Gene Symbol: RRAS
Description: RAS related
Alias: R-Ras, ras-related protein R-Ras, oncogene RRAS, p23, ras family small GTP binding protein R-Ras, related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog
Species: human
Products:     RRAS

Top Publications

  1. Lowe D, Capon D, Delwart E, Sakaguchi A, Naylor S, Goeddel D. Structure of the human and murine R-ras genes, novel genes closely related to ras proto-oncogenes. Cell. 1987;48:137-46 pubmed
    ..5% predicted amino acid identity to human R-ras. Human R-ras was localized to chromosome 19, a site different from ras p21 genes. Mouse R-ras is syntenic with c-H-ras on chromosome 7. ..
  2. Yuryev A, Wennogle L. Novel raf kinase protein-protein interactions found by an exhaustive yeast two-hybrid analysis. Genomics. 2003;81:112-25 pubmed
    ..We propose possible functional consequences of these novel Raf interactions. ..
  3. Furuhjelm J, Peranen J. The C-terminal end of R-Ras contains a focal adhesion targeting signal. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:3729-38 pubmed
    ..The outermost region in the N-terminus of R-Ras, as well as the intact proline-rich sequence in the C-terminus of RRas that mediates binding to Nck, were not essential...
  4. Mitin N, Ramocki M, Zullo A, Der C, Konieczny S, Taparowsky E. Identification and characterization of rain, a novel Ras-interacting protein with a unique subcellular localization. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:22353-61 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations support a role for Rain as a novel protein that can serve as an effector of endomembrane-localized Ras. ..
  5. Ada Nguema A, Xenias H, Hofman J, Wiggins C, Sheetz M, Keely P. The small GTPase R-Ras regulates organization of actin and drives membrane protrusions through the activity of PLCepsilon. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1307-19 pubmed
    ..Overall, these data suggest that R-Ras signaling regulates the organization of the actin cytoskeleton to sustain membrane protrusion through the activity of PLCepsilon. ..
  6. Wozniak M, Kwong L, Chodniewicz D, Klemke R, Keely P. R-Ras controls membrane protrusion and cell migration through the spatial regulation of Rac and Rho. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:84-96 pubmed
    ..From these data, we hypothesize that R-Ras plays a key role in cell migration by locally regulating the switch from Rac to Rho activity after membrane protrusion and adhesion. ..
  7. Oinuma I, Ishikawa Y, Katoh H, Negishi M. The Semaphorin 4D receptor Plexin-B1 is a GTPase activating protein for R-Ras. Science. 2004;305:862-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, Plexin-B1 mediates Sema4D-induced repulsive axon guidance signaling by acting as a GTPase activating protein for R-Ras. ..
  8. Rincón Arano H, Rosales R, Mora N, Rodriguez Castañeda A, Rosales C. R-Ras promotes tumor growth of cervical epithelial cells. Cancer. 2003;97:575-85 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the oncogene R-Ras promotes tumor growth of cervical epithelial cells and increases their migration potential over collagen through a pathway that involves PI 3-K. ..
  9. Oertli B, Han J, Marte B, Sethi T, Downward J, Ginsberg M, et al. The effector loop and prenylation site of R-Ras are involved in the regulation of integrin function. Oncogene. 2000;19:4961-9 pubmed
    ..Consequently, these studies provide insight into the structural basis of the interactions between R-Ras and its candidate effectors and suggest the existence of novel mechanisms through which this GTPase could regulate cell adhesion. ..

More Information


  1. Chefdor F, Hericourt F, Koudounas K, Carqueijeiro I, Courdavault V, Mascagni F, et al. Highlighting type A RRs as potential regulators of the dkHK1 multi-step phosphorelay pathway in Populus. Plant Sci. 2018;277:68-78 pubmed publisher
    ..For most of them, the in planta subcellular localization was as predicted, except for three RRAs, for which this experimental approach gave a more precise localization...
