Gene Symbol: RXR
Description: retinoid X receptor gamma
Alias: NR2B3, RXRC, retinoic acid receptor RXR-gamma, nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group B member 3
Species: human
Products:     RXR

Top Publications

  1. Hasstedt S, Chu W, Das S, Wang H, Elbein S. Type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes on chromosome 1q21-24. Ann Hum Genet. 2008;72:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotypes of these 5 variant pairs accounted for 25.8% of the genetic variance in T2D in these pedigrees. ..
  2. Nohara A, Kawashiri M, Claudel T, Mizuno M, Tsuchida M, Takata M, et al. High frequency of a retinoid X receptor gamma gene variant in familial combined hyperlipidemia that associates with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:923-8 pubmed
    ..01). In vitro, RXRgamma Ser14 showed significantly stronger repression of the lipoprotein lipase promoter than RXRgamma Gly14. These findings suggest that RXRgamma contributes to the genetic background of FCHL. ..
  3. Dong X, Shi M, Lee M, Toro R, Gravina S, Han W, et al. Global, integrated analysis of methylomes and transcriptomes from laser capture microdissected bronchial and alveolar cells in human lung. Epigenetics. 2018;13:264-274 pubmed publisher
    ..bronchial cell discriminant nodes. Our results show that multi-omic analysis of small, highly specific cells is feasible and yields unique physiologic loci distinguishing human lung cell types in situ. ..
  4. Majer A, Medina S, Sorensen D, Martin M, Frost K, Phillipson C, et al. The cell type resolved mouse transcriptome in neuron-enriched brain tissues from the hippocampus and cerebellum during prion disease. Sci Rep. 2019;9:1099 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note, we found a small number of genes expressed in neurons that were upregulated during clinical disease including, COX6A2, FZD9, RXRG and SOX11, that may be biomarkers of neurodegeneration. ..
  5. McCullough K, Daskalakis N, Gafford G, Morrison F, Ressler K. Cell-type-specific interrogation of CeA Drd2 neurons to identify targets for pharmacological modulation of fear extinction. Transl Psychiatry. 2018;8:164 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct pharmacological manipulation of NPY5R, RXR, and ADORA2A confirms the importance of this cell population and these cell-type-specific receptors in fear ..
  6. Chen Y, Pei D, Hung Y, Lee C, Hsiao F, Wu C, et al. Associations between genetic variants and the severity of metabolic syndrome in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:2518-26 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no gender-specific effect. In conclusion, our results suggest that among the Han Chinese population, several SNPs increase the risk of severe MetS in T2D subjects. Further study in a large population should be conducted. ..
  7. Schulten H, Al Mansouri Z, Baghallab I, Bagatian N, Subhi O, Karim S, et al. Comparison of microarray expression profiles between follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas and follicular adenomas of the thyroid. BMC Genomics. 2015;16 Suppl 1:S7 pubmed publisher
    ..A set of differentially expressed genes has been identified that contains valuable candidate genes to differentiate both histopathologically related tumor types on the molecular level. ..
  8. Park S, Lee Y, Ko E, Kim J. Regulation of retinoid X receptor gamma expression by fed state in mouse liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;458:134-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, three isotypes of RXRs have been identified; RXRα, RXRβ and RXRγ...
  9. Rambow F, Rogiers A, Marín Béjar O, Aibar S, Femel J, Dewaele M, et al. Toward Minimal Residual Disease-Directed Therapy in Melanoma. Cell. 2018;174:843-855.e19 pubmed publisher
    ..An RXR antagonist mitigated accumulation of NCSCs in MRD and delayed the development of resistance...

More Information


  1. Cui X, Cui H, Liu L, Zhao G, Liu R, Li Q, et al. Decreased testosterone levels after caponization leads to abdominal fat deposition in chickens. BMC Genomics. 2018;19:344 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide increase our understanding of the biological mechanisms by which caponization induces greater fat accumulation. ..
  2. Kovalevich J, Yen W, Ozdemir A, Langford D. Cocaine induces nuclear export and degradation of neuronal retinoid X receptor-γ via a TNF-α/JNK- mediated mechanism. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015;10:55-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we have previously reported a decrease in retinoid-X-receptor-gamma (RXR-γ) in brains of mice chronically exposed to cocaine...
