RPS6KA2

Summary

Gene Symbol: RPS6KA2
Description: ribosomal protein S6 kinase A2
Alias: HU-2, MAPKAPK1C, RSK, RSK3, S6K-alpha, S6K-alpha2, p90-RSK3, p90RSK2, pp90RSK3, ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-2, MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 1c, MAPK-activated protein kinase 1c, MAPKAP kinase 1C, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 1C, ribosomal S6 kinase 3, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 2
Species: human
Products:     RPS6KA2

Top Publications

  1. Poomakkoth N, Issa A, Abdulrahman N, Abdelaziz S, Mraiche F. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase: a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. J Transl Med. 2016;14:14 pubmed publisher
    ..p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), a serine threonine kinase that lies downstream of the Ras-MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) cascade, has ..
  2. Im J, Kim B, Lee J, Park S, Ban H, Jung K, et al. DDIAS suppresses TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting DISC formation and destabilizing caspase-8 in cancer cells. Oncogene. 2018;37:1251-1262 pubmed publisher
    ..DDIAS knockdown also suppressed epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) 2 and stabilized caspase-8 by preventing its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation...
  3. Achkar I, Abdulrahman N, Al Sulaiti H, Joseph J, Uddin S, Mraiche F. Cisplatin based therapy: the role of the mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway. J Transl Med. 2018;16:96 pubmed publisher
    ..signal regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 kinases, and downstream mediator p90 ribosomal s6 kinase (RSK); is responsible for the regulation of various cellular events including cell survival, cell proliferation, cell ..
  4. Zhang H, Wang F, Qiu Y, Ye X, Hanson P, Shen H, et al. Emodin inhibits coxsackievirus B3 replication via multiple signalling cascades leading to suppression of translation. Biochem J. 2016;473:473-85 pubmed publisher
    ..cascades, including Akt/mTORC1/p70(S6K) (p70 S6 kinase), ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2)/p90(RSK) (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin, leading to activation of eEF2K (eukaryotic elongation factor 2 ..
  5. Koehne T, Jeschke A, Petermann F, Seitz S, Neven M, Peters S, et al. Rsk2, the Kinase Mutated in Coffin-Lowry Syndrome, Controls Cementum Formation. J Dent Res. 2016;95:752-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In agreement, treatment of the cementoblast cell line OCCM-30 with a Rsk inhibitor reduces formation of mineralization nodules and decreases the expression of cementum markers...
  6. Shi H, Zhang T, Yi Y, Luo J. Investigation of MEK activity in COS7 cells entering mitosis. Mol Med Rep. 2014;10:3163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..affect the phosphorylation level of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RSK) and Elk in mitotic cells (P>0.05)...
  7. Lorenzato A, Torchiaro E, Olivero M, Di Renzo M. The integrin-linked kinase-associated phosphatase (ILKAP) is a regulatory hub of ovarian cancer cell susceptibility to platinum drugs. Eur J Cancer. 2016;60:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In line, the biochemical inhibition of the p90RSK or the combined silencing of the most expressed RSK isoforms, namely RSK1 and RSK2, increased the efficacy of CDDP...
  8. Sutavani R, Phair I, Barker R, McFarlane A, Shpiro N, Lang S, et al. Differential control of Toll-like receptor 4-induced interleukin-10 induction in macrophages and B cells reveals a role for p90 ribosomal S6 kinases. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:2302-2317 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation highlights fundamental differences in the signaling controlling IL-10 production in B cells and macrophages, even though these two cell types respond to a common TLR stimulus. ..
  9. Ludwik K, McDonald O, Brenin D, Lannigan D. ERα-Mediated Nuclear Sequestration of RSK2 Is Required for ER+ Breast Cancer Tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2018;78:2014-2025 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Significance: Nuclear accumulation of active RSK drives a protumorigenic transcriptional program and renders ER+ breast cancer susceptible to endocrine-..

More Information

Publications125 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gu C, Ramos J, Begley U, Dedon P, Fu D, Begley T. Phosphorylation of human TRM9L integrates multiple stress-signaling pathways for tumor growth suppression. Sci Adv. 2018;4:eaas9184 pubmed publisher
    ..stress-activated MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase)-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase)-RSK (ribosomal protein S6 kinase) signaling cascade...
  2. Anders U, Schaefer J, Hibti F, Frydman C, Suckau D, Plückthun A, et al. SPRi-MALDI MS: characterization and identification of a kinase from cell lysate by specific interaction with different designed ankyrin repeat proteins. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2017;409:1827-1836 pubmed publisher
    ..interactions, using the example of designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (RPS6KA2) directly from lysate of SH-SY5Y cells, derived from human bone marrow...
  3. Dumont J, Umbhauer M, Rassinier P, Hanauer A, Verlhac M. p90Rsk is not involved in cytostatic factor arrest in mouse oocytes. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:227-31 pubmed
    ..Eventually, oocytes from the triple Rsk (1, 2, 3) knockout present a normal CSF arrest...
