RUNX3

Summary

Gene Symbol: RUNX3
Description: runt related transcription factor 3
Alias: AML2, CBFA3, PEBP2aC, runt-related transcription factor 3, CBF-alpha-3, PEA2 alpha C, PEBP2 alpha C, SL3-3 enhancer factor 1 alpha C subunit, SL3/AKV core-binding factor alpha C subunit, acute myeloid leukemia 2 protein, acute myeloid leukemia gene 2, core-binding factor subunit alpha-3, core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 3, oncogene AML-2, polyomavirus enhancer-binding protein 2 alpha C subunit, transcription factor AML2
Species: human
Products:     RUNX3

Top Publications

  1. Yamamura Y, Lee W, Inoue K, Ida H, Ito Y. RUNX3 cooperates with FoxO3a to induce apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:5267-76 pubmed
    The transcription factor RUNX3, which mediates apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in gastric epithelial cells, is a candidate tumor suppressor that is frequently lost in gastric cancer cells...
  2. Kitajima Y, Ohtaka K, Mitsuno M, Tanaka M, Sato S, Nakafusa Y, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection is an independent risk factor for Runx3 methylation in gastric cancer. Oncol Rep. 2008;19:197-202 pubmed
    b>Runx3, a member of the human runt-related transcription factor family, is known as a possible tumor suppressor gene for gastric cancer...
  3. Zou X, Zhang B, Zhang X, Chen M, Cao J, Liu W. Promoter hypermethylation of multiple genes in early gastric adenocarcinoma and precancerous lesions. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:1534-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we determined the methylation frequency of 5 genes, including p16, Runx3, MGMT, DAPK, and RASSF1A, by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, in a series of formalin-fixed ..
  4. Mori T, Nomoto S, Koshikawa K, Fujii T, Sakai M, Nishikawa Y, et al. Decreased expression and frequent allelic inactivation of the RUNX3 gene at 1p36 in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Int. 2005;25:380-8 pubmed
    ..The human runt-related transcription factor 3 gene (RUNX3) is an important component of this pathway...
  5. Zheng Y, Zhang Y, Huang X, Chen L. Analysis of the RUNX3 gene methylation in serum DNA from esophagus squamous cell carcinoma, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma patients. Hepatogastroenterology. 2011;58:2007-11 pubmed publisher
    Human runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) gene was a new candidate tumor suppressor gene involved in the TGF-? signaling pathway...
  6. Chen F, Bai J, Li W, Mei P, Liu H, Li L, et al. RUNX3 suppresses migration, invasion and angiogenesis of human renal cell carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56241 pubmed publisher
    b>RUNX3 (runt-related transcription factor-3) is a known tumor suppressor gene which exhibits potent antitumor activity in several carcinomas. However, little is known about the role of RUNX3 in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC)...
  7. Jiang Y, Tong D, Lou G, Zhang Y, Geng J. Expression of RUNX3 gene, methylation status and clinicopathological significance in breast cancer and breast cancer cell lines. Pathobiology. 2008;75:244-51 pubmed publisher
    Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a novel tumor suppressor gene that is frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer...
  8. Ito K, Lim A, Salto Tellez M, Motoda L, Osato M, Chuang L, et al. RUNX3 attenuates beta-catenin/T cell factors in intestinal tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell. 2008;14:226-37 pubmed publisher
    ..However, other alterations may be involved in intestinal tumorigenesis. Here we found that RUNX3, a gastric tumor suppressor, forms a ternary complex with beta-catenin/TCF4 and attenuates Wnt signaling activity...
  9. Gao F, Huang C, Lin M, Wang Z, Shen J, Zhang H, et al. Frequent inactivation of RUNX3 by promoter hypermethylation and protein mislocalization in oral squamous cell carcinomas. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009;135:739-47 pubmed publisher
    b>RUNX3 is a functionally important component in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) mediated signaling pathway...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Sakakura C, Miyagawa K, Fukuda K, Nakashima S, Yoshikawa T, Kin S, et al. Frequent silencing of RUNX3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas is associated with radioresistance and poor prognosis. Oncogene. 2007;26:5927-38 pubmed
    ..b>RUNX3, a novel tumor suppressor of gastric cancer, functions in transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-dependent ..