  3. Vimaleswaran K, Cavadino A, Berry D, Mangino M, Andrews P, Moore J, et al. Interaction between allelic variations in vitamin D receptor and retinoid X receptor genes on metabolic traits. BMC Genet. 2014;15:37 pubmed publisher
    ..17). Our results did not provide strong evidence for interactions between allelic variations in VDR and RXRG genes on metabolic outcomes; however, further replication studies on large samples are needed to confirm our findings. ..
  4. Brooks K, Burns G, Spencer T. Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG) regulates conceptus elongation in sheep. Biol Reprod. 2015;92:42 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, results support the hypothesis that PTGS2-derived PGs and PPARG are essential regulators of conceptus elongation, with specific roles in trophectoderm survival and proliferation. ..
  5. Gely Pernot A, Raverdeau M, Teletin M, Vernet N, Féret B, Klopfenstein M, et al. Retinoic Acid Receptors Control Spermatogonia Cell-Fate and Induce Expression of the SALL4A Transcription Factor. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005501 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that ATRA activates RAR and RXR bound to a conserved regulatory region to increase expression of the SALL4A transcription factor in spermatogonia...
  6. Poma A, Giannini R, Piaggi P, Ugolini C, Materazzi G, Miccoli P, et al. A six-gene panel to label follicular adenoma, low- and high-risk follicular thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Connect. 2018;7:124-132 pubmed publisher
    ..The capability of these six genes to stratify benign, low- and high-risk lesions appears to be promising in supporting the diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules. ..
  7. Aavani T, Tachibana N, Wallace V, Biernaskie J, Schuurmans C. Temporal profiling of photoreceptor lineage gene expression during murine retinal development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2017;23-24:32-44 pubmed publisher
    ..By characterizing these stages, we have clarified the dynamic nature of gene expression during the period when photoreceptor identities are progressively acquired during development. ..
  8. Yang Q, Wang P, Cui J, Wang W, Chen Y, Zhang T. Panax notoginseng saponins attenuate lung cancer growth in part through modulating the level of Met/miR-222 axis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;193:255-265 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased understanding of the anti-tumor mechanisms of PNS may provide further experimental evidence to help optimize the therapeutic modalities for the treatment of lung cancer and other types of cancer. ..
  9. Ashbrook D, Williams R, Lu L, Hager R. A cross-species genetic analysis identifies candidate genes for mouse anxiety and human bipolar disorder. Front Behav Neurosci. 2015;9:171 pubmed publisher
    ..CMYA5, MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR are associated with mouse anxiety and human BD. We hypothesize that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR influence intercellular signaling in the striatum. ..
  10. Blitek A, Szymanska M. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms are differentially expressed in peri-implantation porcine conceptuses. Theriogenology. 2017;101:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we analyzed the abundance of retinoid X receptor (RXR; PPARs heterodimer partner) transcripts as well as the correlation between PPARs mRNA expression and the expression ..
  11. Yusta B, Alarid E, Gordon D, Ridgway E, Mellon P. The thyrotropin beta-subunit gene is repressed by thyroid hormone in a novel thyrotrope cell line, mouse T alphaT1 cells. Endocrinology. 1998;139:4476-82 pubmed
  12. Li H, Bai B, Zhang Q, Bao Y, Guo J, Chen S, et al. Ectopic cross-talk between thyroid and retinoic acid signaling: A possible etiology for spinal neural tube defects. Gene. 2015;573:254-60 pubmed publisher
  13. Mangelsdorf D, Borgmeyer U, Heyman R, Zhou J, Ong E, Oro A, et al. Characterization of three RXR genes that mediate the action of 9-cis retinoic acid. Genes Dev. 1992;6:329-44 pubmed
    An understanding of the differences and similarities of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and retinoic acid receptor (RAR) systems requires knowledge of the diversity of their family members, their patterns of expression, and their ..
