RTN2

Summary

Gene Symbol: RTN2
Description: reticulon 2
Alias: NSP2, NSPL1, NSPLI, SPG12, reticulon-2, NSP-like protein 1, NSP-like protein I, neuroendocrine-specific protein-like I
Species: human
Products:     RTN2

Top Publications

  1. Geisler J, Palmer R, Stubbs L, Mucenski M. Nspl1, a new Z-band-associated protein. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 1999;20:661-8 pubmed
    Molecular characterization of a novel gene designated Neuroendocrine-Specific Protein-Like-1 (Nspl1) had revealed that this gene is expressed as two transcripts, a 1.2 kb transcript found predominantly in skeletal muscle and a 2...
  2. Geisler J, Stubbs L, Wasserman W, Mucenski M. Molecular cloning of a novel mouse gene with predominant muscle and neural expression. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:274-82 pubmed
    ..with homology to the Neuroendocrine-specific protein (NSP), and it has, therefore, been designated NSP-like 1 (Nspl1)...
  3. Roebroek A, Contreras B, Pauli I, Van de Ven W. cDNA cloning, genomic organization, and expression of the human RTN2 gene, a member of a gene family encoding reticulons. Genomics. 1998;51:98-106 pubmed
    This paper describes the cDNA cloning, genomic organization, and expression of the human RTN2 gene on chromosome 19q13...
  4. van der Hoeven B, Oudshoorn D, Koster A, Snijder E, Kikkert M, BARCENA M. Biogenesis and architecture of arterivirus replication organelles. Virus Res. 2016;220:70-90 pubmed publisher
    ..be induced to express specific EAV replicase proteins and showed that DMVs induced by the transmembrane proteins nsp2 and nsp3 form an RVN and are comparable in topology and architecture to those formed during viral infection...
  5. Liu J, Wei C, Lin Z, Fan J, Xia W, Dai A, et al. Recombination in lineage 1, 3, 5 and 8 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in China. Infect Genet Evol. 2019;68:119-126 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombination analyses revealed genomic breakpoints in structural (ORF3, ORF4 and ORF7) and nonstructural (Nsp1, Nsp2, Nsp6, Nsp9, Nsp11 and Nsp12) regions of the genomes with evidence for recombination events between lineages 1, 3, ..
  6. Yano K, Aoki S, Liu M, Umehara Y, Suganuma N, Iwasaki W, et al. Function and evolution of a Lotus japonicus AP2/ERF family transcription factor that is required for development of infection threads. DNA Res. 2017;24:193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..LjERN1 was activated in response to rhizobial infection and depended on CYCLOPS and NSP2. Legumes conserve an ERN1 homolog, ERN2, that functions redundantly with ERN1 in M. truncatula...
  7. Malik Y, Kumar N, Sharma K, Saurabh S, Dhama K, Prasad M, et al. Multispecies reassortant bovine rotavirus strain carries a novel simian G3-like VP7 genotype. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;41:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The remaining four genes (VP1, VP2, VP3 and NSP2) were more closely related to RVA/Human-wt/ITA/PAI11/1996/G2P[4] (93.5%), RVA/Sheep-wt/CHN/LLR/1985/G10P[15] (88...
  8. Doan Y, Suzuki Y, Fujii Y, Haga K, Fujimoto A, Takai Todaka R, et al. Complex reassortment events of unusual G9P[4] rotavirus strains in India between 2011 and 2013. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;54:417-428 pubmed publisher
    ..strains showed a complex genetic constellation, likely derived from triple reassortment event with the G9-VP7, N1-NSP2 and E6-NSP4 on a DS-1-like genetic backbone (G9-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N1-T2-E6-H2)...
  9. Liu Y, Hu Y, Chai Y, Liu L, Song J, Zhou S, et al. Identification of Nonstructural Protein 8 as the N-Terminus of the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. Virol Sin. 2018;33:429-439 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, nsp9 could be co-immunoprecipitated by antibodies to nsp8, and vice versa. (3) Neither nsp4 nor nsp2 PLP2 was able to cleave nsp8-nsp9 in vitro...

More Information

Publications98

  1. Fros J, Major L, Scholte F, Gardner J, van Hemert M, Suhrbier A, et al. Chikungunya virus non-structural protein 2-mediated host shut-off disables the unfolded protein response. J Gen Virol. 2015;96:580-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Individual expression of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs) revealed that nsP2 alone was sufficient to inhibit the UPR...
  2. Delogu R, Ianiro G, Morea A, Chironna M, Fiore L, Ruggeri F. Molecular characterization of two rare human G8P[14] rotavirus strains, detected in Italy in 2012. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;44:303-312 pubmed publisher
    ..G8P[14] strains exhibited close identity with a Spanish sheep strain, whereas the remaining genes (VP4, NSP1 and NSP2) were more closely related to human strains...
