Gene Symbol: RSK4
Description: ribosomal protein S6 kinase A6
Alias: PP90RSK4, RSK-4, RSK4, S6K-alpha-6, p90RSK6, ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-6, 90 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 6, S6K-alpha 6, p90-RSK 6, ribosomal S6 kinase 4, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 6
Species: human
Products:     RSK4

Top Publications

  1. Lleonart M, Vidal F, Gallardo D, Diaz Fuertes M, Rojo F, Cuatrecasas M, et al. New p53 related genes in human tumors: significant downregulation in colon and lung carcinomas. Oncol Rep. 2006;16:603-8 pubmed
    ..These results could unravel a novel set of regulatory suppressor genes involved in human colon and lung tumors. ..
  2. Berns K, Hijmans E, Mullenders J, Brummelkamp T, Velds A, Heimerikx M, et al. A large-scale RNAi screen in human cells identifies new components of the p53 pathway. Nature. 2004;428:431-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we describe siRNA bar-code screens to rapidly identify individual siRNA vectors associated with a specific phenotype. These new tools will greatly facilitate large-scale loss-of-function genetic screens in mammalian cells. ..
  3. Thakur A, Rahman K, Wu J, Bollig A, Biliran H, Lin X, et al. Aberrant expression of X-linked genes RbAp46, Rsk4, and Cldn2 in breast cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2007;5:171-81 pubmed
    ..Reverse transcription-PCR data show high expression of putative tumor suppressor genes Rsk4 and RbAp46 in 47% and 79% of breast carcinoma cases, respectively, whereas Cldn2 was down-regulated in 52% of ..
  4. López Vicente L, Pons B, Coch L, Teixidó C, Hernandez Losa J, Armengol G, et al. RSK4 inhibition results in bypass of stress-induced and oncogene-induced senescence. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:470-6 pubmed publisher
    p90 Ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) 4 is a serine-threonine kinase that belongs to the p90RSK family. RSK4 has been proposed as a tumor suppressor gene, related with anti-invasive activity, inhibition of the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase ..
  5. Dummler B, Hauge C, Silber J, Yntema H, Kruse L, Kofoed B, et al. Functional characterization of human RSK4, a new 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase, reveals constitutive activation in most cell types. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13304-14 pubmed
    ..Here we performed the functional characterization of a predicted new human RSK homologue, RSK4. We showed that RSK4 is a predominantly cytosolic protein with very low expression and several characteristics of ..
  6. López Vicente L, Armengol G, Pons B, Coch L, Argelaguet E, Lleonart M, et al. Regulation of replicative and stress-induced senescence by RSK4, which is down-regulated in human tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:4546-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In a large RNA interference screen, the RSK4 gene was found to be related to p53-dependent arrest...
  7. Yntema H, van den Helm B, Kissing J, van Duijnhoven G, Poppelaars F, Chelly J, et al. A novel ribosomal S6-kinase (RSK4; RPS6KA6) is commonly deleted in patients with complex X-linked mental retardation. Genomics. 1999;62:332-43 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel gene, ribosomal S6-kinase 4 (RSK4; HGMW-approved symbol RPS6KA6), which maps in the MRX critical region...
  8. Bender C, Ullrich A. PRKX, TTBK2 and RSK4 expression causes Sunitinib resistance in kidney carcinoma- and melanoma-cell lines. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:E45-55 pubmed publisher
    ..PRKX, TTBK2 and RSK4 expression...
  9. Dewdney S, Rimel B, Thaker P, Thompson D, Schmidt A, Huettner P, et al. Aberrant methylation of the X-linked ribosomal S6 kinase RPS6KA6 (RSK4) in endometrial cancers. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:2120-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation activation of the FGFR2/RAS/ERK pathway is important in endometrial tumorigenesis. RPS6KA6 (RSK4) is a putative tumor suppressor gene and is a target of the ERK signaling pathway...