  14. Ishaq M, Lin B, Bosche M, Zheng X, Yang J, Huang D, et al. LIM kinase 1 - dependent cofilin 1 pathway and actin dynamics mediate nuclear retinoid receptor function in T lymphocytes. BMC Mol Biol. 2011;12:41 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that T cell activation-induced repression of nuclear receptor-dependent transactivation is in part through the modification of actin dynamics. ..
  15. Dawson M, Xia Z. The retinoid X receptors and their ligands. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1821:21-56 pubmed publisher
    ..had been originally designed to interact with other targets, as well as those that were deliberately designed as RXR-selective transcriptional agonists, synergists, or antagonists...
  16. Passoni M, De Conti L, Baralle M, Buratti E. UG repeats/TDP-43 interactions near 5' splice sites exert unpredictable effects on splicing modulation. J Mol Biol. 2012;415:46-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The general rule that can be drawn at the moment is that the importance of UG repeats near 5' splice sites should always be experimentally validated on a case-by-case basis. ..
  17. Melo F, Couto P, Bale A, Bastos Rodrigues L, Passos F, Lisboa R, et al. Whole-exome identifies RXRG and TH germline variants in familial isolated prolactinoma. Cancer Genet. 2016;209:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the RXRG and TH possibly pathogenic variants may be associated with isolated prolactinoma in the studied family. The possible contribution of these genes to additional FIPA families should be explored. ..
  18. Muscat G, Mynett Johnson L, Dowhan D, Downes M, Griggs R. Activation of myoD gene transcription by 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine: a direct role for the thyroid hormone and retinoid X receptors. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:583-91 pubmed
    ..alpha (TR alpha) formed a heterodimeric complex, with either the retinoid X receptor alpha or gamma 1 isoforms (RXR alpha, RXR gamm), on the MyoD TRE that was specifically competed by other well characterised TREs and not by other ..
  19. Leid M, Kastner P, Lyons R, Nakshatri H, Saunders M, Zacharewski T, et al. Purification, cloning, and RXR identity of the HeLa cell factor with which RAR or TR heterodimerizes to bind target sequences efficiently. Cell. 1992;68:377-95 pubmed
    ..The purified protein is a human retinoid X receptor beta (hRXR beta). Three murine members of the RXR family (mRXR alpha, beta, and gamma) have also been cloned, and their interactions with RARs and TRs have been ..
  20. Brabender J, Danenberg K, Metzger R, Schneider P, Lord R, Groshen S, et al. The role of retinoid X receptor messenger RNA expression in curatively resected non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8:438-43 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that suppressed RXR expression might be a prognostic factor of worse clinical outcome in patients with NSCLC...
  21. Wang K, Narayanan M, Zhong H, Tompa M, Schadt E, Zhu J. Meta-analysis of inter-species liver co-expression networks elucidates traits associated with common human diseases. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000616 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our approach represents a novel step forward in integrating gene co-expression networks from multiple large scale datasets to leverage not only common information but also differences that are dataset-specific. ..
  22. Kalra R, Bapat S. Expression proteomics predicts loss of RXR-γ during progression of epithelial ovarian cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70398 pubmed publisher
    ..of the proteins exclusively associated with pre-transformed cells identified four cellular processes of which RXR-γ is known to modulate cellular differentiation and apoptosis...
  23. Ellison T, Dowd D, MacDonald P. Calmodulin-dependent kinase IV stimulates vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:2309-19 pubmed
  24. Nagata T, Weiss E, Abe K, Kitagawa K, Ando A, Yara Kikuti Y, et al. Physical mapping of the retinoid X receptor B gene in mouse and human. Immunogenetics. 1995;41:83-90 pubmed
    ..We previously mapped all three RXR genes on mouse chromosomes, using a panel of Mus spretus-Mus musculus interspecific backcross mice: Namely, the ..
  25. Coignet M, Zirpoli G, Roberts M, Khoury T, Bandera E, Zhu Q, et al. Genetic variations, reproductive aging, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women: The Women's Circle of Health Study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187205 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the paucity of data available among AA populations, our study contributes to the literature of genetics of reproductive aging in AA women and highlights the importance of cross population replication of GWAS variants...