  4. Song N, Kim J, Park J, Kim J, Kang H, Lee E, et al. Licochalcone A, a polyphenol present in licorice, suppresses UV-induced COX-2 expression by targeting PI3K, MEK1, and B-Raf. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:4453-70 pubmed publisher
    ..target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2/p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RSK) in HaCaT cells...
  5. Krishnan N, Dhas K, Nair J, Palve V, Bagwan J, Siddappa G, et al. A Minimal DNA Methylation Signature in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Links Altered Methylation with Tumor Attributes. Mol Cancer Res. 2016;14:805-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, differential methylation in FUT3, TRIM5, TSPAN7, MAP3K8, RPS6KA2, SLC9A9, and NPAS3 genes was found to be predictive of certain clinical and epidemiologic parameters...
  6. Xi Y, Niu J, Shen Y, Li D, Peng X, Wu X. AT13148, a first-in-class multi-AGC kinase inhibitor, potently inhibits gastric cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;478:330-336 pubmed publisher
    ..Akt (at p-Thr-308), p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)...
  7. Balakrishnan A, Guruprasad K, Satyamoorthy K, Joshi M. Interleukin-6 determines protein stabilization of DNA methyltransferases and alters DNA promoter methylation of genes associated with insulin signaling and angiogenesis. Lab Invest. 2018;98:1143-1158 pubmed publisher
    ..Promoter DNA methylation status of genes associated with insulin signaling and angiogenesis such as RPS6KA2, PIK3R2, FOXD3, EXOC7, MAP3K8, ITPKB, EPHA6, IGF1R, and FOXC2 were validated by bisulfite DNA sequencing...
  8. Tagashira H, Miyamoto A, Kitamura S, Tsubata M, Yamaguchi K, Takagaki K, et al. UVB Stimulates the Expression of Endothelin B Receptor in Human Melanocytes via a Sequential Activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB/MITF Pathway Which Can Be Interrupted by a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract through a Direct Inactivation of MSK1. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128678 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins in UVB-exposed NHMs is mediated via activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB pathway but not the ERK/RSK/CREB pathway...
  9. Lin L, White S, Hu K. Role of p90RSK in Kidney and Other Diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20: pubmed publisher
    The 90 kDa ribosomal s6 kinases (RSKs) are a group of serine/threonine kinases consisting of 4 RSK isoforms (RSK1-4), of which RSK1 is also designated as p90RSK...
  10. Azimi A, Tuominen R, Costa Svedman F, Caramuta S, Pernemalm M, Frostvik Stolt M, et al. Silencing FLI or targeting CD13/ANPEP lead to dephosphorylation of EPHA2, a mediator of BRAF inhibitor resistance, and induce growth arrest or apoptosis in melanoma cells. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e3029 pubmed publisher
    ..AKT and RSK, both reported to induce EPHA2 S897 phosphorylation, were also dephosphorylated after inhibition of CD13/ANPEP...
  11. Andersen J, Gesser B, Funder E, Nielsen C, Gotfred Rasmussen H, Rasmussen M, et al. Dimethyl fumarate is an allosteric covalent inhibitor of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinases. Nat Commun. 2018;9:4344 pubmed publisher
    ..DMF reacts covalently as a Michael acceptor to a conserved cysteine residue in the αF-helix of RSK/MSKs...
  12. Pedrazza L, Cubillos Rojas M, de Mesquita F, Luft C, Cunha A, Rosa J, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells decrease lung inflammation during sepsis, acting through inhibition of the MAPK pathway. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:289 pubmed publisher
    ..and showed that this reduction was directly related to the ability of MSCs to inhibit phosphorylation of ERK, RSK, and p38, enzymes that belong to the family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)...
  13. da Costa Pessoa J, Damasceno R, Machado U, Beloto Silva O, Oliveira Souza M. High glucose concentration stimulates NHE-1 activity in distal nephron cells: the role of the Mek/Erk1/2/p90RSK and p38MAPK signaling pathways. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014;33:333-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute high glucose treatment increased the HOE-694-sensitive pHi recovery rate and p-Erk1/2 and p90(RSK) abundance. These parameters were reduced by PD-98059, a Mek inhibitor (1 µM)...
  14. Wakita M, Edamatsu H, Li M, Emi A, Kitazawa S, Kataoka T. Phospholipase C? Activates Nuclear Factor-?B Signaling by Causing Cytoplasmic Localization of Ribosomal S6 Kinase and Facilitating Its Phosphorylation of Inhibitor ?B in Colon Epithelial Cells. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:12586-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, PLC? knockdown results in inhibition of phosphorylation of I?B by ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) but not by I?B kinases...
  15. Miyagaki Y, Kanemori Y, Baba T. Possible involvement of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1, MSK1, in metaphase-II arrest through phosphorylation of EMI2 in mouse oocytes. Dev Biol. 2011;359:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, other kinase(s) besides RSKs may be responsible for the metaphase-II arrest, because RSK1/RSK2/RSK3-triple knockout mice exhibit no obvious phenotype...