More Information


  1. Thakur A, Sun Y, Bollig A, Wu J, Biliran H, Banerjee S, et al. Anti-invasive and antimetastatic activities of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 4 in breast cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:4427-36 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown that p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 4 (RSK4), an X-linked gene, is highly up-regulated in mammary tumors of MMTV-c-Myc transgenic mice...
  2. Zhu L, Zhang S, Huan X, Mei Y, Yang H. Down-regulation of TRAF4 targeting RSK4 inhibits proliferation, invasion and metastasis in breast cancer xenografts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;500:810-816 pubmed publisher
    Ribosomal S6 protein kinase 4 (RSK4) was known as a novel tumor suppressor gene, and the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4) was linked to carcinogenesis...
  3. Li A, Liu D, Liu Y, Zhou Y, Du Z, Song J. A Pilot Study of RSK4 Expression in Patients with Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2018;48:484-489 pubmed
    ..The aim of this pilot study was to ascertain RSK4 expression at both the gene and protein level in normal and cancerous tissue of patients with NSCLC...
  4. Xi T, Zhang G. Epigenetic regulation on the gene expression signature in esophagus adenocarcinoma. Pathol Res Pract. 2017;213:83-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified altered miRNA, genes and DNA methylation site may be applied as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of NOS. ..
  5. Liu R, Liu T, Wei W, Guo K, Yang N, Tian S, et al. Novel interacting proteins identified by tandem affinity purification coupled to nano LC-MS/MS interact with ribosomal S6 protein kinase 4 (RSK4) and its variant protein (RSK4m). Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;96:421-428 pubmed publisher
    Ribosomal S6 protein kinase 4 (RSK4) is an important novel tumor suppressor that inhibits breast cancer cell growth and induces senescence...
  6. Jiang Y, Ye X, Ji Y, Zhou X, Yang H, Wei W, et al. Aberrant expression of RSK4 in breast cancer and its role in the regulation of tumorigenicity. Int J Mol Med. 2017;40:883-890 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, to explore the expression and pathological role of RSK4 in breast cancer progression, we demonstrated that RSK4 expression was significantly decreased in breast cancer ..
  7. Fan L, Li P, Yin Z, Fu G, Liao D, Liu Y, et al. Ribosomal s6 protein kinase 4: a prognostic factor for renal cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2013;109:1137-46 pubmed publisher
    The expression and function of ribosomal s6 protein kinase 4 (RSK4) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are unknown...
  8. Arechavaleta Velasco F, Zeferino Toquero M, Estrada Moscoso I, Imani Razavi F, Olivares A, Perez Juarez C, et al. Ribosomal S6 kinase 4 (RSK4) expression in ovarian tumors and its regulation by antineoplastic drugs in ovarian cancer cell lines. Med Oncol. 2016;33:11 pubmed publisher
    Survival rate in ovarian cancer depends on the stage of the disease. RSK4, which has been considered as a tumor suppressor factor, controls cells invasion due to its antiinvasive and antimetastatic properties...
  9. Jakobs A, Himstedt F, Funk M, Korn B, Gaestel M, Niedenthal R. Ubc9 fusion-directed SUMOylation identifies constitutive and inducible SUMOylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:e109 pubmed
    ..Hence, UFDS is appropriate for the identification and characterization of constitutive and, more importantly, induced protein SUMOylation in vivo. ..
  10. Kantojärvi K, Kotala I, Rehnstrom K, Ylisaukko Oja T, Vanhala R, von Wendt T, et al. Fine mapping of Xq11.1-q21.33 and mutation screening of RPS6KA6, ZNF711, ACSL4, DLG3, and IL1RAPL2 for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism Res. 2011;4:228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of six novel and 11 known single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Further studies are warranted to analyze the candidate genes at Xq11.1-q21.33. ..
  11. Li Q, Jiang Y, Wei W, Ji Y, Gao H, Liu J. Frequent epigenetic inactivation of RSK4 by promoter methylation in cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of breast cancer. Med Oncol. 2014;31:793 pubmed publisher
    ..Ribosomal s6 kinase4 (RSK4) is a potential tumor suppressor in multiple cancers, while its role in breast cancer is largely unknown...
  12. Zhu J, Li Q, Liu J, Wei W, Yang H, Tang W. RSK4 knockdown promotes proliferation, migration and metastasis of human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Oncol Rep. 2015;34:3156-62 pubmed publisher
    b>RSK4 has been shown to inhibit the growth of certain cancer cells...
  13. Siddiqui R, Sauermann U, Altmuller J, Fritzer E, Nothnagel M, Dalibor N, et al. X chromosomal variation is associated with slow progression to AIDS in HIV-1-infected women. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;85:228-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidating the mechanisms underlying this sex-specific effect will promote the development of antiretroviral therapies with high efficacy in both sexes. ..
  14. Harum K, Alemi L, Johnston M. Cognitive impairment in Coffin-Lowry syndrome correlates with reduced RSK2 activation. Neurology. 2001;56:207-14 pubmed
    ..It provides additional evidence that the CREB kinase, RSK2, and CREB phosphorylation may play important roles in human learning and memory, as they do in lower animals. ..
  15. Yin Z, Fan L, Huang G, Wang H, Wang Z. The possible role of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 4 in the senescence of endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes mellitus. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:12 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 4 (RSK4), a member of serine/threomine (Ser/Thr) kinase family and p53-related gene, is reported to regulate the ..
  16. Roux P, Richards S, Blenis J. Phosphorylation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) regulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase docking and RSK activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4796-804 pubmed
    ..These results provide new evidence for the regulated nature of ERK docking interactions and reveal important differences among the closely related RSK family members. ..
  17. Cai J, Ma H, Huang F, Zhu D, Zhao L, Yang Y, et al. Low expression of RSK4 predicts poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014;7:4959-70 pubmed
    ..Ribosomal s6 kinase4 (RSK4), an X-linked gene, firstly was found as to be a potential tumor suppressive gene in a variety of cancers and is ..
  18. Serra V, Eichhorn P, García García C, Ibrahim Y, Prudkin L, Sánchez G, et al. RSK3/4 mediate resistance to PI3K pathway inhibitors in breast cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2551-63 pubmed publisher of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) blockade, including the ribosomal S6 kinases RPS6KA2 (RSK3) and RPS6KA6 (RSK4)...
  19. Liu J, Yang H, Chen Z, Jiang Y. [Abnormal expression of RSK-4 and its clinical significance in breast cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2011;33:452-6 pubmed
    ..05). The down-regulation of RSK-4 expression in breast caner suggests that it is a breast cancer suppressor gene, and the lack or down-regulation of RSK-4 expression is involved in the genesis and progression of breast cancer. ..