  26. Xu X, Sozzi G, Lee J, Lee J, Pastorino U, Pilotti S, et al. Suppression of retinoic acid receptor beta in non-small-cell lung cancer in vivo: implications for lung cancer development. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89:624-9 pubmed
    ..paraffin-embedded specimens by use of digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes specific for RAR alpha, RAR beta, RAR gamma, RXR alpha, RXR beta, and RXR gamma for in situ hybridization to histologic specimens from 79 patients with NSCLC and as ..
  27. Wansa K, Harris J, Muscat G. The activation function-1 domain of Nur77/NR4A1 mediates trans-activation, cell specificity, and coactivator recruitment. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:33001-11 pubmed
    ..Moreover, SRC-2 dramatically potentiates the retinoid induced RXR-dependent activation of the Nur77 ligand binding domain (LBD)...
  28. Wang Q, Fujii H, Knipp G. Expression of PPAR and RXR isoforms in the developing rat and human term placentas. Placenta. 2002;23:661-71 pubmed
    ..patterns of expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) isoforms in the junctional and labyrinth zones of the developing rat chorioallantoic placenta and in human term ..
  29. Kimura Y, Suzuki T, Kaneko C, Darnel A, Moriya T, Suzuki S, et al. Retinoid receptors in the developing human lung. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002;103:613-21 pubmed
    ..are classified into retinoic acid receptor (RAR) isoforms alpha, beta, and gamma and retinoid X receptor (RXR) isoforms alpha, beta, and gamma...
  30. Argmann C, Sawyez C, McNeil C, Hegele R, Huff M. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor results in net depletion of cellular cholesteryl esters in macrophages exposed to oxidized lipoproteins. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:475-82 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to determine whether activation of PPARgamma or its obligate heterodimer, retinoid X receptor (RXR), modulates macrophage foam cell formation induced by oxidized (ox) lipoproteins.
  31. Doecke J, Zhao Z, Stark M, Green A, Hayward N, Montgomery G, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes and the risk of esophageal cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:1007-12 pubmed publisher
    ..0 kg/m(2), 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2), >30 kg/m(2)). In conclusion, our data suggest that these SNPs do not play a major role in esophageal carcinogenesis. ..
  32. Szanto A, Narkar V, Shen Q, Uray I, Davies P, Nagy L. Retinoid X receptors: X-ploring their (patho)physiological functions. Cell Death Differ. 2004;11 Suppl 2:S126-43 pubmed
    Retinoid X receptor (RXR) belongs to a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate many aspects of metazoan life. A class of nuclear receptors requires RXR as heterodimerization partner for their function...
  33. Safi R, Muramoto G, Salter A, Meadows S, Himburg H, Russell L, et al. Pharmacological manipulation of the RAR/RXR signaling pathway maintains the repopulating capacity of hematopoietic stem cells in culture. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:188-201 pubmed publisher
    The retinoid X receptor (RXR) contributes to the regulation of diverse biological pathways via its role as a heterodimeric partner of several nuclear receptors...
  34. Koutsounas I, Giaginis C, Alexandrou P, Zizi Serbetzoglou A, Patsouris E, Kouraklis G, et al. Pregnane X Receptor Expression in Human Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Associations With Clinicopathologic Parameters, Tumor Proliferative Capacity, Patients' Survival, and Retinoid X Receptor Expression. Pancreas. 2015;44:1134-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Pregnane X receptor and its heterodimers' PXR/retinoid X receptor α (RXR-α), RXR-β, and RXR-γ expression were assessed immunohistochemically on tumoral samples from 55 pancreatic ..
  35. Borland M, Khozoie C, Albrecht P, Zhu B, Lee C, Lahoti T, et al. Stable over-expression of PPAR?/? and PPAR? to examine receptor signaling in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Cell Signal. 2011;23:2039-50 pubmed publisher
  36. Nakagawa T, Matsusaka K, Misawa K, Ota S, Takane K, Fukuyo M, et al. Frequent promoter hypermethylation associated with human papillomavirus infection in pharyngeal cancer. Cancer Lett. 2017;407:21-31 pubmed publisher
    ..03). Thus, aberrant DNA methylation might be involved in HPV-associated OPSCC; in addition, DNA methylation could serve as a marker to classify subgroups based on outcome. ..