  2. Ullery B, Suh G, Lee J, Liu B, Stineman R, Dalman R, et al. Geometry and respiratory-induced deformation of abdominal branch vessels and stents after complex endovascular aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg. 2015;61:875-84 pubmed publisher
    ..04). At the distal ends of the RRA stents, Sn-RRAs were angled greater than F-RRAs (P < .03) and had a smaller radius of peak curvature (P < .03)...
  3. Magi A, D Aurizio R, Palombo F, Cifola I, Tattini L, Semeraro R, et al. Characterization and identification of hidden rare variants in the human genome. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:340 pubmed publisher
    ..GRC corrected almost all insertions and a small part of SNVs and deletions, a large number of functionally relevant RRAs still remain unchanged...
  4. Kim J, Chung J, Huh S, Park K, Kim D, Kim B, et al. Therapeutic strategies for residual or recurrent intracranial aneurysms after microsurgical clipping. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2018;173:110-114 pubmed publisher
    ..our retreatment experiences with previously clipped aneurysms and to demonstrate retreatment strategies for these RRAs. From 1996-2016, we treated 68 RRAs after previous clipping...
  5. Li Y, Luo M, Shi X, Lü Z, Sun S, Huang J, et al. Integrated bioinformatics analysis of chromatin regulator EZH2 in regulating mRNA and lncRNA expression by ChIP sequencing and RNA sequencing. Oncotarget. 2016;7:81715-81726 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-expression analysis confirmed numerous targets, mRNA genes (RRAS, TGFBR2, NUF2 and PRC1) and lncRNA genes (lncRNA LINC00261, DIO3OS, RP11-307C12.11 and RP11-98D18...
  6. Zeltser D, Strauch R. Vascular anatomy relevant to distal biceps tendon repair. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2016;25:283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Two arms demonstrated a high brachial artery bifurcation. The crossing veins were venae comitantes of the RRAs and radial and ulnar arteries. They connected to the superficial veins by way of a perforating branch...
  7. Sevilla Montoya R, Aguinaga M, Martínez A, Razo G, Molina B, Frías S, et al. Heterogeneous Diagnoses Underlying Radial Ray Anomalies. Indian J Pediatr. 2017;84:200-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Three of the live born patients and one stillborn with multiple defects had Fanconi anemia. RRAs carry a high perinatal mortality rate (47%) when they occur in association with other defects...
  8. Ohata S, Uga H, Okamoto H, Katada T. Small GTPase R-Ras participates in neural tube formation in zebrafish embryonic spinal cord. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;501:786-790 pubmed publisher
    ..oligonucleotides (AMOs), we found that in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos, the lumen was formed bilaterally in rras morphants, whereas it was formed at the midline in control embryos...
  9. Ullery B, Suh G, Lee J, Liu B, Stineman R, Dalman R, et al. Comparative geometric analysis of renal artery anatomy before and after fenestrated or snorkel/chimney endovascular aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg. 2016;63:922-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0005). Peak curvature increased in distal Sn-RRAs by .02 ± .03 mm(-1) (P < .05). Acute renal failure occurred in 12...
  10. Pappone C, Ciconte G, Vicedomini G, Mangual J, Li W, Conti M, et al. Clinical Outcome of Electrophysiologically Guided Ablation for Nonparoxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Using a Novel Real-Time 3-Dimensional Mapping Technique: Results From a Prospective Randomized Trial. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2018;11:e005904 pubmed publisher
    ..enrolled to undergo high-density electrophysiological mapping to identify repetitive-regular activities (RRas) before modified circumferential pulmonary vein (PV) ablation...
  11. Yan X, Yan M, Guo Y, Singh G, Chen Y, Yu M, et al. R-Ras Regulates Murine T Cell Migration and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Binding. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0145218 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins and its role in T cell trafficking has been investigated in R-Ras null mice (Rras-/-)...
  12. van Goor M, Verkaart S, van Dam T, Huynen M, van der Wijst J. Interspecies differences in PTH-mediated PKA phosphorylation of the epithelial calcium channel TRPV5. Pflugers Arch. 2017;469:1301-1311 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated that the change in the RRxT motif coincides with the creation of another putative PKA motif (RGAS to RRAS) in the amino terminus of hTRPV5...
