MRP14 with its partner MRP8 (S100A8) is the major fatty acid carrier in neutrophils...
  35. Lagasse E, Clerc R. Cloning and expression of two human genes encoding calcium-binding proteins that are regulated during myeloid differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:2402-10 pubmed
    ..Two proteins, MRP8 and MRP14, which are expressed in infiltrate macrophages during inflammatory reactions but not in normal tissue macrophages, ..
  36. Hammer H, Fagerhol M, Wien T, Kvien T. The soluble biomarker calprotectin (an S100 protein) is associated to ultrasonographic synovitis scores and is sensitive to change in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with adalimumab. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R178 pubmed publisher
    Calprotectin (MRP8/MRP14, S100A8/A9) is associated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Ultrasonography (US) is a reliable method for evaluation of synovitis (B-mode (BM) and power Doppler (PD))...
  37. Viemann D, Strey A, Janning A, Jurk K, Klimmek K, Vogl T, et al. Myeloid-related proteins 8 and 14 induce a specific inflammatory response in human microvascular endothelial cells. Blood. 2005;105:2955-62 pubmed
    Myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP8) and MRP14, S100 proteins secreted by activated phagocytes, bind specifically to endothelial cells. The endothelial response to MRP8/MRP14, however, is unknown...
  38. Eggers K, Sikora K, Lorenz M, Taubert T, Moobed M, Baumann G, et al. RAGE-dependent regulation of calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 in human THP-1. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2011;119:353-7 pubmed publisher
    ..we determined the effects of proinflammatory cytokines on RAGE-mediated induction of gene expression of S100A8 and S100A9. mRNA levels of S100A8 and S100A9 were upregulated following cytokine stimulation with IL-6 (1, 10, 100?ng/ml) or ..
  39. Nemeth J, Stein I, Haag D, Riehl A, Longerich T, Horwitz E, et al. S100A8 and S100A9 are novel nuclear factor kappa B target genes during malignant progression of murine and human liver carcinogenesis. Hepatology. 2009;50:1251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..HCC) revealed a comprehensive list of known and novel putative NF-kappaB target genes, including S100a8 and S100a9. We detected increased co-expression of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins in mouse HCC cells, in human HCC tissue, and in ..
  40. Burkhardt K, Schwarz S, Pan C, Stelter F, Kotliar K, Von Eynatten M, et al. Myeloid-related protein 8/14 complex describes microcirculatory alterations in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009;8:10 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether myeloid-related protein 8/14 complex (MRP8/14) secreted by transmigrating monocytes and granulocytes may represent a biomarker for microvascular alterations in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy...
  41. Itou H, Yao M, Fujita I, Watanabe N, Suzuki M, Nishihira J, et al. The crystal structure of human MRP14 (S100A9), a Ca(2+)-dependent regulator protein in inflammatory process. J Mol Biol. 2002;316:265-76 pubmed
    Human MRP14 (hMRP14) is a Ca(2+)-binding protein from the S100 family of proteins...
  42. Andrés Cerezo L, Mann H, Pecha O, Pleštilová L, Pavelka K, Vencovsky J, et al. Decreases in serum levels of S100A8/9 (calprotectin) correlate with improvements in total swollen joint count in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R122 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, S100A8/9 might potentially be a predictive marker for improvement in the total number of swollen joints in patients in the early phase of RA. ..
  43. Madland T, Larsen A, Brun J. S100 proteins calprotectin and S100A12 are related to radiographic changes rather than disease activity in psoriatic arthritis with low disease activity. J Rheumatol. 2007;34:2089-92 pubmed
    To investigate serum levels of calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) and S100A12 as markers of disease activity or distinct clinical or radiographic features in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA)...
  44. Arai K, Takano S, Teratani T, Ito Y, Yamada T, Nozawa R. S100A8 and S100A9 overexpression is associated with poor pathological parameters in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2008;8:243-52 pubmed
    S100 protein A8 and A9 naturally form a stable heterocomplex. Recently, we have proved that S100A9 overexpression in various adenocarcinomas is associated with poor tumor differentiation...
  45. Bouma G, Lam Tse W, Wierenga Wolf A, Drexhage H, Versnel M. Increased serum levels of MRP-8/14 in type 1 diabetes induce an increased expression of CD11b and an enhanced adhesion of circulating monocytes to fibronectin. Diabetes. 2004;53:1979-86 pubmed
  46. Srikrishna G. S100A8 and S100A9: new insights into their roles in malignancy. J Innate Immun. 2012;4:31-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this regard, damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules such as S100A8 and S100A9, with well-known functions in inflammation, have been increasingly recognized not only as markers, but also as new ..