  16. Zhang F, Yan T, Guo W, Sun K, Wang S, Bao X, et al. Novel oncogene COPS3 interacts with Beclin1 and Raf-1 to regulate metastasis of osteosarcoma through autophagy. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018;37:135 pubmed publisher
    ..of COPS3 also inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK), a family of signal transduction proteins downstream of MEK/ERK...
  17. Ow G, Ivshina A, Fuentes G, Kuznetsov V. Identification of two poorly prognosed ovarian carcinoma subtypes associated with CHEK2 germ-line mutation and non-CHEK2 somatic mutation gene signatures. Cell Cycle. 2014;13:2262-80 pubmed publisher
    ..subgroup revealed 2 distinct classes of tumors characterized by either germline mutations of genes such as CHEK2, RPS6KA2 and MLL4, or somatic mutations of other genes in the signature...
  18. Sanin D, Prendergast C, Mountford A. IL-10 Production in Macrophages Is Regulated by a TLR-Driven CREB-Mediated Mechanism That Is Linked to Genes Involved in Cell Metabolism. J Immunol. 2015;195:1218-32 pubmed publisher
    ..released by Schistosoma mansoni cercariae rapidly produce IL-10 as a result of MyD88-mediated activation of MEK/ERK/RSK and p38...
  19. Chung B, Arutyunov A, Ilagan E, Yao N, Wills Karp M, Coulombe P. Regulation of C-X-C chemokine gene expression by keratin 17 and hnRNP K in skin tumor keratinocytes. J Cell Biol. 2015;208:613-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The K17-hnRNP K partnership is regulated by the ser/thr kinase RSK and required for CXCR3-dependent tumor cell growth and invasion...
  20. Kim H, Banerjee N, Ivanov I, Pfent C, Prudhomme K, Bisson W, et al. Comparison of anti-inflammatory mechanisms of mango (Mangifera Indica L.) and pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) in a preclinical model of colitis. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016;60:1912-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Pomegranate decreased p70S6K and RPS6, as well as Rps6ka2, Map2k2, and Mapk1 mRNA...
  21. Urnukhsaikhan E, Cho H, Mishig Ochir T, Seo Y, Park J. Pulsed electromagnetic fields promote survival and neuronal differentiation of human BM-MSCs. Life Sci. 2016;151:130-138 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses indicated that PEMF exposure dramatically increased the activity of Akt, Rsk, Creb, Erk, Bcl-xL and Bad via phosphorylation...
  22. Terazawa S, Imokawa G. Signaling Cascades Activated by UVB in Human Melanocytes Lead to the Increased Expression of Melanocyte-receptors, Endothelin B Receptor and c-KIT¶. Photochem Photobiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..of MITF that leads to the up-regulation of melanocyte-specific proteins in UVB-exposed NHMs is mediated via activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB axis but not the ERK/RSK/CREB axis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  23. Smits V, Gillespie D. DNA damage control: regulation and functions of checkpoint kinase 1. FEBS J. 2015;282:3681-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional modifications catalysed by other protein kinases, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, Akt, and RSK, can combine with ubiquitylation to regulate Chk1 subcellular localization and protein stability...
  24. Mohamed I, Gadeau A, Fliegel L, Lopaschuk G, Mlih M, Abdulrahman N, et al. Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1-induced osteopontin expression facilitates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0123318 pubmed publisher
    ..occurred independent of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases and Akt, but required p90-ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)...
  25. Slaby S, Hanotel J, Marchand G, Lescuyer A, Bodart J, Leprêtre A, et al. Maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes under cadmium and lead exposures: Cell biology investigations. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;193:105-110 pubmed publisher
    ..At last, cadmium exposures altered the MAPK pathway, regarding the activation of ERK2 and RSK, but also the activation and the activity of the MPF, by disturbing the state of phosphorylation of Cdc2 and ..
  26. Te Molder L, Sonnenberg A. PKD2 and RSK1 Regulate Integrin β4 Phosphorylation at Threonine 1736. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0143357 pubmed publisher
    ..and the EGF-induced dissolution of HDs are dependent on a functional MAPK signaling pathway, and treatment with the RSK inhibitor BI-D1870 prevented EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of β4-T1736...
  27. Camprubí C, Salas Huetos A, Aiese Cigliano R, Godo A, Pons M, Castellano G, et al. Spermatozoa from infertile patients exhibit differences of DNA methylation associated with spermatogenesis-related processes: an array-based analysis. Reprod Biomed Online. 2016;33:709-719 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant association was identified between RPS6KA2 hypermethylation and advanced age (P = 0.016); APCS hypermethylation and oligozoospermia (P = 0...
  28. Li W, Zhu Y, Saud S, Guo Q, Xi S, Jia B, et al. Electroacupuncture relieves depression-like symptoms in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress by activating ERK signaling pathway. Neurosci Lett. 2017;642:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, EA increased the activation of ERK and ribosomal s6 kinase (RSK) levels under stress...