  2. Lee C, Ito K, Ito Y. Role of RUNX3 in bone morphogenetic protein signaling in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70:4243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The Runt domain transcription factor RUNX3 is an integral component of signaling pathways mediated by TGF-beta and BMPs...
  3. Tonomoto Y, Tachibana M, Dhar D, Onoda T, Hata K, Ohnuma H, et al. Differential expression of RUNX genes in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: downregulation of RUNX3 worsens patient prognosis. Oncology. 2007;73:346-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Resected specimens from 61 patients with esophageal SCC were used to identify the expression of RUNX1, RUNX2 and RUNX3 by real-time RT-PCR...
  4. Ogino S, Kawasaki T, Kirkner G, Kraft P, Loda M, Fuchs C. Evaluation of markers for CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer by a large population-based sample. J Mol Diagn. 2007;9:305-14 pubmed
    ..A recent extensive investigation has selected five methylation markers (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1) as surrogate markers for epigenomic aberrations in tumor...
  5. Fujii S, Ito K, Ito Y, Ochiai A. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) down-regulates RUNX3 by increasing histone H3 methylation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:17324-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we found an inverse correlation between EZH2 and RUNX3 gene expression in five cancer cell lines, i.e. gastric, breast, prostate, colon, and pancreatic cancer cell lines...
  6. Hiramatsu T, Osaki M, Ito Y, Tanji Y, Tokuyasu N, Ito H. Expression of RUNX3 protein in human esophageal mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma. Pathobiology. 2005;72:316-24 pubmed
    Runt-related transcriptional factor gene 3 (RUNX3) belongs to the runt domain family of transcriptional factors that plays an important role during normal tissue development and in tumorigenesis in several organs...
  7. Imamura Y, Hibi K, Koike M, Fujiwara M, Kodera Y, Ito K, et al. RUNX3 promoter region is specifically methylated in poorly-differentiated colorectal cancer. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:2627-30 pubmed
    It has recently become clear that RUNX3 expression is frequently silenced by aberrant methylation in gastric cancers...
  8. Yanada M, Yaoi T, Shimada J, Sakakura C, Nishimura M, Ito K, et al. Frequent hemizygous deletion at 1p36 and hypermethylation downregulate RUNX3 expression in human lung cancer cell lines. Oncol Rep. 2005;14:817-22 pubmed
    Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) has been recognized as a tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer because its expression level was reduced or disappeared due to epigenetic changes...
  9. Djuretic I, Levanon D, Negreanu V, Groner Y, Rao A, Ansel K. Transcription factors T-bet and Runx3 cooperate to activate Ifng and silence Il4 in T helper type 1 cells. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:145-53 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the transcription factor Runx3 is induced in T helper type 1 (T(H)1) cells in a T-bet-dependent manner, and that both transcription factors T-bet ..
  10. So K, Tamura G, Honda T, Homma N, Endoh M, Togawa N, et al. Quantitative assessment of RUNX3 methylation in neoplastic and non-neoplastic gastric epithelia using a DNA microarray. Pathol Int. 2006;56:571-5 pubmed
    Silencing of the RUNX3 gene by hypermethylation of its promoter CpG island plays a major role in gastric carcinogenesis...
  11. Hanai J, Chen L, Kanno T, Ohtani Fujita N, Kim W, Guo W, et al. Interaction and functional cooperation of PEBP2/CBF with Smads. Synergistic induction of the immunoglobulin germline Calpha promoter. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31577-82 pubmed
    ..Among them, PEBP2alphaC/CBFA3/AML2 forms a complex with Smad3 and stimulates transcription of the germline Ig Calpha promoter in a cooperative ..