  47. Hermani A, De Servi B, Medunjanin S, Tessier P, Mayer D. S100A8 and S100A9 activate MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling pathways and trigger translocation of RAGE in human prostate cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:184-97 pubmed
    ..Deregulated expression of S100 proteins, including S100A8 and S100A9, was reported in association with neoplastic disorders...
  48. Frosch M, Vogl T, Seeliger S, Wulffraat N, Kuis W, Viemann D, et al. Expression of myeloid-related proteins 8 and 14 in systemic-onset juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2622-6 pubmed
  49. Wu R, Duan L, Ye L, Wang H, Yang X, Zhang Y, et al. S100A9 promotes the proliferation and invasion of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells via the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. Int J Oncol. 2013;42:1001-10 pubmed publisher
    The S100A9 protein, a member of the S100 protein family, is often upregulated in various types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  50. Viemann D, Barczyk K, Vogl T, Fischer U, Sunderkotter C, Schulze Osthoff K, et al. MRP8/MRP14 impairs endothelial integrity and induces a caspase-dependent and -independent cell death program. Blood. 2007;109:2453-60 pubmed
    Activated phagocytes express considerable amounts of MRP8 and MRP14, 2 calcium-binding S100 proteins forming stable heterodimers that are specifically secreted at inflammatory sites in many diseases...
  51. Vogl T, Leukert N, Barczyk K, Strupat K, Roth J. Biophysical characterization of S100A8 and S100A9 in the absence and presence of bivalent cations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1298-306 pubmed
    S100A8 and S100A9 are two proinflammatory molecules belonging to the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins...
  52. Luley K, Noack F, Lehnert H, Homann N. Local calprotectin production in colorectal cancer and polyps--active neutrophil recruitment in carcinogenesis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2011;26:603-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, its expression is closely related to an inflammatory response and points out a possible biological link between inflammation and neoplastic transformation in colorectal cancer. ..
  53. Riva M, Källberg E, Björk P, Hancz D, Vogl T, Roth J, et al. Induction of nuclear factor-?B responses by the S100A9 protein is Toll-like receptor-4-dependent. Immunology. 2012;137:172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we investigated the capacity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -free S100A9 (DAMP) protein to activate human and mouse cells compared with lipoprotein-free LPS (PAMP)...
  54. Su Y, Xu F, Yu J, Yue D, Ren X, Wang C. Up-regulation of the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in lung adenocarcinoma and its correlation with inflammation and other clinical features. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:2215-20 pubmed
    S100A8 and S100A9 are two members of the S100 protein family characterized by the presence of two Ca2+-binding sites of the EF-hand type...
  55. Simard J, Girard D, Tessier P. Induction of neutrophil degranulation by S100A9 via a MAPK-dependent mechanism. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:905-14 pubmed publisher
    b>S100A9 is a proinflammatory protein, expressed abundantly in the cytosol of neutrophils and monocytes...
  56. Kwon C, Moon H, Park H, Choi J, Park D. S100A8 and S100A9 promotes invasion and migration through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent NF-?B activation in gastric cancer cells. Mol Cells. 2013;35:226-34 pubmed publisher
    S100A8 and S100A9 (S100A8/A9) are low-molecular weight members of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins. Recent studies have reported S100A8/A9 promote tumorigenesis...
  57. Ahmad A, Bayley D, He S, Stockley R. Myeloid related protein-8/14 stimulates interleukin-8 production in airway epithelial cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003;29:523-30 pubmed
  58. Shepherd C, Goyette J, Utter V, Rahimi F, Yang Z, Geczy C, et al. Inflammatory S100A9 and S100A12 proteins in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2006;27:1554-63 pubmed
    ..S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 comprise a new group of inflammation-associated proteins that are constitutively expressed by ..
  59. Lominadze G, Rane M, Merchant M, Cai J, Ward R, McLeish K. Myeloid-related protein-14 is a p38 MAPK substrate in human neutrophils. J Immunol. 2005;174:7257-67 pubmed
    ..Direct phosphorylation of the MRP-14/MRP-8 complex by p38 MAPK increased actin binding in vitro by 2-fold. These results indicate that MRP-14 is a potential mediator of p38 MAPK-dependent functional responses in human neutrophils. ..