  29. Pirbhoy P, Farris S, Steward O. Synaptically driven phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 is differentially regulated at active synapses versus dendrites and cell bodies by MAPK and PI3K/mTOR signaling pathways. Learn Mem. 2017;24:341-357 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphorylation in granule cell bodies and dendrites, whereas delivery of a selective S6K1 inhibitor, PF4708671, or RSK inhibitor, SL0101-1, attenuated rpS6 phosphorylation throughout the postsynaptic cell...
  30. Ryba D, Li J, Cowan C, Russell B, Wolska B, Solaro R. Long-Term Biased β-Arrestin Signaling Improves Cardiac Structure and Function in Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2017;135:1056-1070 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the functional changes were attributable to an activation of ERK1/2-RSK3 signaling, mediated through β-arrestin, which may have a novel role in increasing MLC2v phosphorylation through a ..
  31. Lagares Tena L, García Monclús S, López Alemany R, Almacellas Rabaiget O, Huertas Martínez J, Sáinz Jaspeado M, et al. Caveolin-1 promotes Ewing sarcoma metastasis regulating MMP-9 expression through MAPK/ERK pathway. Oncotarget. 2016;7:56889-56903 pubmed publisher
    ..RPS6 can be phosphorylated by p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK) proteins. CAV1-silenced cells showed reduced levels of p-RSK1 and treatment with U0126 provoked the same effect...
  32. Gordiienko I, Shlapatska L, Kholodniuk V, Sklyarenko L, Gluzman D, Clark E, et al. The interplay of CD150 and CD180 receptor pathways contribute to the pathobiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells by selective inhibition of Akt and MAPK signaling. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185940 pubmed publisher
    ..While CD150 and CD180 coligation resulted in reduced phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, c-Jun, RSK, p70S6K, S6RP, and 4E-BP; it led to complete blocking of mTOR and p38MAPK phosphorylation...
  33. Taniguchi H, Baba Y, Sagiya Y, Gotou M, Nakamura K, Sawada H, et al. Biologic Response of Colorectal Cancer Xenograft Tumors to Sequential Treatment with Panitumumab and Bevacizumab. Neoplasia. 2018;20:668-677 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blotting showed reduced EPHA2 expression and S897-phosphorylation with PB; RSK phosphorylation was largely unaffected by PB but increased significantly with BP...
  34. Katayama K, Fujiwara C, Noguchi K, Sugimoto Y. RSK1 protects P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 against ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation by downregulating the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 R1. Sci Rep. 2016;6:36134 pubmed publisher
    ..RSK1 phosphorylated Thr162 on UBE2R1 but did not phosphorylate FBXO15. MEK and RSK inhibitors increased UBE2R1-WT but not UBE2R1-T162D and -T162A expression...
  35. Hafeez S, Urooj M, Saleem S, Gillani Z, Shaheen S, Qazi M, et al. BAD, a Proapoptotic Protein, Escapes ERK/RSK Phosphorylation in Deguelin and siRNA-Treated HeLa Cells. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0145780 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence for inhibition of ERK1/2 by deguelin and escape of BAD phosphorylation at serine 112 through ERK/RSK pathway has been further fortified by obtaining similar results by silencing ERK 1/2 each with specific siRNAs...
  36. Sueda T, Sakai D, Kawamoto K, Konno M, Nishida N, Koseki J, et al. BRAF V600E inhibition stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase-mediated autophagy in colorectal cancer cells. Sci Rep. 2016;6:18949 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF(V600E) inhibition, and AMPK was negatively correlated with BRAF(V600E)-dependent activation of MEK-ERK-RSK signaling and positively correlated with unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1), a key initiator of autophagy...
  37. Kuppusamy P, Nagalingam A, Muniraj N, Saxena N, Sharma D. Concomitant activation of ETS-like transcription factor-1 and Death Receptor-5 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase in withaferin A-mediated inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17943 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analyses revealed a key role of ERK leading to increased phosphorylation of p90-ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and a concomitant activation of ETS-like transcription factor-1(ELK1) and Death Receptor protein-5 (DR5) in HCC...
  38. Donaubauer E, Hunzicker Dunn M. Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK)-dependent Phosphorylation of Y-Box-binding Protein 1 (YB-1) Enhances Gene Expression in Granulosa Cells in Response to Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH). J Biol Chem. 2016;291:12145-60 pubmed publisher
    ..GCs with the PKA-selective inhibitor PKA inhibitor (PKI), the MEK inhibitor PD98059, or the ribosomal S6 kinase-2 (RSK-2) inhibitor BI-D1870. Thus, phosphorylation of YB-1 on Ser(102) is PKA-, ERK-, and RSK-2-dependent...
  39. Calvo N, Carriere P, Martín M, Gentili C. RSK activation via ERK modulates human colon cancer cells response to PTHrP. J Mol Endocrinol. 2017;59:13-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to explore if the serine/threonine kinase RSK, which is involved in the progress of many cancers and it is emerging as a potential therapeutic target, mediates ..