  12. Wolff E, Liang G, Cortez C, Tsai Y, Castelao J, Cortessis V, et al. RUNX3 methylation reveals that bladder tumors are older in patients with a history of smoking. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6208-14 pubmed publisher
    ..methylation in 342 transitional cell carcinoma tumors at BCL2, PTGS2 (COX2), DAPK, CDH1 (ECAD), EDNRB, RASSF1A, RUNX3, TERT, and TIMP3...
  13. Peng Z, Tang H, Wang X, Zhou C, Fan J, Wang L, et al. Inhibition of the growth and metastasis of human colon cancer by restoration of RUNX3 expression in cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2008;33:979-84 pubmed
    Recent studies demonstrated an epigenetic inactivation of the runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) gene in human colon cancer...
  14. Huang B, Qu Z, Ong C, Tsang Y, Xiao G, Shapiro D, et al. RUNX3 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer by targeting estrogen receptor ?. Oncogene. 2012;31:527-34 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factor RUNX3 is inactivated in a number of malignancies, including breast cancer, and is suggested to function as a tumor suppressor. How RUNX3 functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer remains undefined...
  15. Klunker S, Chong M, Mantel P, Palomares O, Bassin C, Ziegler M, et al. Transcription factors RUNX1 and RUNX3 in the induction and suppressive function of Foxp3+ inducible regulatory T cells. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2701-15 pubmed publisher
    ..growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces the expression of the Runt-related transcription factors RUNX1 and RUNX3 in CD4(+) T cells...
  16. Chang T, Ito K, Ko T, Liu Q, Salto Tellez M, Yeoh K, et al. Claudin-1 has tumor suppressive activity and is a direct target of RUNX3 in gastric epithelial cells. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:255-65.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor RUNX3 is a gastric tumor suppressor. Tumorigenic Runx3(-/-) gastric epithelial cells attach weakly to each other, compared with nontumorigenic Runx3(+/+) cells...
  17. Puig Kröger A, Sanchez Elsner T, Ruiz N, Andreu E, Prosper F, Jensen U, et al. RUNX/AML and C/EBP factors regulate CD11a integrin expression in myeloid cells through overlapping regulatory elements. Blood. 2003;102:3252-61 pubmed
    ..cells MS7 is primarily recognized by C/EBP factors in proliferating cells whereas RUNX/AML factors (especially RUNX3/AML-2) bind to MS7 in differentiated cells...
  18. Schulmann K, Sterian A, Berki A, Yin J, Sato F, Xu Y, et al. Inactivation of p16, RUNX3, and HPP1 occurs early in Barrett's-associated neoplastic progression and predicts progression risk. Oncogene. 2005;24:4138-48 pubmed
    ..Using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR, we screened 10 genes (HPP1, RUNX3, RIZ1, CRBP1, 3-OST-2, APC, TIMP3, p16, MGMT, p14) for promoter hypermethylation in 77 EAC, 93 BE, and 64 normal ..
  19. Zhang Z, Chen G, Cheng Y, Martinka M, Li G. Prognostic significance of RUNX3 expression in human melanoma. Cancer. 2011;117:2719-27 pubmed publisher
    b>RUNX3 is a tumor suppressor that plays important roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis...
  20. Sakakura C, Hagiwara A, Miyagawa K, Nakashima S, Yoshikawa T, Kin S, et al. Frequent downregulation of the runt domain transcription factors RUNX1, RUNX3 and their cofactor CBFB in gastric cancer. Int J Cancer. 2005;113:221-8 pubmed
    Our previous studies suggest that lack of RUNX3 function is causally related to the genesis and progression of human gastric cancer, but potential roles of other members of the RUNX family genes have not yet been reported...
  21. Hwang K, Han W, Bae J, Hwang S, Shin H, Lee J, et al. Downregulation of the RUNX3 gene by promoter hypermethylation and hemizygous deletion in breast cancer. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22 Suppl:S24-31 pubmed
    The RUNX3 gene is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene in many human solid tumors, and its inactivation is believed to be related with solid tumor carcinogenesis...