  3. Balka G, Wang X, Olasz F, Bálint Ã, Kiss I, Bányai K, et al. Full genome sequence analysis of a wild, non-MLV-related type 2 Hungarian PRRSV variant isolated in Europe. Virus Res. 2015;200:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Unique deletions and an insertion were found in the nsp2 region of PRRSV-2/Hungary/102/2012 when it was compared to the highly virulent VR2332 and JXA-1 prototype strains...
  4. Jain J, Mathur K, Shrinet J, Bhatnagar R, Sunil S. Analysis of coevolution in nonstructural proteins of chikungunya virus. Virol J. 2016;13:86 pubmed publisher
    ..Coevolution analysis showed 30 aa pairs coevolving in nsP1, 23 aa pairs coevolving in nsP2, 239 in nsP3 and 46 aa coevolving pairs in nsP4 when each non-structural protein was considered independently...
  5. Wang L, Wan B, Guo Z, Qiao S, Li R, Xie S, et al. Genomic analysis of a recombinant NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in china. Virus Genes. 2018;54:86-97 pubmed publisher
    ..the strains had the unique discontinuous 131-amino acid deletion relative to that of the nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) of the VR2332 strain. Genetically, HNhx shared 92.9% nucleotide similarity to NADC30...
  6. Zhou Z, Liu Q, Hu D, Zhang Q, Han T, Ma Y, et al. Complete genomic characterization and genetic diversity of four European genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates from China in 2011. Virus Genes. 2015;51:375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..4-90.7 % nucleotide homology with the Lelystad strain (PRRSV-Type 1 stereotype strain). NSP2, ORF3, and ORF4 were the most variable regions and contained discontinuous deletions or insertions when compared to ..
  7. Yodmeeklin A, Khamrin P, Kumthip K, Malasao R, Ukarapol N, Ushijima H, et al. Increasing predominance of G8P[8] species A rotaviruses in children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand, 2010-2013. Arch Virol. 2018;163:2165-2178 pubmed publisher
    ..DS-1-like genotype constellation of G8-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 (in the order VP7-VP4-VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5/6, respectively)...
  8. Summerville J, Faust J, Fan E, Pendin D, Daga A, Formella J, et al. The effects of ER morphology on synaptic structure and function in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:1635-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Atlastin 1 (ATL1, also known as SPG3A) encodes an ER membrane fusion GTPase and reticulon 2 (RTN2, also known as SPG12) helps shape ER tube formation...
  9. Shepherd F, Herrera Ibatá D, Porter E, Homwong N, Hesse R, Bai J, et al. Whole Genome Classification and Phylogenetic Analyses of Rotavirus B strains from the United States. Pathogens. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..NSP3 gene segments (80%, 81%, 76% and 78%, respectively) and suggests new cutoff values for the VP4, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP2, NSP4, and NSP5 (80%, 78%, 79%, 77% 83%, 76%, and 79%, respectively)...
  10. Deng M, Chang C, Huang T, Tsai H, Chang C, Wang F, et al. Molecular epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses isolated from 1991 to 2013 in Taiwan. Arch Virol. 2015;160:2709-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Evolution was manifested in changes in the nsp2 and ORF5 genes...
  11. Suzuki T, Hasebe A. A provisional complete genome-based genotyping system for rotavirus species C from terrestrial mammals. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:2647-2662 pubmed publisher
    ..of genotypes 18G, 21P, 13I, 4R, 6C, 6M, 9A, 8N, 6T, 5E and 4H for the genes VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5, respectively, based on the cut-off values as defined by the Rotavirus Classification Working ..
  12. Chen N, Liu Q, Qiao M, Deng X, Chen X, Sun M. Whole genome characterization of a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 isolate: Genetic evidence for recombination between Amervac vaccine and circulating strains in mainland China. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;54:308-313 pubmed publisher
    ..HLJB1 has a unique 5-amino-acid insertion in nsp2, which has never been described in other PRRSV 1 isolates...
  13. Han M, Yoo D. Engineering the PRRS virus genome: updates and perspectives. Vet Microbiol. 2014;174:279-295 pubmed publisher
    ..Foreign sequences have successfully been inserted into the nsp2 and N regions and in the space between ORF1b and ORF2a...
  14. Fros J, Pijlman G. Alphavirus Infection: Host Cell Shut-Off and Inhibition of Antiviral Responses. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    ..cells, but also specifically suppress different host antiviral pathways using their viral nonstructural proteins, nsP2 and nsP3...
  15. Wang X, Marthaler D, Rovira A, Rossow S, Murtaugh M. Emergence of a virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in vaccinated herds in the United States. Virus Res. 2015;210:34-41 pubmed publisher
    ..strains circulating in the mid-western United States in recent years, and that the nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) gene of MN414 contained an insertion-deletion pattern typical of existing type 2 virulent strains...