  40. Passariello C, Martinez E, Thakur H, Cesareo M, Li J, Kapiloff M. RSK3 is required for concentric myocyte hypertrophy in an activated Raf1 model for Noonan syndrome. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2016;93:98-105 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently discovered that type 3 p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK3) is an ERK effector that is required, like ERK1/2, for concentric myocyte hypertrophy in response to pathological ..
  41. Hamaoka Y, Negishi M, Katoh H. EphA2 is a key effector of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway regulating glioblastoma cell proliferation. Cell Signal. 2016;28:937-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that ligand-independent EphA2 signaling occurs downstream of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway and mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell proliferation in glioblastoma cells...
  42. Yao K, Lee S, Peng C, Lim D, Yamamoto H, Ryu J, et al. RSK2 is required for TRAF6 phosphorylation-mediated colon inflammation. Oncogene. 2018;37:3501-3513 pubmed publisher
    ..The RSK family of kinases has multiple cellular functions...
  43. Ho J, Hsu R, Wu C, Liao G, Gao H, Wang T, et al. Reduced miR-550a-3p leads to breast cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis by increasing levels of ERK1 and 2. Oncotarget. 2016;7:53853-53868 pubmed publisher
    ..role by directly repressing ERK1 and ERK2 protein expression, thereby suppressing the oncogenic ERK/RSK cascades, which reduced breast cancer cell viability, survival, migration, invasion, tumorigenesis, and metastasis...
  44. Baumann C, Ullrich A, Torka R. GAS6-expressing and self-sustaining cancer cells in 3D spheroids activate the PDK-RSK-mTOR pathway for survival and drug resistance. Mol Oncol. 2017;11:1430-1447 pubmed publisher
    ..Self-sustaining cells are characterized by excessive GAS6 secretion and TAM-PDK-RSK-mTOR pathway activation...
  45. Zhou Y, Yamada N, Tanaka T, Hori T, Yokoyama S, Hayakawa Y, et al. Crucial roles of RSK in cell motility by catalysing serine phosphorylation of EphA2. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7679 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that inflammatory cytokines promote RSK-, not Akt-, dependent phosphorylation of EphA2 at Ser-897...
  46. Houles T, Gravel S, Lavoie G, Shin S, Savall M, Méant A, et al. RSK Regulates PFK-2 Activity to Promote Metabolic Rewiring in Melanoma. Cancer Res. 2018;78:2191-2204 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that the MAPK-activated p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is necessary to maintain glycolytic metabolism in BRAF-mutated melanoma cells...
  47. Huber R, Panterodt T, Welz B, Christmann M, Friesenhagen J, Westphal A, et al. C/EBPβ-LAP*/LAP Expression Is Mediated by RSK/eIF4B-Dependent Signalling and Boosted by Increased Protein Stability in Models of Monocytic Differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0144338 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that LAP*/LAP formation was induced via MEK/RSK-dependent cascades, whereas mTOR/S6K1 were not involved...
  48. Xu H, Fu S, Chen Y, Chen Q, Gu M, Liu C, et al. Oxytocin: its role in benign prostatic hyperplasia via the ERK pathway. Clin Sci (Lond). 2017;131:595-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, in vitro experiments were performed to evaluate the oxytocin effect through the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway...
  49. Guerra M, Kalwat M, McGlynn K, Cobb M. Sucralose activates an ERK1/2-ribosomal protein S6 signaling axis. FEBS Open Bio. 2017;7:174-186 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, sucralose acted independently of mTORC1 or ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)...
  50. Leroux A, Schulze J, Biondi R. AGC kinases, mechanisms of regulation ‎and innovative drug development. Semin Cancer Biol. 2018;48:1-17 pubmed publisher
    ..of 63 evolutionarily related serine/threonine protein kinases comprising PDK1, PKB/Akt, SGK, PKC, PRK/PKN, MSK, RSK, S6K, PKA, PKG, DMPK, MRCK, ROCK, NDR, LATS, CRIK, MAST, GRK, Sgk494, and YANK, while two other families, Aurora ..
  51. Czaplinska D, Mieczkowski K, Supernat A, Skladanowski A, Kordek R, Biernat W, et al. Interactions between FGFR2 and RSK2-implications for breast cancer prognosis. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:13721-13731 pubmed
    ..003) and messenger RNA (mRNA) (p = 0.001) levels. Lack of both FGFR2 and activated RSK (RSK-P) significantly correlated with better disease-free survival (DFS) (p = 0.01)...
  52. Wang S, Wang S, Chen P, Wang S, Liu Y. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 gene by Candida albicans through EGFR, ERK, and p38 pathways in human urinary epithelium. Med Mycol. 2017;55:314-322 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional evidence came from the increased amount of phosphorylated RSK that is the mutual downstream molecule of ERK1/2 and p38...