  60. Abtin A, Eckhart L, Gläser R, Gmeiner R, Mildner M, Tschachler E. The antimicrobial heterodimer S100A8/S100A9 (calprotectin) is upregulated by bacterial flagellin in human epidermal keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2423-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the regulation of S100A8 (calgranulin A) and S100A9 (calgranulin B), which form an antimicrobial heterodimeric complex also known as calprotectin, in KCs...
  61. Bando M, Zou X, Hiroshima Y, Kataoka M, Ross K, Shinohara Y, et al. Mechanism of interleukin-1? transcriptional regulation of S100A9 in a human epidermal keratinocyte cell line. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1829:954-62 pubmed publisher
    b>S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein and subunit of antimicrobial calprotectin complex (S100A8/A9). Produced by neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages and keratinocytes, S100A9 expression increases in response to inflammation...
  62. Ehlermann P, Eggers K, Bierhaus A, Most P, Weichenhan D, Greten J, et al. Increased proinflammatory endothelial response to S100A8/A9 after preactivation through advanced glycation end products. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2006;5:6 pubmed
    ..identified as ligands of RAGE, we sought to determine the effects of the proinflammatory heterodimer of S100A8/S100A9 on the RAGE-NFkappaB mediated induction of proinflammatory gene expression...
  63. Vogl T, Gharibyan A, Morozova Roche L. Pro-inflammatory S100A8 and S100A9 proteins: self-assembly into multifunctional native and amyloid complexes. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13:2893-917 pubmed publisher
    S100A8 and S100A9 are EF-hand Ca(2+) binding proteins belonging to the S100 family...
  64. McCormick M, Rahimi F, Bobryshev Y, Gaus K, Zreiqat H, Cai H, et al. S100A8 and S100A9 in human arterial wall. Implications for atherogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41521-9 pubmed
    Atherogenesis is a complex process involving inflammation. S100A8 and S100A9, the Ca2+-binding neutrophil cytosolic proteins, are associated with innate immunity and regulate processes leading to leukocyte adhesion and transmigration...
  65. Kerkhoff C, Nacken W, Benedyk M, Dagher M, Sopalla C, Doussiere J. The arachidonic acid-binding protein S100A8/A9 promotes NADPH oxidase activation by interaction with p67phox and Rac-2. FASEB J. 2005;19:467-9 pubmed
    ..its functional relevance by the impaired oxidase activity in neutrophil-like NB4 cells, after specific blockage of S100A9 expression, and bone marrow polymorphonuclear neutrophils from S100A9-/- mice...
  66. Eue I, Pietz B, Storck J, Klempt M, Sorg C. Transendothelial migration of 27E10+ human monocytes. Int Immunol. 2000;12:1593-604 pubmed
    The myeloid-related proteins MRP8 (S100A8) and MRP14 (S100A9), two members of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, are co-expressed and form a cell-surface and cytoskeleton-associated heterodimer upon calcium mobilization which is ..
  67. Yanamandra K, Alexeyev O, Zamotin V, Srivastava V, Shchukarev A, Brorsson A, et al. Amyloid formation by the pro-inflammatory S100A8/A9 proteins in the ageing prostate. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5562 pubmed publisher
    ..diagnosed with prostate cancer we have revealed that their major components are the amyloid forms of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins associated with numerous inflammatory conditions and types of cancer...
  68. Soyfoo M, Roth J, Vogl T, Pochet R, Decaux G. Phagocyte-specific S100A8/A9 protein levels during disease exacerbations and infections in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:2190-4 pubmed publisher
    S100A8 and S100A9 are calcium binding proteins of the S100 family highly expressed in neutrophils and monocytes. S100 proteins are novel ligands of TLR4 important in modulating inflammation...
  69. Lood C, Stenstrom M, Tydén H, Gullstrand B, Källberg E, Leanderson T, et al. Protein synthesis of the pro-inflammatory S100A8/A9 complex in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and cell surface S100A8/A9 on leukocyte subpopulations in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R60 pubmed publisher
    ..The heterodimer of the cytosolic calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 (S100A8/A9) is secreted by activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and monocytes and serves as a serum ..
  70. Ghavami S, Rashedi I, Dattilo B, Eshraghi M, Chazin W, Hashemi M, et al. S100A8/A9 at low concentration promotes tumor cell growth via RAGE ligation and MAP kinase-dependent pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:1484-92 pubmed publisher
    ..RAGE small interfering RNA pretreatment abrogated the S100A8/A9-induced NF-kappaB activation. Our data indicate that S100A8/A9-promoted cell growth occurs through RAGE signaling and activation of NF-kappaB. ..