  16. Boudreaux C, Kelly D, McDonald S. Electron microscopic analysis of rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates. Virology. 2015;477:32-41 pubmed publisher
    ..in vitro reconstitution, we showed that ~15-nm doughnut-shaped proteins in strings were nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) bound to viral RNA transcripts...
  17. Okitsu S, Hikita T, Thongprachum A, Khamrin P, Takanashi S, Hayakawa S, et al. Detection and molecular characterization of two rare G8P[14] and G3P[3] rotavirus strains collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in Japan. Infect Genet Evol. 2018;62:95-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the strains 12,597 and 12,638 possessed the same N2 genotype of NSP2 gene...
  18. Wasonga C, Inoue S, Rumberia C, Michuki G, Kimotho J, Ongus J, et al. Genetic divergence of Chikungunya virus plaque variants from the Comoros Island (2005). Virus Genes. 2015;51:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Between L2 and S7, only two AAs differences were observed. A missense substitution (C642Y) of L2 in the nsP2, involving a conservative AA substitution and a nonsense substitution (R524X) of S7 in the nsP3, which has been ..
  19. Sasaki M, Kajihara M, Changula K, Mori Kajihara A, Ogawa H, Hang Ombe B, et al. Identification of group A rotaviruses from Zambian fruit bats provides evidence for long-distance dispersal events in Africa. Infect Genet Evol. 2018;63:104-109 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, the RVA strain from Zambian R. aegyptiacus carried highly divergent NSP2 and NSP4 genes, leading us to propose novel genotypes N21 and E27, respectively...
  20. Esona M, Roy S, Rungsrisuriyachai K, Gautam R, Hermelijn S, Rey Benito G, et al. Molecular characterization of a human G20P[28] rotavirus a strain with multiple genes related to bat rotaviruses. Infect Genet Evol. 2018;57:166-170 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 were recently assigned novel genotypes by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG)...
  21. Abraham R, Manakkadan A, Mudaliar P, Joseph I, Sivakumar K, Nair R, et al. Correlation of phylogenetic clade diversification and in vitro infectivity differences among Cosmopolitan genotype strains of Chikungunya virus. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;37:174-84 pubmed publisher
    ..They had novel mutations R171Q in the nsP1; I539S in nsP2; N409T in nsP3; and N72S in E2...
  22. Canelli E, Catella A, Borghetti P, Ferrari L, Ogno G, De Angelis E, et al. Phenotypic characterization of a highly pathogenic Italian porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 subtype 1 isolate in experimentally infected pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2017;210:124-133 pubmed publisher
    ..Their genome shows a discontinuous aminoacids deletion in the non-structural protein 2 (NSP2)...
  23. Tan Y, Fung T, Shen H, Huang M, Liu D. Coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus non-structural proteins 8 and 12 form stable complex independent of the non-translated regions of viral RNA and other viral proteins. Virology. 2018;513:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Nsp2, nsp5, nsp8, nsp9 and nsp10 were found to bind to untranslated regions (UTRs), while nsp8 was confirmed to interact ..
  24. Yahiro T, Takaki M, Chandrasena T, Rajindrajith S, Iha H, Ahmed K. Human-porcine reassortant rotavirus generated by multiple reassortment events in a Sri Lankan child with diarrhea. Infect Genet Evol. 2018;65:170-186 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses revealed that five (NSP2, NSP4, VP1, VP2, and VP7) of the 11 genes were closely related to the respective genes of porcine strains...
  25. Sun H, Pattnaik A, Osorio F, Vu H. Identification of viral genes associated with the interferon-inducing phenotype of a synthetic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain. Virology. 2016;499:313-321 pubmed publisher
    ..3kb genomic fragment encoding three viral nonstructural proteins: nsp1?, nsp1? and the N-terminal part of nsp2. Further studies indicated that a cooperation among these 3 proteins was required for effective induction of IFNs...
  26. Dóró R, Mihalov Kovács E, Marton S, László B, Deák J, Jakab F, et al. Large-scale whole genome sequencing identifies country-wide spread of an emerging G9P[8] rotavirus strain in Hungary, 2012. Infect Genet Evol. 2014;28:495-512 pubmed publisher
    ..G1P[8] and G9P[8] strains whose genotype 1 (Wa-like) backbone gene constellations contained DS1-like NSP2 and VP3 genes, respectively, as well as, a putative bovine-feline G3P[9] reassortant strain...
  27. Wang D, Fan J, Fang L, Luo R, Ouyang H, Ouyang C, et al. The nonstructural protein 11 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus inhibits NF-κB signaling by means of its deubiquitinating activity. Mol Immunol. 2015;68:357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening all of the 12 nonstructural proteins (Nsps) encoded by PRRSV revealed that, apart from the Nsp2 which contains the deubiqintinating (DUB) ovarian tumor (OTU) domain, Nsp11, which encodes a unique and conserved ..