  53. Anglada Huguet M, Giralt A, Rue L, Alberch J, Xifro X. Loss of striatal 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk) is a key factor for motor, synaptic and transcription dysfunction in Huntington's disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1862:1255-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we explore the role of the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk) in the physiopathology of HD...
  54. Berneking L, Schnapp M, Rumm A, Trasak C, Ruckdeschel K, Alawi M, et al. Immunosuppressive Yersinia Effector YopM Binds DEAD Box Helicase DDX3 to Control Ribosomal S6 Kinase in the Nucleus of Host Cells. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005660 pubmed publisher
    ..YopM increased the level of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA and this effect required interaction of YopM with RSK and was enhanced by blocking YopM's nuclear export...
  55. Simsek F, Oguz K, Kitis O, Akan S, Kempton M, Gonul A. Neural activation during cognitive reappraisal in girls at high risk for depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2017;77:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Sixteen high risk (RSK) young women and fifteen matched low risk controls (CTL) were scanned using fMRI while performing an emotion ..
  56. Shiota M, Fujimoto N, Imada K, Yokomizo A, Itsumi M, Takeuchi A, et al. Potential Role for YB-1 in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer and Resistance to Enzalutamide Through the Androgen Receptor V7. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016;108: pubmed publisher
    ..All statistical tests were two-sided. One hundred fifty-six of 180 kinase phosphorylation sites, including ERK and RSK, were activated in CRPC cells, leading to increased phosphorylation of YB-1, which is a key molecule in the ..
  57. Cho Y. RSK2 and its binding partners in cell proliferation, transformation and cancer development. Arch Pharm Res. 2017;40:291-303 pubmed publisher
    RSK2 is a serine/threonine kinase and a member of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK; RSKs) family, which regulates cell proliferation and transformation induced by tumor promoters such as epithelial growth factor (EGF), 12-O-..
  58. Zaru R, Matthews S, Edgar A, Prescott A, Gomez Nicola D, Hanauer A, et al. The PDK1-Rsk Signaling Pathway Controls Langerhans Cell Proliferation and Patterning. J Immunol. 2015;195:4264-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify a key signaling pathway needed to establish a normal LC network and suggest that LC might maintain epidermal surveillance by increasing their "footprint" when their numbers are limited. ..
  59. Regan P, Sariyer I, Langford T, Datta P, Khalili K. Morphine-induced MOR-1X and ASF/SF2 Expressions Are Independent of Transcriptional Regulation: Implications for MOR-1X Signaling. J Cell Physiol. 2016;231:1542-53 pubmed publisher
    ..sites, whereas functional comparison found distinct signaling differences, particularly in the ERK and p90 RSK pathways...
  60. Barquilla A, Lamberto I, Noberini R, Heynen Genel S, Brill L, Pasquale E. Protein kinase A can block EphA2 receptor-mediated cell repulsion by increasing EphA2 S897 phosphorylation. Mol Biol Cell. 2016;27:2757-70 pubmed publisher
    ..and kinase activity; EphA2 "noncanonical" signaling involves phosphorylation of serine 897 (S897) by AKT and RSK kinases...
  61. Cuesta R, Holz M. RSK-mediated down-regulation of PDCD4 is required for proliferation, survival, and migration in a model of triple-negative breast cancer. Oncotarget. 2016;7:27567-83 pubmed publisher
    The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is a family of MAPK-activated serine/threonine kinases (RSK1-4) whose expression and/or activity are deregulated in several cancers, including breast cancer...
  62. Zhao H, Martin T, Davies E, Ruge F, Yu H, Zhang Y, et al. The Clinical Implications of RSK1-3 in Human Breast Cancer. Anticancer Res. 2016;36:1267-74 pubmed
    ..The clinical data and immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of RSK1 and RSK3 were less in tumour tissues than normal...
  63. Wang L, Iorio C, Yan K, Yang H, Takeshita S, Kang S, et al. A ERK/RSK-mediated negative feedback loop regulates M-CSF-evoked PI3K/AKT activation in macrophages. FASEB J. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacologic inhibition of RSK or ERK phenotypically mimics the signaling defects observed in SHP2-deficient BMMs...
  64. Zhou F, Li M, Wei Y, Lin K, Lu Y, Shen J, et al. Activation of HERV-K Env protein is essential for tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Oncotarget. 2016;7:84093-84117 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, downregulation of HERV-K blocked expression of tumor-associated genes that included Ras, p-RSK, and p-ERK. The major upstream regulators influenced by HERV-K knockdown were p53, TGF- β1, and MYC...
  65. Xing J, Ginty D, Greenberg M. Coupling of the RAS-MAPK pathway to gene activation by RSK2, a growth factor-regulated CREB kinase. Science. 1996;273:959-63 pubmed
    ..sequencing, and biochemical characterization of CREB kinase revealed that it is identical to a member of the pp90(RSK) family, RSK2...