  22. Long C, Yin B, Lu Q, Zhou X, Hu J, Yang Y, et al. Promoter hypermethylation of the RUNX3 gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Invest. 2007;25:685-90 pubmed
    ..The human runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), an important component of TGF-beta pathway which is located at 1p36, is commonly deleted in a variety of human ..
  23. Sugiura H, Ishiguro H, Kuwabara Y, Kimura M, Mitsui A, Mori Y, et al. Decreased expression of RUNX3 is correlated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2008;19:713-9 pubmed
    Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) has been reported to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer. However, in esophageal cancer, the role of RUNX3 has not been studied...
  24. Tanaka S, Shiraha H, Nakanishi Y, Nishina S, Matsubara M, Horiguchi S, et al. Runt-related transcription factor 3 reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:2537-46 pubmed publisher
    Loss or decreased expression of runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), a tumor suppressor gene involved in gastric and other cancers, has been frequently observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  25. Evans D, Spencer C, Pointon J, Su Z, Harvey D, Kochan G, et al. Interaction between ERAP1 and HLA-B27 in ankylosing spondylitis implicates peptide handling in the mechanism for HLA-B27 in disease susceptibility. Nat Genet. 2011;43:761-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the identification of three variants in the RUNX3, LTBR-TNFRSF1A and IL12B regions convincingly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (P < 5 × 10(-8) in the ..
  26. Li L, Li J, Shen Y, Yu L, Zhang J. [Promoter methylation and expression of Runx3 gene in gastric cancer]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;11:379-82 pubmed
    To analyze the relationships among the aberrant methylation of Runx3 gene promoter, the Runx3 protein expression and clinicopathological features in gastric cancer...
  27. Chen Y, Wei X, Guo C, Jin H, Han Z, Han Y, et al. Runx3 suppresses gastric cancer metastasis through inactivation of MMP9 by upregulation of TIMP-1. Int J Cancer. 2011;129:1586-98 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have suggested that loss of RUNX3 expression is involved with gastric tumor metastasis. However, the precise mechanism of RUNX3-mediated suppression of tumor metastasis remains elusive...
  28. Ku J, Kang S, Shin Y, Kang H, Hong S, Kim I, et al. Promoter hypermethylation downregulates RUNX3 gene expression in colorectal cancer cell lines. Oncogene. 2004;23:6736-42 pubmed
    It was recently reported that RUNX3 gene expression is significantly downregulated in human gastric cancer cells due to hypermethylation of its promoter region or hemizygous deletion (Cell, 109, 2002)...
  29. Park W, Cho Y, Kim C, Song J, Lee Y, Kim S, et al. Hypermethylation of the RUNX3 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma. Exp Mol Med. 2005;37:276-81 pubmed
    ..Recently, RUNX3 gene, one of TGF-beta-Smads signaling transduction pathway genes, showed strong tumor-suppressor activity by ..
  30. Kato N, Tamura G, Fukase M, Shibuya H, Motoyama T. Hypermethylation of the RUNX3 gene promoter in testicular yolk sac tumor of infants. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:387-91 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we examined 10 testicular YSTs from infants for promoter methylation status of the RUNX3 gene, localizing in 1p36...
  31. Bae S, Takahashi E, Zhang Y, Ogawa E, Shigesada K, Namba Y, et al. Cloning, mapping and expression of PEBP2 alpha C, a third gene encoding the mammalian Runt domain. Gene. 1995;159:245-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identified the third Runt-domain-encoding gene, PEBP2 alpha C, which maps to 1p36.11-p36.13 in the human chromosome and encodes a 415-aa protein...
  32. Xiao W, Liu W. Hemizygous deletion and hypermethylation of RUNX3 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:376-80 pubmed
    To analyze the genetic and epigenetic alterations of RUNX3 gene, a potential putative tumor suppressor gene, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  33. Li Q, Kim H, Kim W, Choi J, Lee Y, Kim H, et al. Transcriptional silencing of the RUNX3 gene by CpG hypermethylation is associated with lung cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;314:223-8 pubmed
    ..It was noted previously that allele loss and loss of expression of RUNX3 are causally involved in gastric carcinogenesis...