  28. Floss D, Gomez S, Park H, MacLean A, Müller L, Bhattarai K, et al. A Transcriptional Program for Arbuscule Degeneration during AM Symbiosis Is Regulated by MYB1. Curr Biol. 2017;27:1206-1212 pubmed publisher
    ..MYB1-regulated gene expression is enhanced by DELLA proteins and is dependent on NSP1 [5], but not NSP2 [6]. Furthermore, MYB1 interacts with DELLA and NSP1...
  29. Aung M, Nahar S, Aida S, Paul S, Hossain M, Ahmed S, et al. Distribution of two distinct rotavirus B (RVB) strains in the north-central Bangladesh and evidence for reassortment event among human RVB revealed by whole genomic analysis. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;47:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Although all the gene segments of RVB strains were grouped into Indian-Bangladeshi lineage, VP1-3, VP6, VP7, NSP1, NSP2 and NSP5 genes of strains with E1 and E2 types were assigned to distinct sublineages S1 and S2, respectively...
  30. Redding N, Agudelo P, Wells C. Multiple nodulation genes are up-regulated during establishment of reniform nematode feeding sites in soybean. Phytopathology. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..These included the nodule-initiating transcription factors CYCLOPS, NSP1, NSP2, and NIN, as well as multiple nodulins associated with the plant-derived peribacteroid membrane...
  31. Zhang H, Cao Y, Shang C, Li J, Wang J, Wu Z, et al. Genome-wide characterization of GRAS family genes in Medicago truncatula reveals their evolutionary dynamics and functional diversification. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185439 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty MtGRAS genes, including NSP1 and NSP2, were preferentially expressed in nodules, indicating possible roles in the process of nodulation...
  32. Rojas M, Gonçalves J, Dias H, Manchego A, Pezo D, Santos N. Whole-genome characterization of a Peruvian alpaca rotavirus isolate expressing a novel VP4 genotype. Vet Microbiol. 2016;196:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..related to corresponding gene sequences in RVA strains from other species, including human (VP1, VP2, NSP1, and NSP2), simian (VP3 and NSP5), bat (VP6 and NSP4), and equine (NSP3)...
  33. Guillén J, Lichière J, Rabah N, Beitzel B, Canard B, Coutard B. Structural and biophysical analysis of sequence insertions in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus macro domain. Virus Res. 2015;201:94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..of the insertions leading to a temperature sensitive viral phenotype (ts) are close to the cleavage site between nsP2 and nsP3 or the ADP-ribose binding site, two important functions of the macro domain...
  34. Fonouni Farde C, Kisiala A, Brault M, Emery R, Diet A, Frugier F. DELLA1-Mediated Gibberellin Signaling Regulates Cytokinin-Dependent Symbiotic Nodulation. Plant Physiol. 2017;175:1795-1806 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a model where the DELLA1-mediated GA signaling interplays with the CRE1-dependent CK pathway to regulate early nodulation in response to both NF and CK signals critical for this symbiotic interaction. ..
  35. Kawaharada Y, James E, Kelly S, Sandal N, Stougaard J. The Ethylene Responsive Factor Required for Nodulation 1 (ERN1) Transcription Factor Is Required for Infection-Thread Formation in Lotus japonicus. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2017;30:194-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Nod factor induction of Ern1 in epidermal cells was found to depend on Nfr1, Cyclops, and Nsp2 but was independent of Nin and Nf-ya1...
  36. Zhou L, Kang R, Xie B, Tian Y, Yang X, Yu J, et al. Complete Genome Sequence of a Recombinant NADC30-Like Strain, SCnj16, of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Southwestern China. Genome Announc. 2018;6: pubmed publisher
    ..and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are characterized by a 131-amino-acid deletion in nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2)...
  37. Wang L, Xie W, Chen X, Qiao S, Zhao M, Gu Y, et al. Molecular epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Central China since 2014: The prevalence of NADC30-like PRRSVs. Microb Pathog. 2017;109:20-28 pubmed publisher
    ..serum samples were tested by ELISA, 250 tissue samples were tested by RT-PCR, and among these, 30 ORF5 and 17 Nsp2 genes sequences were analyzed...
  38. Liu J, Wei C, Dai A, Fan K, Yang B, Huang C, et al. Complete genomic characterization of two European-genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in Fujian province of China. Arch Virol. 2017;162:823-833 pubmed publisher
    ..However, they were 82.9% identical to each other. Nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) and ORF3-ORF5 were the most variable regions when compared to other type 1 PRRSV strains...
  39. Agbemabiese C, Nakagomi T, Gauchan P, Sherchand J, Pandey B, Cunliffe N, et al. Whole genome characterisation of a porcine-like human reassortant G26P[19] Rotavirus A strain detected in a child hospitalised for diarrhoea in Nepal, 2007. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;54:164-169 pubmed publisher
    ..Except for its NSP2 gene, the remaining genes of 07N1760 shared lineages with porcine and porcine-like human RVA genes...