  37. Liu Z, Merkurjev D, Yang F, Li W, Oh S, Friedman M, et al. Enhancer activation requires trans-recruitment of a mega transcription factor complex. Cell. 2014;159:358-73 pubmed publisher
  38. Oh H, Bodelon C, Palakal M, Chatterjee N, Sherman M, Linville L, et al. Ages at menarche- and menopause-related genetic variants in relation to terminal duct lobular unit involution in normal breast tissue. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016;158:341-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the loci associated with ages at menarche and menopause may influence TDLU involution, suggesting some shared genetic mechanisms. However, larger studies are needed to confirm the results. ..
  39. Macejova D, Galbavy S, Podoba J, Bialešová L, Brtko J. mRNA expression pattern of retinoic acid and retinoid X nuclear receptor subtypes in human thyroid papillary carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:2371-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate retinoic acid nuclear receptor subtypes RAR/RXR and iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase, type I expression pattern in papillary thyroid tumour tissue of 26 patients in ..
  40. Shi A, Wen J, Liu G, Liu H, Fu Z, Zhou J, et al. Genetic variants in vitamin D signaling pathways and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Oncotarget. 2016;7:67788-67795 pubmed publisher
    ..Further validation studies with different ethnic background and biological function analyses were needed. ..
  41. Sanno N, Sugawara A, Teramoto A, Abe Y, Yen P, Chin W, et al. Immunohistochemical expression of retinoid X receptor isoforms in human pituitaries and pituitary adenomas. Neuroendocrinology. 1997;65:299-306 pubmed
    ..There are 3 RXR isoforms-alpha, beta, gamma-known to bind 9-cis-retinoic acid as their ligand...
  42. Reichrath J, Mittmann M, Kamradt J, Muller S. Expression of retinoid-X receptors (-alpha,-beta,-gamma) and retinoic acid receptors (-alpha,-beta,-gamma) in normal human skin: an immunohistological evaluation. Histochem J. 1997;29:127-33 pubmed
    Increasing evidence suggests that the retinoid-X receptors (RXR-alpha,-beta,-gamma) play a crucial role in regulating the transcriptional activity of several steroid hormone receptors, including the receptors for retinoic acid (RAR-alpha,..
  43. Hou Z, Peng H, White D, Negorev D, Maul G, Feng Y, et al. LIM protein Ajuba functions as a nuclear receptor corepressor and negatively regulates retinoic acid signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2938-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The high-affinity Ajuba-RAR/RXR interaction site overlaps the region responsible for Ajuba/Prmt5 binding, and thus binding appears to be mutually ..
  44. Le Clerc S, Limou S, Coulonges C, Carpentier W, Dina C, Taing L, et al. Genomewide association study of a rapid progression cohort identifies new susceptibility alleles for AIDS (ANRS Genomewide Association Study 03). J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the wealth of information provided by this study should help unravel new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. ..
  45. Li D, Wang F, Samuels H. Domain structure of the NRIF3 family of coregulators suggests potential dual roles in transcriptional regulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:8371-84 pubmed
    ..receptor-interacting domain 1 [RID1]) and the N-terminal LXXLL (RID2) modules to cooperatively interact with TR or RXR (presumably a receptor dimer), with the spacing between RID1 and RID2 playing an important role in influencing the ..
  46. Kim S, Kim H, Jung D, Lee S, Kim Y, Kim J, et al. Retinoid-dependent antagonism of serum response factor transactivation mediated by transcriptional coactivator proteins. Oncogene. 2001;20:6638-42 pubmed
    ..We propose that the well-defined anti-proliferative action of retinoids could, at least in part, result from this novel transrepressive action on the mitogenic transcription factor SRF. ..
  47. Giner X, Cotnoir White D, Mader S, Lévesque D. Selective ligand activity at Nur/retinoid X receptor complexes revealed by dimer-specific bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based sensors. FASEB J. 2015;29:4256-67 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role and function of RXRs in different heterodimer complexes remain unidentified, mainly because most RXR drugs (called rexinoids) are not selective of specific heterodimer complexes...