  71. Zhao F, Hoechst B, Duffy A, Gamrekelashvili J, Fioravanti S, Manns M, et al. S100A9 a new marker for monocytic human myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Immunology. 2012;136:176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified members of the S100 protein family-S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 - specifically expressed in CD14(+) HLA-DR(-/low) MDSC...
  72. Schafer B, Wicki R, Engelkamp D, Mattei M, Heizmann C. Isolation of a YAC clone covering a cluster of nine S100 genes on human chromosome 1q21: rationale for a new nomenclature of the S100 calcium-binding protein family. Genomics. 1995;25:638-43 pubmed
    ..The new nomenclature should facilitate and further the understanding of this protein family and be easily expandable to other species. ..
  73. Hibino T, Sakaguchi M, Miyamoto S, Yamamoto M, Motoyama A, Hosoi J, et al. S100A9 is a novel ligand of EMMPRIN that promotes melanoma metastasis. Cancer Res. 2013;73:172-83 pubmed publisher
    The calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 can dimerize to form calprotectin, the release of which during tissue damage has been implicated in inflammation and metastasis...
  74. Yui S, Nakatani Y, Hunter M, Chazin W, Yamazaki M. Implication of extracellular zinc exclusion by recombinant human calprotectin (MRP8 and MRP14) from target cells in its apoptosis-inducing activity. Mediators Inflamm. 2002;11:165-72 pubmed
    ..of 8 and 14 kDa subunits, which have also been termed migration inhibitory factor-related proteins MRP8 and MRP14. We previously reported that rat calprotectin purified from inflammatory neutrophils induces apoptosis of various ..
  75. Healy A, Pickard M, Pradhan A, Wang Y, Chen Z, Croce K, et al. Platelet expression profiling and clinical validation of myeloid-related protein-14 as a novel determinant of cardiovascular events. Circulation. 2006;113:2278-84 pubmed
    ..MRP-14 expression increases before STEMI, and increasing plasma concentrations of MRP-8/14 among healthy individuals predict the risk of future cardiovascular events. ..
  76. Inaba H, Hokamura K, Nakano K, Nomura R, Katayama K, Nakajima A, et al. Upregulation of S100 calcium-binding protein A9 is required for induction of smooth muscle cell proliferation by a periodontal pathogen. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA microarray analysis revealed a P. gingivalis-dependent upregulation of S100A9 in hAOSMCs. Small interference-RNA for S100A9 dramatically attenuated the effect of P...
  77. Sroussi H, Köhler G, Agabian N, Villines D, Palefsky J. Substitution of methionine 63 or 83 in S100A9 and cysteine 42 in S100A8 abrogate the antifungal activities of S100A8/A9: potential role for oxidative regulation. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009;55:55-61 pubmed publisher
    S100A8 and S100A9 and their heterocomplex calprotectin (S100A8/A9) are abundant cytosolic constituents in human neutrophils previously shown to possess antifungal activity...
  78. Schafer B, Heizmann C. The S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins: functions and pathology. Trends Biochem Sci. 1996;21:134-40 pubmed
    ..Novel links between EF-hand proteins, particularly S100 proteins, and specific diseases are now emerging. ..
  79. Volz H, Laohachewin D, Seidel C, Lasitschka F, Keilbach K, Wienbrandt A, et al. S100A8/A9 aggravates post-ischemic heart failure through activation of RAGE-dependent NF-?B signaling. Basic Res Cardiol. 2012;107:250 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides evidence that sustained activation of S100A8/A9 critically contributes to the development of post-ischemic HF driving the progressive course of HF through activation of RAGE. ..
  80. Leach S, Yang Z, Messina I, Song C, Geczy C, Cunningham A, et al. Serum and mucosal S100 proteins, calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) and S100A12, are elevated at diagnosis in children with inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:1321-31 pubmed
    ..sRAGE levels were not increased in IBD. S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 were abundantly expressed throughout the lamina propria and epithelium in inflamed mucosa...
  81. Simard J, Simon M, Tessier P, Girard D. Damage-associated molecular pattern S100A9 increases bactericidal activity of human neutrophils by enhancing phagocytosis. J Immunol. 2011;186:3622-31 pubmed publisher
    The damage-associated molecular-pattern S100A9 is found at inflammatory sites in infections and various autoimmune diseases...