  13. Sousa V, Ramalho P, Silveira D. Sharing regulatory data as tools for strengthening health systems in the Region of the Americas. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2016;39:245-254 pubmed
    ..still fragile and fragmented across various Health Regulatory Agencies (HRAs) and Regional Reference Authorities (RRAs)...
  14. Nakhaeizadeh H, Amin E, Nakhaei Rad S, Dvorsky R, Ahmadian M. The RAS-Effector Interface: Isoform-Specific Differences in the Effector Binding Regions. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0167145 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we propose that intermolecular β-sheet interaction in R1 is a central recognition region while R3 may determine specific contacts of RAS versus RRAS isoforms with effectors.
  15. Shimada Y, Kohno T, Ueno H, Ino Y, Hayashi H, Nakaoku T, et al. An Oncogenic ALK Fusion and an RRAS Mutation in KRAS Mutation-Negative Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. Oncologist. 2017;22:158-164 pubmed publisher
    ..Another case harbored an oncogenic RRAS mutation that activated the GTPase of the RRAS protein...
  16. Yuryev A, Ono M, Goff S, Macaluso F, Wennogle L. Isoform-specific localization of A-RAF in mitochondria. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4870-8 pubmed
    ..This information is discussed in view of the important role of mitochondria in cellular functions involving energy balance, proliferation, and apoptosis and the potential role of A-RAF in regulating these systems. ..
  17. Tian X, Feig L. Basis for signaling specificity difference between Sos and Ras-GRF guanine nucleotide exchange factors. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:47248-56 pubmed
    ..Although previous studies have shown that helix B of Sos1 and helix 3 of Ha-Ras are involved in promoting nucleotide exchange on Ras proteins, this study highlights the importance of these regions in establishing signaling specificity. ..
  18. Yu Y, Feig L. Involvement of R-Ras and Ral GTPases in estrogen-independent proliferation of breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2002;21:7557-68 pubmed
  19. Miller J, Yates B, Al Ramahi I, Berman A, Sanhueza M, Kim E, et al. A genome-scale RNA-interference screen identifies RRAS signaling as a pathologic feature of Huntington's disease. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003042 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to established mechanisms, the screen identified multiple components of the RRAS signaling pathway as loss-of-function suppressors of mutant huntingtin toxicity in human and mouse cell models...
  20. Lee W, Kim D, Lee M, Choi K. Identification of proteins interacting with the catalytic subunit of PP2A by proteomics. Proteomics. 2007;7:206-14 pubmed
    ..The interactions of several candidate proteins, such as tuberous sclerosis complex 2, RhoB, R-Ras, and Nm23H2, with PP2Ac, were confirmed by in vitro binding analyses and/or coimmunoprecipitation experiments. ..
  21. Carboni J, Yan N, Cox A, Bustelo X, Graham S, Lynch M, et al. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors are inhibitors of Ras but not R-Ras2/TC21, transformation. Oncogene. 1995;10:1905-13 pubmed
  22. Xu L, Komatsu M. Promoter cloning and characterization of the anti-vascular proliferation gene, R-ras: role of Ets- and Sp-binding motifs. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:2706-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These results map the functional elements in the R-ras promoter sequence and suggest that the GABP may be critical for transcription of R-ras and for maintenance of normal blood vessel functions through the regulation of this gene. ..
  23. Inuzuka T, Tsuda M, Kawaguchi H, Ohba Y. Transcription factor 8 activates R-Ras to regulate angiogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:510-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we found that TCF8 bound to CalDAG-GEFIII, an R-Ras activator, in the cytosol, indicating that TCF8 emanates signaling for R-Ras activation from cytosol to regulate angiogenesis negatively. ..
  24. Oinuma I, Katoh H, Negishi M. R-Ras controls axon specification upstream of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta through integrin-linked kinase. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:303-18 pubmed
    ..In addition, membrane targeting of ILK was sufficient to inactivate GSK-3beta and to form multiple axons. Our study demonstrates a novel role of R-Ras and ILK upstream of GSK-3beta in the regulation of neuronal polarity. ..