  48. Lee S, Jung S, Kim Y, Na S, Lee Y, Lee J. Two distinct nuclear receptor-interaction domains and CREB-binding protein-dependent transactivation function of activating signal cointegrator-2. Mol Endocrinol. 2001;15:241-54 pubmed
    ..From these results, we concluded that ASC-2 directly binds to nuclear receptors and recruits CBP to mediate the nuclear receptor transactivation in vivo. ..
  49. Nickkho Amiry M, McVey R, Holland C. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors modulate proliferation and angiogenesis in human endometrial carcinoma. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10:441-53 pubmed publisher
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) are implicated in the development of several obesity-related cancers...
  50. Lee S, Lee J, Choi J, Lee S, Park J, Kim D. Epigenetic inactivation of retinoid X receptor genes in non-small cell lung cancer and the relationship with clinicopathologic features. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010;197:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Deregulation of RXR expression has been reported in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the mechanism underlying the impaired ..
  51. Alfaro J, Fraile B, Lobo M, Royuela M, Paniagua R, Arenas M. Immunohistochemical detection of the retinoid X receptors alpha, beta, and gamma in human prostate. J Androl. 2003;24:113-9 pubmed
  52. Klopper J, Hays W, Sharma V, Baumbusch M, Hershman J, Haugen B. Retinoid X receptor-gamma and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression predicts thyroid carcinoma cell response to retinoid and thiazolidinedione treatment. Mol Cancer Ther. 2004;3:1011-20 pubmed
    ..Nuclear hormone receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) are variably expressed in thyroid carcinoma cell lines...
  53. Grave N, Tovo Rodrigues L, da Silveira J, Rovaris D, Dal Bosco S, Contini V, et al. A vitamin D pathway gene-gene interaction affects low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. J Nutr Biochem. 2016;38:12-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results corroborate the idea that analyzing gene-gene interaction would be helpful to clarify the genetic component of lipid profile. ..
  54. Musser J, Arendt D. Loss and gain of cone types in vertebrate ciliary photoreceptor evolution. Dev Biol. 2017;431:26-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underscore the importance of specifying transcription factors in tracking cell type evolution, and shed new light on the mechanisms of cell type loss and gain in retina evolution. ..
  55. Pinto V, Minakhina S, Qiu S, Sidhaye A, Brotherton M, Suhotliv A, et al. Naturally Occurring Amino Acids in Helix 10 of the Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mediate Isoform-Specific TH Gene Regulation. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3067-3078 pubmed publisher
    ..Using domain exchanges and individual amino acid switches between THRA1 and THRB2, we identified three amino acids in helix 10 of the THRB2 ligand-binding domain that are required for negative regulation and are absent in THRA1. ..
  56. Bungard C, McGivan J. Identification of the promoter elements involved in the stimulation of ASCT2 expression by glutamine availability in HepG2 cells and the probable involvement of FXR/RXR dimers. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;443:53-9 pubmed
    ..The identity of the higher molecular weight species binding to this promoter element was likely to be FXR/RXR dimers...
  57. Romeo S, Menzaghi C, Bruno R, Sentinelli F, Fallarino M, Fioretti F, et al. Search for genetic variants in the retinoid X receptor-gamma-gene by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone without mutations in thyroid hormone receptor beta gene. Thyroid. 2004;14:355-8 pubmed
    ..A possible linkage was reported with the retinoid X receptor-gamma (RXR-gamma) gene in two families...
  58. Alliey Rodriguez N, Zhang D, Badner J, Lahey B, Zhang X, Dinwiddie S, et al. Genome-wide association study of personality traits in bipolar patients. Psychiatr Genet. 2011;21:190-4 pubmed publisher
    ..After correction for the 25 subscales in TCI and four scales plus two subscales in ZKPQ, phenotype-wide significance was not reached. ..
  59. Papi A, Rocchi P, Ferreri A, Orlandi M. RXRgamma and PPARgamma ligands in combination to inhibit proliferation and invasiveness in colon cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2010;297:65-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, IIF potentiated PPAR transcriptional activity by enhancement of peroxisome proliferator response elements transactivation. ..