  40. De Grazia S, Giammanco G, Dóró R, Bonura F, Marton S, Cascio A, et al. Identification of a multi-reassortant G12P[9] rotavirus with novel VP1, VP2, VP3 and NSP2 genotypes in a child with acute gastroenteritis. Infect Genet Evol. 2015;35:34-7 pubmed publisher
    ..likely derived from multiple reassortment events, with the VP1, VP2, VP3 and NSP2 genes being established as novel genotypes R12, C12, M11 and N12, respectively...
  41. Lee S, Choi H, Nam E, Noh Y, Lee S, Lee Y, et al. Pathogenicity and genetic characteristics associated with cell adaptation of a virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp2 DEL strain CA-2. Vet Microbiol. 2016;186:174-88 pubmed publisher
    ..to the virulent lineage 1 family, which contain remarkable amino acid deletions in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2 DEL) compared to VR-2332...
  42. Kim J, Kwon Y, Choi E, Ouh I, Choe S, Lee J, et al. Complete Genome Sequence of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain E38, Isolated from South Korea with a Novel Deletion. Genome Announc. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    ..It contains a 61-nucleotide discontinuous deletion of the Nsp2 and Nsp12 regions...
  43. Oudshoorn D, van der Hoeven B, Limpens R, Beugeling C, Snijder E, BARCENA M, et al. Antiviral Innate Immune Response Interferes with the Formation of Replication-Associated Membrane Structures Induced by a Positive-Strand RNA Virus. MBio. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach involved ectopic expression of arterivirus nonstructural proteins nsp2 and nsp3, which induce DMV formation in the absence of other viral triggers of the interferon response, such as ..
  44. van Zeijl A, Liu W, Xiao T, Kohlen W, Yang W, Bisseling T, et al. The strigolactone biosynthesis gene DWARF27 is co-opted in rhizobium symbiosis. BMC Plant Biol. 2015;15:260 pubmed publisher
    ..Medicago truncatula and rice (Oryza sativa) this transcriptional response requires the GRAS-type proteins NSP1 and NSP2; both proteins are essential for rhizobium induced root nodule formation in legumes...
  45. Chen N, Trible B, Kerrigan M, Tian K, Rowland R. ORF5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a target of diversifying selection as infection progresses from acute infection to virus rebound. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;40:167-175 pubmed publisher
    ..Deep sequencing of variable regions in nsp1, nsp2, ORF3 and ORF5 showed the largest number of nucleotide substitutions at day 28 compared to days 4 and 42 post-..
  46. Komoto S, Pongsuwanna Y, Tacharoenmuang R, Guntapong R, Ide T, Higo Moriguchi K, et al. Whole genomic analysis of bovine group A rotavirus strains A5-10 and A5-13 provides evidence for close evolutionary relationship with human rotaviruses. Vet Microbiol. 2016;195:37-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note is that the VP1, VP3, and NSP2 genes of strains A5-10 and A5-13 exhibited a closer relationship with the cognate genes of human DS-1-like strains ..
  47. Götte B, Liu L, McInerney G. The Enigmatic Alphavirus Non-Structural Protein 3 (nsP3) Revealing Its Secrets at Last. Viruses. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..functions in capping and membrane association (nsP1), polyprotein processing and RNA helicase activity (nsP2) and as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsP4)...
  48. Nguyen T, Than V, Thanh H, Kim W. Evidence of multiple reassortment events of feline-to-human rotaviruses based on a rare human G3P[9] rotavirus isolated from a patient with acute gastroenteritis. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;46:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of this strain identified the following genome origins: VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1-VP3, NSP1, NSP2, and NSP4 genes possessed an AU-1-like genotype 3 constellation with high sequence identity to those of the feline ..
  49. He W, Wei Y, Yao J, Xie X, Huang J, Lin S, et al. Effect of an 88-amino-acid deletion in nsp2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on virus replication and cytokine responses in vitro. Arch Virol. 2018;163:1489-1501 pubmed publisher
    Previously, a spontaneous 88-amino-acid (aa) deletion in nsp2 was associated with cell-adaptation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain JXM100, which arose during passaging of the highly pathogenic PRRSV (..
  50. Stapleford K, Rozen Gagnon K, Das P, Saul S, Poirier E, Blanc H, et al. Viral Polymerase-Helicase Complexes Regulate Replication Fidelity To Overcome Intracellular Nucleotide Depletion. J Virol. 2015;89:11233-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a novel variant in the alphavirus viral helicase/protease, nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) that operates in concert with the viral polymerase nsP4 to further alter replication complex fidelity, a ..
  51. Zuo Y, Yuan W, Sun J. Complete Genomic Characterization of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain HB-XL. Genes (Basel). 2015;6:672-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The viral nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) of the HB-XL strain contained 30 discontinuous amino acid (AA) deletions relative to that of the Nsp2 of the ..