  25. Carta C, Pantaleoni F, Bocchinfuso G, Stella L, Vasta I, Sarkozy A, et al. Germline missense mutations affecting KRAS Isoform B are associated with a severe Noonan syndrome phenotype. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;79:129-35 pubmed
  26. Zou J, Wang B, Kalo M, Zisch A, Pasquale E, Ruoslahti E. An Eph receptor regulates integrin activity through R-Ras. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:13813-8 pubmed
    ..Reduced adhesiveness induced through the Eph/R-Ras pathway may explain the repulsive effect of the Eph receptors in axonal pathfinding and may facilitate tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis. ..
  27. Hodkinson P, Elliott P, Lad Y, McHugh B, Mackinnon A, Haslett C, et al. Mammalian NOTCH-1 activates beta1 integrins via the small GTPase R-Ras. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:28991-9001 pubmed
    ..This new CSL-independent Notch/R-Ras pathway provides a molecular mechanism to explain Notch, integrin, and Ras cross-talk during the development of multicellular organisms. ..
  28. Xu L, Gao Y, Chen Y, Xiao Y, He Q, Qiu H, et al. Quantitative proteomics reveals that distant recurrence-associated protein R-Ras and Transgelin predict post-surgical survival in patients with Stage III colorectal cancer. Oncotarget. 2016;7:43868-43893 pubmed publisher
    ..This proteomics data have been submitted to Proteome Xchange under accession number PXD002903. ..
  29. Suzuki J, Kaziro Y, Koide H. Positive regulation of skeletal myogenesis by R-Ras. Oncogene. 2000;19:1138-46 pubmed
    ..The ectopic expression of R-Ras GAP inhibited the differentiation. These results suggest that R-Ras has a positive effect on the terminal differentiation of myoblasts and may be involved in the program of skeletal myogenesis. ..
  30. Sawada J, Urakami T, Li F, Urakami A, Zhu W, Fukuda M, et al. Small GTPase R-Ras regulates integrity and functionality of tumor blood vessels. Cancer Cell. 2012;22:235-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, R-Ras promotes normalization of the tumor vasculature. These findings identify R-Ras as a critical regulator of vessel integrity and function during tumor vascularization...
  31. Swiercz J, Worzfeld T, Offermanns S. Semaphorin 4D signaling requires the recruitment of phospholipase C gamma into the plexin-B1 receptor complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:6321-34 pubmed publisher
  32. Tong Y, Hota P, Penachioni J, Hamaneh M, Kim S, Alviani R, et al. Structure and function of the intracellular region of the plexin-b1 transmembrane receptor. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35962-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the monomeric form of the intracellular region is primed for GAP activity and extend a model for plexin activation. ..
  33. Wang B, Zou J, Ek Rylander B, Ruoslahti E. R-Ras contains a proline-rich site that binds to SH3 domains and is required for integrin activation by R-Ras. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:5222-7 pubmed
    ..These results reveal an unexpected regulatory pathway that controls R-Ras through an SH3 domain interaction. This pathway appears to be important for the ability of R-Ras to control cell adhesion. ..
  34. Kwong L, Wozniak M, Collins A, Wilson S, Keely P. R-Ras promotes focal adhesion formation through focal adhesion kinase and p130(Cas) by a novel mechanism that differs from integrins. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:933-49 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that R-Ras promotes focal adhesion formation by signaling to FAK and p130(Cas) through a novel mechanism that differs from but synergizes with the alpha2beta1 integrin. ..
  35. Medeiros M, Almeida S, Guerra M, Da Silva P, Carneiro A, de Andrade D. Distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in the northeast macro-region of São Paulo state/Brazil after the introduction of conjugate vaccine. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:590 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study evaluated the frequency of various Spn serotypes isolated in Regional Health Care Network 13 (RRAS 13), which includes the regional health departments (RHDs) of Araraquara, Barretos, Franca and Ribeirão Preto, ..
  36. Flex E, Jaiswal M, Pantaleoni F, Martinelli S, Strullu M, Fansa E, et al. Activating mutations in RRAS underlie a phenotype within the RASopathy spectrum and contribute to leukaemogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:4315-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We report on two germline mutations (p.Gly39dup and p.Val55Met) in RRAS, a gene encoding a small monomeric GTPase controlling cell adhesion, spreading and migration, underlying a rare (2 ..