  60. Pushpakom S, Owen A, Back D, Pirmohamed M. RXR? gene variants are associated with HIV lipodystrophy. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2013;23:438-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Three single nucleotide polymorphisms in RXR? (rs2134095, rs113471, rs2194899) and its haplotypes (HIVLD+, 54%; HIVLD-, 40.6%; P=0...
  61. Kamei Y, Xu L, Heinzel T, Torchia J, Kurokawa R, Gloss B, et al. A CBP integrator complex mediates transcriptional activation and AP-1 inhibition by nuclear receptors. Cell. 1996;85:403-14 pubmed
  62. Gallo V, Chew L. An RXR-? Rx for white-matter damage. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:3-5 pubmed publisher
  63. Almasan A, Mangelsdorf D, Ong E, Wahl G, Evans R. Chromosomal localization of the human retinoid X receptors. Genomics. 1994;20:397-403 pubmed
    ..In this work, we report high-resolution localization of the human RXR genes within cytogenetic bands and also within a standard reference map of cosmid DNA markers on human chromosomes...
  64. Feng J, Chen J, Yan J, Jones I, Craddock N, Cook E, et al. Structural variants in the retinoid receptor genes in patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric diseases. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005;133B:50-3 pubmed
    ..of the retinoid receptor genes may predispose to schizophrenia and other psychiatric diseases, the six RAR and RXR genes and a heterodimer partner, the NURR1 gene, were scanned in 100 schizophrenia patients, along with pilot ..
  65. Liu Q, Linney E. The mouse retinoid-X receptor-gamma gene: genomic organization and evidence for functional isoforms. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:651-8 pubmed
    Retinoid-X receptors (RXRs) are a subfamily of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor superfamily. There are three RXR genes: alpha, beta, and gamma, each with a distinct expression pattern and chromosomal location...
  66. Liu Z, Zhou G, Nakamura M, Bai Y, Li Y, Ozaki T, et al. Retinoid X receptor ? up-regulation is correlated with dedifferentiation of tumor cells and lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Pathol Int. 2011;61:109-15 pubmed publisher
    The expression of retinoid X receptor ? (RXR?) and the clinicopathological parameters of total 69 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) larger than 1 cm were examined...
  67. Philip S, Castro L, da Fonseca R, Reis Henriques M, Vasconcelos V, Santos M, et al. Adaptive evolution of the Retinoid X receptor in vertebrates. Genomics. 2012;99:81-9 pubmed publisher
    Retinoid X receptors (RXR) are transcription factors with important roles in development, reproduction, homeostasis, and cell differentiation...
  68. Hsieh C, Pei D, Hung Y, Hsiao F. Association between retinoid-X receptor-gamma genetic polymorphisms and diabetic retinopathy. Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:3545-51 pubmed publisher
    Retinoid-X receptor (RXR) is one of the members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily...
  69. Huang J, Jarjour A, Nait Oumesmar B, Kerninon C, Williams A, Krezel W, et al. Retinoid X receptor gamma signaling accelerates CNS remyelination. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..that follow focal demyelination in the rat CNS and found that transcripts that encode the retinoid acid receptor RXR-? were differentially expressed during remyelination...
  70. Seol W, Choi H, Moore D. An orphan nuclear hormone receptor that lacks a DNA binding domain and heterodimerizes with other receptors. Science. 1996;272:1336-9 pubmed
    ..In mammalian cells, SHP specifically inhibited transactivation by the superfamily members with which it interacted. These results suggest that SHP functions as a negative regulator of receptor-dependent signaling pathways. ..
  71. Barger P, Kelly D. Identification of a retinoid/chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor response element in the human retinoid X receptor gamma2 gene promoter. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:2722-8 pubmed
    To investigate the mechanisms involved in the transcriptional control of retinoid X receptor (RXR) gene expression, the 5'-flanking region of the human RXRgamma2 isoform was characterized...
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    ..we first examined the immunolocalization of retinoic acid receptor alpha, beta, and gamma, and retinoid X receptor (RXR) alpha, beta, and gamma in 20 normal cycling human endometria, 34 endometrial hyperplasia, and 46 endometrioid ..