  52. Gao L, Wang L, Huang C, Yang L, Guo X, Yu Z, et al. HP-PRRSV is attenuated by de-optimization of codon pair bias in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsp9 gene. Virology. 2015;485:135-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We "shuffled" the existing codons in HP-PRRSV genes GP5, M, nsp2 and nsp9, so that the CPB of these genes could be more negative...
  53. Silva F, Gregori F, McDonald S. Distinguishing the genotype 1 genes and proteins of human Wa-like rotaviruses vs. porcine rotaviruses. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;43:6-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, the VP1-VP3 and NSP2-5/6 genes of these viruses are usually classified as genotype 1 with >81% nucleotide sequence identity...
  54. Shih Y, Hsueh Y. The involvement of endoplasmic reticulum formation and protein synthesis efficiency in VCP- and ATL1-related neurological disorders. J Biomed Sci. 2018;25:2 pubmed publisher
    ..in neurological disorders-including Valosin-containing protein (VCP), Atlastin-1 (ATL1), Spastin (SPAST), Reticulon 2 (RTN2), Receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1) and RAB10-suggesting a critical role of ER formation in ..
  55. Zhou F, Zhao J, Chen L, Chang H, Li Y, Liu H, et al. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus That Emerged in China. Genome Announc. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    ..and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain with 393 nucleotide deletions in the nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) region was examined in this study...
  56. Saisawang C, Kuadkitkan A, Smith D, Ubol S, Ketterman A. Glutathionylation of chikungunya nsP2 protein affects protease activity. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:106-111 pubmed publisher
    ..The viral protein nsP2 is a multifunctional enzyme that plays several critical roles in virus replication...
  57. Do D, Park C, Choi K, Jeong J, Nguyen T, Le D, et al. Nucleotide sequence analysis of Vietnamese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from 2013 to 2014 based on the NSP2 and ORF5 coding regions. Arch Virol. 2016;161:669-75 pubmed publisher
    ..A partial sequence of ORF1a corresponding to the nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) coding region and the full sequence of open reading frame 5 (ORF5) gene was used for the analysis...
  58. McKell A, LaConte L, McDonald S. A Temperature-Sensitive Lesion in the N-Terminal Domain of the Rotavirus Polymerase Affects Its Intracellular Localization and Enzymatic Activity. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..the VP1 N-terminal domain and identifying 52 additional mutations in four other viral proteins (VP4, VP7, NSP1, and NSP2)...
  59. Spear A, Wang F, Kappes M, Das P, Faaberg K. Progress toward an enhanced vaccine: Eight marked attenuated viruses to porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus. Virology. 2018;516:30-37 pubmed publisher
    ..modified live virus vaccine were produced with two individual small in-frame deletions in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2; ?23 and ?87) and also the same deletions supplanted with foreign tags (?23-V5, ?23-FLAG, ?23-S, ?87-V5, ?87-FLAG, ?..
  60. González Almela E, Sanz M, García Moreno M, Northcote P, Pelletier J, Carrasco L. Differential action of pateamine A on translation of genomic and subgenomic mRNAs from Sindbis virus. Virology. 2015;484:41-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Translation of genomic mRNA is strongly suppressed by Pat A, as shown by the reduction of nsP1 or nsP2 synthesis...
  61. Orlacchio A, Kawarai T, Rogaeva E, Song Y, Paterson A, Bernardi G, et al. Clinical and genetic study of a large Italian family linked to SPG12 locus. Neurology. 2002;59:1395-401 pubmed
    Seven loci for autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (ADHSP) have been mapped. To date, two families of SPG12 (chromosome 19q13) have been analyzed; however, there is not enough clinical information on SPG12 to establish locus-..
  62. Song T, Fang L, Wang D, Zhang R, Zeng S, An K, et al. Quantitative interactome reveals that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2 forms a complex with viral nucleocapsid protein and cellular vimentin. J Proteomics. 2016;142:70-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) plays crucial roles in viral replication and host immune regulation, most likely by interacting with viral or ..
  63. Campos Gomez J, Ahmad F, Rodriguez E, Saeed M. A novel cell-based assay to measure activity of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2 protease. Virology. 2016;496:77-89 pubmed publisher
    The encephalitic alphaviruses encode nsP2 protease (nsP2pro), which because of its vital role in virus replication, represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention...
  64. Montenegro G, Rebelo A, Connell J, Allison R, Babalini C, D Aloia M, et al. Mutations in the ER-shaping protein reticulon 2 cause the axon-degenerative disorder hereditary spastic paraplegia type 12. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:538-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Applying Sanger and exome sequencing, we have now identified 3 mutations in reticulon 2 (RTN2), which encodes a member of the reticulon family of prototypic ER-shaping proteins, in families with ..