  34. Cheng C, Li L, Cheng S, Lau K, Chan N, Wong R, et al. Transcriptional repression of the RUNX3/AML2 gene by the t(8;21) and inv(16) fusion proteins in acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2008;112:3391-402 pubmed publisher
    b>RUNX3/AML2 is a Runt domain transcription factor like RUNX1/AML1 and RUNX2/AML3. Regulated by 2 promoters P1 and P2, RUNX3 is frequently inactivated by P2 methylation in solid tumors...
  35. Homma N, Tamura G, Honda T, Matsumoto Y, Nishizuka S, Kawata S, et al. Spreading of methylation within RUNX3 CpG island in gastric cancer. Cancer Sci. 2006;97:51-6 pubmed
    b>RUNX3 is a novel tumor suppressor gene that is frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer...
  36. Puig Kröger A, Dominguez Soto A, Martínez Muñoz L, Serrano Gomez D, López Bravo M, Sierra Filardi E, et al. RUNX3 negatively regulates CD36 expression in myeloid cell lines. J Immunol. 2006;177:2107-14 pubmed
    ..The RUNX3 transcription factor participates in reprogramming DC transcription after pathogen recognition, and its defective ..
  37. Bangsow C, Rubins N, Glusman G, Bernstein Y, Negreanu V, Goldenberg D, et al. The RUNX3 gene--sequence, structure and regulated expression. Gene. 2001;279:221-32 pubmed
    The RUNX3 gene belongs to the runt domain family of transcription factors that act as master regulators of gene expression in major developmental pathways. In mammals the family includes three genes, RUNX1, RUNX2 and RUNX3...
  38. Subramaniam M, Chan J, Soong R, Ito K, Ito Y, Yeoh K, et al. RUNX3 inactivation by frequent promoter hypermethylation and protein mislocalization constitute an early event in breast cancer progression. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;113:113-21 pubmed publisher
    We had previously established that inactivation of RUNX3 occurs by frequent promoter hypermethylation and protein mislocalization in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of breast...
  39. Waki T, Tamura G, Sato M, Terashima M, Nishizuka S, Motoyama T. Promoter methylation status of DAP-kinase and RUNX3 genes in neoplastic and non-neoplastic gastric epithelia. Cancer Sci. 2003;94:360-4 pubmed
    ..To clarify the physiological consequence of DAP-kinase and RUNX3 age-related methylation in gastric epithelia, we investigated the promoter methylation status of these genes in ..
  40. Subramaniam M, Chan J, Soong R, Ito K, Yeoh K, Wong R, et al. RUNX3 inactivation in colorectal polyps arising through different pathways of colonic carcinogenesis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:426-36 pubmed publisher
    We hypothesized that RUNX3 inactivation by promoter hypermethylation in colorectal polyps is an early molecular event in colorectal carcinogenesis...
  41. Araki K, Osaki M, Nagahama Y, Hiramatsu T, Nakamura H, Ohgi S, et al. Expression of RUNX3 protein in human lung adenocarcinoma: implications for tumor progression and prognosis. Cancer Sci. 2005;96:227-31 pubmed
    ..We directed our attention to the expression of RUNX3 protein in human lung AC and non-neoplastic lung tissues, comparing the results with clinicopathological profiles...
  42. Tsunematsu T, Kudo Y, Iizuka S, Ogawa I, Fujita T, Kurihara H, et al. RUNX3 has an oncogenic role in head and neck cancer. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5892 pubmed publisher
    Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a tumor suppressor of cancer and appears to be an important component of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ss)-induced tumor suppression pathway...
  43. Mei P, Bai J, Liu H, Li C, Wu Y, Yu Z, et al. RUNX3 expression is lost in glioma and its restoration causes drastic suppression of tumor invasion and migration. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011;137:1823-30 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression of RUNX3 is related to the development of glioma, and the role of RUNX3 in glioma cells growth, invasion and migration...