  37. López de Jesús M, Stope M, Oude Weernink P, Mahlke Y, Börgermann C, Ananaba V, et al. Cyclic AMP-dependent and Epac-mediated activation of R-Ras by G protein-coupled receptors leads to phospholipase D stimulation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21837-47 pubmed
  38. Ohba Y, Mochizuki N, Yamashita S, Chan A, Schrader J, Hattori S, et al. Regulatory proteins of R-Ras, TC21/R-Ras2, and M-Ras/R-Ras3. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:20020-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, TC21 and R-Ras were regulated by the same GEFs and GAPs, whereas M-Ras was regulated as the classical Ras. ..
  39. Griffiths G, Grundl M, Allen J, Matter M. R-Ras interacts with filamin a to maintain endothelial barrier function. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:2287-96 pubmed publisher
  40. Ortiz Vega S, Khokhlatchev A, Nedwidek M, Zhang X, Dammann R, Pfeifer G, et al. The putative tumor suppressor RASSF1A homodimerizes and heterodimerizes with the Ras-GTP binding protein Nore1. Oncogene. 2002;21:1381-90 pubmed
    ..The preferential ability of RASSF1A to heterodimerize with Nore and thereby associate with Ras-like GTPases may be relevant to its putative tumor suppressor function. ..
  41. Real L, Caruz A, Rivero Juárez A, Soriano V, Neukam K, Rivero A, et al. A polymorphism linked to RRAS, SCAF1, IRF3 and BCL2L12 genes is associated with cirrhosis in hepatitis C virus carriers. Liver Int. 2014;34:558-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Only the SNP rs12104272, linked to RRAS, SCAF1, IRF3 and BCL2L12 genes, was associated with cirrhosis...
  42. Lilja J, Zacharchenko T, Georgiadou M, Jacquemet G, De Franceschi N, Peuhu E, et al. SHANK proteins limit integrin activation by directly interacting with Rap1 and R-Ras. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:292-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, we establish SHANKs as critical regulators of G-protein signalling and integrin-dependent processes. ..
  43. Ohta T, Kim Y, Oh J, Satomi K, Nonoguchi N, Keyvani K, et al. Alterations of the RRAS and ERCC1 genes at 19q13 in gemistocytic astrocytomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2014;73:908-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Exome sequencing in 5 gemistocytic astrocytomas revealed homozygous deletion of genes at 19q13 (i.e. RRAS [related RAS viral oncogene homolog; 2 cases] and ERCC1 [excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair ..
  44. Chevalier B, Adamiok A, Mercey O, Revinski D, Zaragosi L, Pasini A, et al. miR-34/449 control apical actin network formation during multiciliogenesis through small GTPase pathways. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8386 pubmed publisher
    ..Protection of RRAS messenger RNA against miR-34/449 binding impairs actin cap formation and multiciliogenesis, despite a still active ..
  45. Song J, Zheng B, Bu X, Fei Y, Shi S. Negative association of R-Ras activation and breast cancer development. Oncol Rep. 2014;31:2776-84 pubmed publisher
    ..To solve this controversy, further independent studies are needed to validate our study results. ..
  46. Yu Y, Hao Y, Feig L. The R-Ras GTPase mediates cross talk between estrogen and insulin signaling in breast cancer cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:6372-80 pubmed
  47. Sung H, Kanchi K, Wang X, Hill K, Messina J, Lee J, et al. Inactivation of RASA1 promotes melanoma tumorigenesis via R-Ras activation. Oncotarget. 2016;7:23885-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these data support that RASA1 is inactivated by mutation or by suppressed expression in melanoma and that RASA1 plays a tumor suppressive role by inhibiting R-Ras, a previously less appreciated member of the Ras small GTPases. ..