  65. Thoka B, Jaimipak T, Onnome S, Yoksan S, Ubol S, Pulmanausahakul R. The synergistic effect of nsP2-L618, nsP3-R117, and E2-K187 on the large plaque phenotype of chikungunya virus. Virus Genes. 2018;54:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..in comparison to parental isolate revealed a number of mutations, leading to the following amino acid changes: nsP2 (P618?L), nsP3 (G117?R), and E2 (N187?K)...
  66. Liu J, Zhou X, Zhai J, Li B, Wei C, Dai A, et al. Genetic diversity and evolutionary characteristics of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in southeastern China from 2009 to 2014. Arch Virol. 2017;162:2603-2615 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we found that nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) was the most variable nonstructural protein in Fujian isolates, with a 36-amino-acid (aa) insertion and seven ..
  67. Agbemabiese C, Nakagomi T, Doan Y, Do L, Damanka S, Armah G, et al. Genomic constellation and evolution of Ghanaian G2P[4] rotavirus strains from a global perspective. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;45:122-131 pubmed publisher
    ..The VP7, VP4, VP2, NSP1, and NSP5 genes belonged to lineage IVa; the VP6, VP1, NSP2, and NSP3 genes belonged to lineage V, and all these genes evolved in the same fashion as the global strains...
  68. Reid E, Dearlove A, Osborn O, Rogers M, Rubinsztein D. A locus for autosomal dominant "pure" hereditary spastic paraplegia maps to chromosome 19q13. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;66:728-32 pubmed
    ..72 at D19S420, allowing assignment of a novel ADPHSP locus (which we have termed "SPG12") to this region...
  69. Dhindwal S, Kesari P, Singh H, Kumar P, Tomar S. Conformer and pharmacophore based identification of peptidomimetic inhibitors of chikungunya virus nsP2 protease. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2017;35:3522-3539 pubmed publisher
    Chikungunya virus nsP2 replication protein is a cysteine protease, which cleaves the nonstructural nsP1234 polyprotein into functional replication components...
  70. Mingo R, Zhang S, Long C, LaConte L, McDonald S. Genetic determinants restricting the reassortment of heterologous NSP2 genes into the simian rotavirus SA11 genome. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9301 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we employed a helper virus-based reverse genetics system to identify NSP2 gene regions that correlate with restricted reassortment into simian RV strain SA11...
  71. Wang K, Li S, Worku T, Hao X, Yang L, Zhang S. Rab11a is required for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus induced autophagy to promote viral replication. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;492:236-242 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing of Rab11a resulted in a compromise the expression of intracellular viral NSP2 and ORF7...
  72. Wang X, Wang F, Li Z, Wen Y, Wang X, Song N, et al. Development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to differentiate antibodies against wild-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome from the vaccine strain TJM-F92 based on a recombinant Nsp2 protein. J Virol Methods. 2018;251:151-154 pubmed publisher
    ..Coefficient of variations of the repeatability tests ranged between 1.41-17.02%. The results suggest that the d120-ELISA is suitable for differentiating animals infected with wild-type strains from those immunized with MLV TJM-F92. ..
  73. Zhou L, Kang R, Ji G, Tian Y, Ge M, Xie B, et al. Molecular characterization and recombination analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus emerged in southwestern China during 2012-2016. Virus Genes. 2018;54:98-110 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the prevalence of PRRSV of genotype 2 (North American type, NA-type) in southwestern China, the Nsp2 hypervariable region (Nsp2 HV) and ORF5 of 61 PRRS viruses collected during 2012-2016 were sequenced and analyzed...
  74. Yu L, Zhao P, Dong J, Liu Y, Zhang L, Liang P, et al. Genetic characterization of 11 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in South China from 2014 to 2015. Virol J. 2017;14:139 pubmed publisher
    ..0 software. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid (AA) sequences of NSP2 and ORF5 were aligned using the MegAlign program of DNASTAR7.0 software to determine sequence homology...
  75. Compton J, Mickey M, Hu X, Marugan J, Legler P. Mutation of Asn-475 in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP2 Cysteine Protease Leads to a Self-Inhibited State. Biochemistry. 2017;56:6221-6230 pubmed publisher
    The alphaviral nsP2 cysteine protease of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a validated antiviral drug target...
  76. He W, Lu Y, Qahwash I, Hu X, Chang A, Yan R. Reticulon family members modulate BACE1 activity and amyloid-beta peptide generation. Nat Med. 2004;10:959-65 pubmed
    ..The reticulon family of proteins has four members, RTN1, RTN2, RTN3 and RTN4 (also known as Nogo), the last of which is well known for its role in inhibiting neuritic outgrowth ..