  44. Apel M, Uebe S, Bowes J, Giardina E, Korendowych E, Juneblad K, et al. Variants in RUNX3 contribute to susceptibility to psoriatic arthritis, exhibiting further common ground with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:1224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Association with a RUNX3 variant, rs4649038, was replicated in independent patients and controls and resulted in a combined P value of 1...
  45. Tsang Y, Lamb A, Romero Gallo J, Huang B, Ito K, Peek R, et al. Helicobacter pylori CagA targets gastric tumor suppressor RUNX3 for proteasome-mediated degradation. Oncogene. 2010;29:5643-50 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RUNX3 is a tumor suppressor in many tissues, and it is frequently inactivated in gastric cancer...
  46. Chen W, Gao N, Shen Y, Cen J. Hypermethylation downregulates Runx3 gene expression and its restoration suppresses gastric epithelial cell growth by inducing p27 and caspase3 in human gastric cancer. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:823-31 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been noted previously that Runx3 is regarded as an important tumor suppressor gene...
  47. Levanon D, Negreanu V, Bernstein Y, Bar Am I, Avivi L, Groner Y. AML1, AML2, and AML3, the human members of the runt domain gene-family: cDNA structure, expression, and chromosomal localization. Genomics. 1994;23:425-32 pubmed
    cDNAs corresponding to three human runt domain containing genes, AML1, AML2, and AML3, were isolated and characterized...
  48. Zhang M, Xie R, Hou W, Wang B, Shen R, Wang X, et al. PTHrP prevents chondrocyte premature hypertrophy by inducing cyclin-D1-dependent Runx2 and Runx3 phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1382-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism by which PTHrP does this is not fully understood. Both Runx2 and Runx3 are required for chondrocyte maturation...
  49. Hsu P, Hsieh H, Lee J, Lin L, Chen H, Lu P, et al. Loss of RUNX3 expression correlates with differentiation, nodal metastasis, and poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:1686-94 pubmed publisher
    b>RUNX3 is a major growth regulator of gastric epithelial cells that is involved in gastric tumorigenesis in both humans and mice...
  50. Carvalho R, Milne A, Polak M, Corver W, Offerhaus G, Weterman M. Exclusion of RUNX3 as a tumour-suppressor gene in early-onset gastric carcinomas. Oncogene. 2005;24:8252-8 pubmed
    Recent studies claim a critical role for RUNX3 in gastric epithelial homeostasis...
  51. Chi X, Yang J, Lee K, Ito K, Sakakura C, Li Q, et al. RUNX3 suppresses gastric epithelial cell growth by inducing p21(WAF1/Cip1) expression in cooperation with transforming growth factor {beta}-activated SMAD. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8097-107 pubmed
    b>RUNX3 has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor of gastric cancer...
  52. Lau Q, Raja E, Salto Tellez M, Liu Q, Ito K, Inoue M, et al. RUNX3 is frequently inactivated by dual mechanisms of protein mislocalization and promoter hypermethylation in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:6512-20 pubmed
    A tumor suppressor function has been attributed to RUNX3, a member of the RUNX family of transcription factors...
  53. Gargano G, Calcara D, Corsale S, Agnese V, Intrivici C, Fulfaro F, et al. Aberrant methylation within RUNX3 CpG island associated with the nuclear and mitochondrial microsatellite instability in sporadic gastric cancers. Results of a GOIM (Gruppo Oncologico dell'Italia Meridionale) prospective study. Ann Oncol. 2007;18 Suppl 6:vi103-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to investigate a possible relationship between the RUNX3 promoter methylation, nuclear microsatellite instability (nMSI) and mitochondrial microsatellite instability (..
  54. Richiardi L, Fiano V, Vizzini L, De Marco L, Delsedime L, Akre O, et al. Promoter methylation in APC, RUNX3, and GSTP1 and mortality in prostate cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:3161-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3). Results The two cohorts had different prevalences of methylation in APC (P = .047), GSTP1 (P = ...