  66. Moller D, Xia C, Tang W, Zhu A, Jakubowski M. Human rsk isoforms: cloning and characterization of tissue-specific expression. Am J Physiol. 1994;266:C351-9 pubmed
    Serine-threonine protein kinases in the ribosomal S6 kinase (rsk or p90rsk) family have been implicated as signaling intermediates in the cellular response to several growth factors...
  67. Park S, Kim T, Choi K, Park H, Heo K, Lee B. Chronic activation of CREB and p90RSK in human epileptic hippocampus. Exp Mol Med. 2003;35:365-70 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that chronic activation CREB and p90RSK in the epileptic hippocampus may be closely associated with the histopathological changes of AHS. ..
  68. Slattery M, Lundgreen A, Herrick J, Wolff R. Genetic variation in RPS6KA1, RPS6KA2, RPS6KB1, RPS6KB2, and PDK1 and risk of colon or rectal cancer. Mutat Res. 2011;706:13-20 pubmed publisher
    RPS6KA1, RPS6KA2, RPS6KB1, RPS6KB2, and PDK1 are involved in several pathways central to the carcinogenic process, including regulation of cell growth, insulin, and inflammation...
  69. Deak M, Clifton A, Lucocq L, Alessi D. Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly activated by MAPK and SAPK2/p38, and may mediate activation of CREB. EMBO J. 1998;17:4426-41 pubmed
    ..These findings, together with other observations, suggest that MSK1 may mediate the growth-factor and stress-induced activation of CREB. ..
  70. Scheid M, Schubert K, Duronio V. Regulation of bad phosphorylation and association with Bcl-x(L) by the MAPK/Erk kinase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31108-13 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time in mammalian cells the involvement of the Ras-MAPK pathway in the phosphorylation of Bad and the regulation of its function. ..
  71. Ranganathan A, Pearson G, Chrestensen C, Sturgill T, Cobb M. The MAP kinase ERK5 binds to and phosphorylates p90 RSK. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;449:8-16 pubmed
    We showed previously that p90 RSK was activated in cells expressing an activated mutant of MEK5, the activator of the MAP kinase ERK5. Based on the following evidence, we suggest that ERK5 can directly activate RSK in cells...
  72. Whittaker R, Hothi H, Eskelinen A, Blunn G, Skinner J, Hart A. Variation in taper surface roughness for a single design effects the wear rate in total hip arthroplasty. J Orthop Res. 2017;35:1784-1792 pubmed publisher
    ..003) and the Skewness (Rsk, the asymmetry of the height distribution corresponding to the height or depth of surface features) (p?=?0.03)...
  73. Fukunaga R, Hunter T. MNK1, a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase substrates. EMBO J. 1997;16:1921-33 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that MNK1 is a novel class of protein kinase that is activated through both the ERK and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways. ..
  74. Datta S, Katsov A, Hu L, Petros A, Fesik S, Yaffe M, et al. 14-3-3 proteins and survival kinases cooperate to inactivate BAD by BH3 domain phosphorylation. Mol Cell. 2000;6:41-51 pubmed
    ..These findings define a mechanism by which survival signals inactivate a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, and suggest a role for 14-3-3 proteins as cofactors that regulate sequential protein phosphorylation events. ..
  75. Willard F, Crouch M. MEK, ERK, and p90RSK are present on mitotic tubulin in Swiss 3T3 cells: a role for the MAP kinase pathway in regulating mitotic exit. Cell Signal. 2001;13:653-64 pubmed
    ..MAP kinase pathway including regulators (MEK1/2), substrates (90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs): RSK1, RSK2 and RSK3), and ERK itself...
  76. Schinelli S, Zanassi P, Paolillo M, Wang H, Feliciello A, Gallo V. Stimulation of endothelin B receptors in astrocytes induces cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and c-fos expression via multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. J Neurosci. 2001;21:8842-53 pubmed
    ..together with extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and the ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) isoforms RSK2 and RSK3, two kinases that lie immediately downstream of ERK and are able to phosphorylate CREB...
  77. Chrestensen C, Sturgill T. Characterization of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 carboxyl-terminal domain as a protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:27733-41 pubmed
    The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) is an important regulatory domain in RSK and a model for kinase regulation of FXXFXF(Y) motifs in AGC kinases. Its properties had not been studied...
  78. Roux P, Richards S, Blenis J. Phosphorylation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) regulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase docking and RSK activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4796-804 pubmed
    ..RSK isoforms revealed that RSK1 and RSK2 readily dissociate from ERK1/2 following mitogen stimulation but that RSK3 remains associated with active ERK1/2...
  79. Smith J, Poteet Smith C, Malarkey K, Sturgill T. Identification of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) docking site in ribosomal S6 kinase, a sequence critical for activation by ERK in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:2893-8 pubmed
    ..proteins containing the carboxyl-terminal tails of three p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) isozymes (RSK1, RSK2, and RSK3) interacted with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-Jun-NH2-kinase (JNK) or p38 mitogen-..