  77. Niira K, Ito M, Masuda T, Saitou T, Abe T, Komoto S, et al. Whole genome sequences of Japanese porcine species C rotaviruses reveal a high diversity of genotypes of individual genes and will contribute to a comprehensive, generally accepted classification system. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;44:106-113 pubmed publisher
    ..phylogenetic analyses revealed that candidate novel genotypes of porcine Japanese RVC were identified in the NSP1, NSP2 and NSP3 encoding genes, respectively...
  78. Cao S, Cai X, Tan M, Sun F, Wang Y, Shang Y, et al. Serodiagnosis, targeting nonstructural protein 4, of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Arch Virol. 2018;163:411-418 pubmed publisher
    ..These results were further confirmed by western blot analysis and another iELISA based on the N-terminus of NSP2 (NSP2-1-coated iELISA)...
  79. Yodmeeklin A, Khamrin P, Chuchaona W, Kumthip K, Kongkaew A, Vachirachewin R, et al. Analysis of complete genome sequences of G9P[19] rotavirus strains from human and piglet with diarrhea provides evidence for whole-genome interspecies transmission of nonreassorted porcine rotavirus. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;47:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..genotypes with the nucleotide sequence identities of VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, and NSP5 at 99.0%, 99.5%, 93.2%, 97.7%, 97.7%, 85.6%, 89.5%, 93.2%, 92.9%, 94.0%, and 98...
  80. Utt A, Das P, Varjak M, Lulla V, Lulla A, Merits A. Mutations conferring a noncytotoxic phenotype on chikungunya virus replicons compromise enzymatic properties of nonstructural protein 2. J Virol. 2015;89:3145-62 pubmed publisher
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (genus Alphavirus) has a positive-sense RNA genome. CHIKV nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) proteolytically processes the viral nonstructural polyprotein, possesses nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase), RNA ..
  81. Pietsch C, Liebert U. Molecular characterization of different equine-like G3 rotavirus strains from Germany. Infect Genet Evol. 2018;57:46-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thereof two showed a DS-1-like backbone. In one strain the NSP2 gene segment was of distinct genotype (G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N1-T2-E2-H2)...
  82. Hirsch S, Kim J, Muñoz A, Heckmann A, Downie J, Oldroyd G. GRAS proteins form a DNA binding complex to induce gene expression during nodulation signaling in Medicago truncatula. Plant Cell. 2009;21:545-57 pubmed publisher
    ..nodulation gene expression via two GRAS domain transcriptional regulators, Nodulation Signaling Pathway1 (NSP1) and NSP2, and an ERF transcription factor required for nodulation...
  83. Wen X, Bian T, Zhang Z, Zhou L, Ge X, Han J, et al. Interleukin-2 enhancer binding factor 2 interacts with the nsp9 or nsp2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and exerts negatively regulatory effect on the viral replication. Virol J. 2017;14:125 pubmed publisher
    ..The nonstructural protein 9 (nsp9) and nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of PRRSV are known to play important roles in viral replication...
  84. Liu Y, Vidensky S, RUGGIERO A, Maier S, Sitte H, Rothstein J. Reticulon RTN2B regulates trafficking and function of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:6561-71 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that transporter exit from the ER controlled by the interaction with its ER binding partner represents a critical regulatory step in glutamate transporter trafficking to the cell surface. ..
  85. Urade T, Yamamoto Y, Zhang X, Ku Y, Sakisaka T. Identification and characterization of TMEM33 as a reticulon-binding protein. Kobe J Med Sci. 2014;60:E57-65 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TMEM33 has a potency to suppress the membrane-shaping activity of reticulons, thereby regulating the tubular structure of ER. ..
  86. Zhang M, Li X, Cai X, Qu Y, Hu D, Lv L, et al. Evaluation of infection status in Chinese swine with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by nested RT-PCR targeting nsp2 gene. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;44:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The nsp2 gene of PRRSV is the most hypervariable region of the genome...
  87. McAdam E, Hugill C, Fort S, Samain E, Cottaz S, Davies N, et al. Determining the Site of Action of Strigolactones during Nodulation. Plant Physiol. 2017;175:529-542 pubmed publisher
    ..by mutations in genes of the Nod LCO signaling pathway, and this requires the downstream transcription factor NSP2 but not NIN This, together with the fact that the expression of certain SL biosynthesis genes can be ..
  88. Ikemoto T, Hosoya T, Takata K, Aoyama H, Hiramatsu T, Onoe H, et al. Functional role of neuroendocrine-specific protein-like 1 in membrane translocation of GLUT4. Diabetes. 2009;58:2802-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered that dantrolene can bind to skeletal-type neuroendocrine-specific protein-like 1 (sk-NSPl1) with photoreactive dantrolene derivatives...
  89. Ramphan S, Khongwichit S, Saisawang C, Kovanich D, Ketterman A, Ubol S, et al. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme E2 L3 is Downregulated by the Chikungunya Virus nsP2 Protease. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The CHIKV non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) is a multifunctional protein that additionally modulates the host cell to dampen the innate immune response and ..