  48. Ichimiya H, Maeda K, Enomoto A, Weng L, Takahashi M, Murohara T. Girdin/GIV regulates transendothelial permeability by controlling VE-cadherin trafficking through the small GTPase, R-Ras. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;461:260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that Girdin regulates transendothelial permeability in synergy with R-Ras and VE-cadherin in an endothelial monolayer. ..
  49. Zhao R, Li H, Shen C, Zheng S. RRAS: A key regulator and an important prognostic biomarker in biliary atresia. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:796-803 pubmed publisher
    ..Relation between RRAS gene expression and prognosis of 40 BA patients was analyzed in a 2-year follow-up study...
  50. Sawada J, Li F, Komatsu M. R-Ras Inhibits VEGF-Induced p38MAPK Activation and HSP27 Phosphorylation in Endothelial Cells. J Vasc Res. 2015;52:347-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that R-Ras regulates angiogenic activities of endothelial cells in part via inhibition of the p38MAPK-HSP27 axis of VEGF signaling. ..
  51. Weber Boyvat M, Kentala H, Lilja J, Vihervaara T, Hanninen R, Zhou Y, et al. OSBP-related protein 3 (ORP3) coupling with VAMP-associated protein A regulates R-Ras activity. Exp Cell Res. 2015;331:278-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To conclude, phosphorylation of ORP3 controls its association with VAPA. Furthermore, we present evidence that ORP3-VAPA complexes stimulate R-Ras signaling. ..
  52. Wilson L, Baillie G, Pritchard L, Umana B, Terrin A, Zaccolo M, et al. A phosphodiesterase 3B-based signaling complex integrates exchange protein activated by cAMP 1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signals in human arterial endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16285-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify and molecularly characterize a PDE3B-based "signalosome" that integrates cAMP- and PI3K?-encoded signals and show how this signal integration regulates HAEC functions of importance in angiogenesis. ..
  53. Gawecka J, Griffiths G, Ek Rylander B, Ramos J, Matter M. R-Ras regulates migration through an interaction with filamin A in melanoma cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11269 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a model in which R-Ras functionally associates with FLNa and thereby regulates integrin-dependent migration. Thus in melanoma cells R-Ras and FLNa may cooperatively promote metastasis by enhancing cell migration. ..
  54. Choy E, Chiu V, Silletti J, Feoktistov M, Morimoto T, Michaelson D, et al. Endomembrane trafficking of ras: the CAAX motif targets proteins to the ER and Golgi. Cell. 1999;98:69-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, prenylated CAAX proteins do not associate directly with the PM but instead associate with the endomembrane and are subsequently transported to the PM, a process that requires a secondary targeting motif. ..
  55. Linnemann T, Geyer M, Jaitner B, Block C, Kalbitzer H, Wittinghofer A, et al. Thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of the interaction between the Ras binding domain of AF6 and members of the Ras subfamily. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:13556-62 pubmed
    ..Notably, among the Ras-related proteins AF6 binds most tightly to Rap1A which could imply a role of Rap1A in AF6 regulation. ..
  56. Spaargaren M, Bischoff J. Identification of the guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator for Ral as a putative effector molecule of R-ras, H-ras, K-ras, and Rap. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:12609-13 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that RalGDS-RBD and the Ras-binding domain of Raf-1 compete for binding to the Ras-like GTPases. These data indicate that RalGDS is a putative effector molecule for R-ras, H-ras, K-ras, and Rap. ..
  57. Sakurai A, Gavard J, Annas Linhares Y, Basile J, Amornphimoltham P, Palmby T, et al. Semaphorin 3E initiates antiangiogenic signaling through plexin D1 by regulating Arf6 and R-Ras. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3086-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, our present study provides a molecular framework for antiangiogenesis signaling, thus impinging on a myriad of pathological conditions that are characterized by aberrant increase in neovessel formation, including cancer. ..
  58. Fernandez Sarabia M, Bischoff J. Bcl-2 associates with the ras-related protein R-ras p23. Nature. 1993;366:274-5 pubmed
    ..Here we use the yeast two-hybrid system to show that the human ras-related protein R-ras p23 (ref 16-18) binds to Bcl-2. This association is also detected in immunoprecipitates from human cell extracts...