  80. Lizcano J, Morrice N, Cohen P. Regulation of BAD by cAMP-dependent protein kinase is mediated via phosphorylation of a novel site, Ser155. Biochem J. 2000;349:547-57 pubmed
    ..to be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPKAP-K1, also called RSK) and by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Here we identify Ser(155) as a third phosphorylation site on BAD...
  81. Lyzogubov V, Khozhaenko Y, Usenko V, Antonjuk S, Ovcharenko G, Tikhonkova I, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67, PCNA and S6K1/2 expression in human breast cancer. Exp Oncol. 2005;27:141-4 pubmed
    ..The accumulation of S6K2, but not S6K1, in the nuclei of cancer cells and the correlation with the expression of PCNA and Ki-67 suggest the involvement of S6K2 in the regulation of malignant growth. ..
  82. Jackson M, Patt L, LaRusch G, Donner D, Stark G, Mayo L. Hdm2 nuclear export, regulated by insulin-like growth factor-I/MAPK/p90Rsk signaling, mediates the transformation of human cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16814-20 pubmed
    ..Our findings link p90Rsk-mediated modulation of Hdm2 nuclear to cytoplasmic shuttling with the diminished ability of p53 to regulate cell cycle checkpoints that ultimately leads to transformation. ..
  83. Pardo O, Wellbrock C, Khanzada U, Aubert M, Arozarena I, Davidson S, et al. FGF-2 protects small cell lung cancer cells from apoptosis through a complex involving PKCepsilon, B-Raf and S6K2. EMBO J. 2006;25:3078-88 pubmed
    ..However, increased S6K1 kinase activity has no such effect. Thus, S6K2 but not S6K1 mediates prosurvival/chemoresistance signalling. ..
  84. Panasyuk G, Nemazanyy I, Zhyvoloup A, Bretner M, Litchfield D, Filonenko V, et al. Nuclear export of S6K1 II is regulated by protein kinase CK2 phosphorylation at Ser-17. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31188-201 pubmed
    ..Taken together, this study establishes a functional link between S6K1 II and CK2 signaling, which involves the regulation of S6K1 II nuclear export by CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-17. ..
  85. Schimenti J. ORFless, intronless, and mutant transcription units in the mouse t complex responder (Tcr) locus. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:969-76 pubmed
    ..Several genes or transcriptional units were identified, including the 3' end of ribosomal s6 kinase (Rsk3); two apparently intronless and ORF-less genes; and Gpr31, an intronless, putative G-protein coupled receptor...
  86. Harum K, Alemi L, Johnston M. Cognitive impairment in Coffin-Lowry syndrome correlates with reduced RSK2 activation. Neurology. 2001;56:207-14 pubmed
    ..It provides additional evidence that the CREB kinase, RSK2, and CREB phosphorylation may play important roles in human learning and memory, as they do in lower animals. ..
  87. Cotteret S, Jaffer Z, Beeser A, Chernoff J. p21-Activated kinase 5 (Pak5) localizes to mitochondria and inhibits apoptosis by phosphorylating BAD. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5526-39 pubmed
    ..These features make Pak5 unique among the Pak family and suggest that it plays an important role in apoptosis through BAD phosphorylation. ..
  88. Bignone P, Lee K, Liu Y, Emilion G, Finch J, Soosay A, et al. RPS6KA2, a putative tumour suppressor gene at 6q27 in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer. Oncogene. 2007;26:683-700 pubmed
    ..The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase-3 gene (p90 Rsk-3, RPS6KA2) maps in this interval...
  89. Park K, Yang H, Choi J, Seo S, Kim D, Lee C, et al. The HSP90 inhibitor, NVP-AUY922, attenuates intrinsic PI3K inhibitor resistance in KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Lett. 2017;406:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that intrinsic resistance to PI3K inhibition derived from RAF/MEK/ERK and RSK activation, bypassing blockage of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway...
  90. Gogl G, Biri Kovács B, Póti Á, Vadászi H, Szeder B, Bodor A, et al. Dynamic control of RSK complexes by phosphoswitch-based regulation. FEBS J. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The CTT also contains a classical PDZ domain-binding motif which binds RSK substrates (e.g. MAGI-1)...
  91. Zhao Y, Bjørbaek C, Weremowicz S, Morton C, Moller D. RSK3 encodes a novel pp90rsk isoform with a unique N-terminal sequence: growth factor-stimulated kinase function and nuclear translocation. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4353-63 pubmed
    A novel pp90rsk Ser/Thr kinase (referred to as RSK3) was cloned from a human cDNA library. The RSK3 cDNA encodes a predicted 733-amino-acid protein with a unique N-terminal region containing a putative nuclear localization signal...
  92. Zhao Y, Bjorbaek C, Moller D. Regulation and interaction of pp90(rsk) isoforms with mitogen-activated protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:29773-9 pubmed
    Each of the three known mammalian 90-kDa S6 kinase (pp90(rsk)) isoforms (RSK1, RSK2, and RSK3) was expressed in transfected cells and further characterized...