  55. Inoue K, Ito K, Osato M, Lee B, Bae S, Ito Y. The transcription factor Runx3 represses the neurotrophin receptor TrkB during lineage commitment of dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24175-84 pubmed
    b>Runx3, a Runt domain transcription factor, determines neurotrophin receptor phenotype in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Molecular mechanisms by which Runx3 controls distinct neurotrophin receptors are largely unknown...
  56. Ono M, Yaguchi H, Ohkura N, Kitabayashi I, Nagamura Y, Nomura T, et al. Foxp3 controls regulatory T-cell function by interacting with AML1/Runx1. Nature. 2007;446:685-9 pubmed
    ..This transcriptional control of T(R)-cell function by an interaction between Foxp3 and AML1 can be exploited to control physiological and pathological T-cell-mediated immune responses. ..
  57. Li Q, Ito K, Sakakura C, Fukamachi H, Inoue K, Chi X, et al. Causal relationship between the loss of RUNX3 expression and gastric cancer. Cell. 2002;109:113-24 pubmed
    b>Runx3/Pebp2alphaC null mouse gastric mucosa exhibits hyperplasias due to stimulated proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in epithelial cells, and the cells are resistant to growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing action of TGF-beta, ..
  58. Salto Tellez M, Peh B, Ito K, Tan S, Chong P, Han H, et al. RUNX3 protein is overexpressed in human basal cell carcinomas. Oncogene. 2006;25:7646-9 pubmed
    ..a tissue microarray (TMA) of 75 paired BCC and normal skin and analysed the expression of beta-catenin and RUNX3, nuclear effectors of the wingless-Int (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-beta ..
  59. Kim E, Kim Y, Jeong P, Ha Y, Bae S, Kim W. Methylation of the RUNX3 promoter as a potential prognostic marker for bladder tumor. J Urol. 2008;180:1141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously we reported that inactivation of RUNX3 by primarily epigenetic alterations in DNA methylation is closely associated with bladder tumor development, ..
  60. Soong R, Shah N, Peh B, Chong P, Ng S, Zeps N, et al. The expression of RUNX3 in colorectal cancer is associated with disease stage and patient outcome. Br J Cancer. 2009;100:676-9 pubmed publisher
    b>RUNX3 is believed to have tumour suppressor properties in several cancer types. Inactivation of RUNX3 has been shown to occur by methylation-induced transcriptional silencing and by mislocalization of the protein to the cytoplasm...
  61. Oshimo Y, Oue N, Mitani Y, Nakayama H, Kitadai Y, Yoshida K, et al. Frequent loss of RUNX3 expression by promoter hypermethylation in gastric carcinoma. Pathobiology. 2004;71:137-43 pubmed
    The RUNX3 gene is a member of the Runt domain family of transcription factors that are master regulators of gene expression in major developmental pathways...
  62. Jin Y, Jeon E, Li Q, Lee Y, Choi J, Kim W, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates p300-dependent RUNX3 acetylation, which inhibits ubiquitination-mediated degradation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:29409-17 pubmed
    ..the involvement of RUNX1 in hematopoiesis and leukemia, RUNX2 in osteogenesis and cleidocranial dysplasia, and RUNX3 in the development of T-cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons and in the genesis of gastric cancer...
  63. Lin F, Liu Y, Lai C, Shan Y, Cheng H, Hsu P, et al. RUNX3-mediated transcriptional inhibition of Akt suppresses tumorigenesis of human gastric cancer cells. Oncogene. 2012;31:4302-16 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism of Akt regulation in gastric cancer is not fully understood. RUNX3, which was first identified as a transcription factor, suppresses gastric tumorigenesis through regulating ..
  64. Ito K, Liu Q, Salto Tellez M, Yano T, Tada K, Ida H, et al. RUNX3, a novel tumor suppressor, is frequently inactivated in gastric cancer by protein mislocalization. Cancer Res. 2005;65:7743-50 pubmed
    Loss of RUNX3 expression is suggested to be causally related to gastric cancer as 45% to 60% of gastric cancers do not express RUNX3 mainly due to hypermethylation of the RUNX3 promoter...