ROCK2

Summary

Gene Symbol: ROCK2
Description: Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2
Alias: ROCK-II, rho-associated protein kinase 2, p164 ROCK-2, rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase II
Species: human
Products:     ROCK2

Top Publications

  1. Tanaka T, Nishimura D, Wu R, Amano M, Iso T, Kedes L, et al. Nuclear Rho kinase, ROCK2, targets p300 acetyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15320-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that ROCK2 is localized in the nucleus and associates with p300 acetyltransferase both in vitro and in cells...
  2. Ueda K, Murata Hori M, Tatsuka M, Hosoya H. Rho-kinase contributes to diphosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain in nonmuscle cells. Oncogene. 2002;21:5852-60 pubmed
    ..Taken together, it is suggested that Rho-kinase contributes to MRLC diphosphorylation and reorganization of actin filaments in nonmuscle cells. ..
  3. Kitazawa T, Eto M, Woodsome T, Khalequzzaman M. Phosphorylation of the myosin phosphatase targeting subunit and CPI-17 during Ca2+ sensitization in rabbit smooth muscle. J Physiol. 2003;546:879-89 pubmed
  4. Lane J, Martin T, Watkins G, Mansel R, Jiang W. The expression and prognostic value of ROCK I and ROCK II and their role in human breast cancer. Int J Oncol. 2008;33:585-93 pubmed
    ..This, together with significant correlation between ROCKI and poor outcome in clinical breast cancer, indicates that it is a potential target in human breast cancer. ..
  5. Lock F, Hotchin N. Distinct roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8190 pubmed publisher
    ..The mammalian serine/threonine kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) are well-characterised downstream effectors of the small GTPase RhoA...
  6. Amano M, Nakayama M, Kaibuchi K. Rho-kinase/ROCK: A key regulator of the cytoskeleton and cell polarity. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2010;67:545-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the structure, function, and modes of activation and action of Rho-kinase. ..
  7. Chuang H, Yang C, Tsay Y, Hsu C, Tseng L, Chang Z, et al. ROCKII Ser1366 phosphorylation reflects the activation status. Biochem J. 2012;443:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study provides a new approach for revealing the ROCKII activation status by probing ROCKII Ser1366 phosphorylation directly in cells or tissues. ..
  8. Yamaguchi H, Kasa M, Amano M, Kaibuchi K, Hakoshima T. Molecular mechanism for the regulation of rho-kinase by dimerization and its inhibition by fasudil. Structure. 2006;14:589-600 pubmed
    ..Thus, both kinase and drug conformational pliability and stability confer selectivity. ..
  9. Seasholtz T, Wessel J, Rao F, Rana B, Khandrika S, Kennedy B, et al. Rho kinase polymorphism influences blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance in human twins: role of heredity. Hypertension. 2006;47:937-47 pubmed
    The Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway is implicated in experimental hypertension. We, therefore, explored the role of ROCK2 genetic variation in human blood pressure (BP) regulation, exploiting the advantages of a human twin sample to probe ..

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wang Y, Zheng X, Riddick N, Bryden M, Baur W, Zhang X, et al. ROCK isoform regulation of myosin phosphatase and contractility in vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 2009;104:531-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are expressed in many tissues, yet the isoform-specific roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in vascular smooth muscle and ..
  2. Ishizaki T, Maekawa M, Fujisawa K, Okawa K, Iwamatsu A, Fujita A, et al. The small GTP-binding protein Rho binds to and activates a 160 kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase homologous to myotonic dystrophy kinase. EMBO J. 1996;15:1885-93 pubmed
    ..When co-expressed with RhoA in COS cells, p160 was co-precipitated with the expressed Rho and its kinase activity was activated, indicating that p160 can associate physically and functionally with Rho both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  3. Feng J, Ito M, Ichikawa K, Isaka N, Nishikawa M, Hartshorne D, et al. Inhibitory phosphorylation site for Rho-associated kinase on smooth muscle myosin phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:37385-90 pubmed
    ..In summary, these results offer strong support for a physiological role of Rho-kinase in regulation of MP activity. ..
  4. Riento K, Ridley A. Rocks: multifunctional kinases in cell behaviour. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003;4:446-56 pubmed
    ..Recent experiments have defined new functions of ROCKs in cells, including centrosome positioning and cell-size regulation, which might contribute to various physiological and pathological states. ..
  5. Sebbagh M, Hamelin J, Bertoglio J, Solary E, Bréard J. Direct cleavage of ROCK II by granzyme B induces target cell membrane blebbing in a caspase-independent manner. J Exp Med. 2005;201:465-71 pubmed
    ..We show here that grB directly cleaves ROCK II, a ROCK family member encoded by a separate gene and closely related to ROCK I, and this causes constitutive ..
  6. Lowery D, Clauser K, Hjerrild M, Lim D, Alexander J, Kishi K, et al. Proteomic screen defines the Polo-box domain interactome and identifies Rock2 as a Plk1 substrate. EMBO J. 2007;26:2262-73 pubmed
    ..the Plk1-PBD with the cytokinesis effector kinase Rho-associated coiled-coil domain-containing protein kinase 2 (Rock2), demonstrate that Rock2 is a Plk1 substrate, and show that Rock2 colocalizes with Plk1 during cytokinesis...
  7. Zhao Q, Wang L, Yang W, Chen S, Huang J, Fan Z, et al. Interactions among genetic variants from contractile pathway of vascular smooth muscle cell in essential hypertension susceptibility of Chinese Han population. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2008;18:459-66 pubmed publisher
    ..the individual and interactive effects of five genes from the contractile pathway of VSMC (KCNMB1, RGS2, PRKG, ROCK2, and MYLK) on the risk of essential hypertension...
  8. Samarin S, Ivanov A, Flatau G, Parkos C, Nusrat A. Rho/Rho-associated kinase-II signaling mediates disassembly of epithelial apical junctions. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3429-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings demonstrate a central role of the GEF-H1/Rho/ROCK-II signaling pathway in the disassembly of AJC in epithelial cells. ..
  9. Lee H, Chang Z. Regulation of RhoA-dependent ROCKII activation by Shp2. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:999-1012 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, reversible tyrosine phosphorylation confers an additional layer of control to fine-tune RhoA-dependent activation of ROCKII. ..
  10. Rankinen T, Church T, Rice T, Markward N, Blair S, Bouchard C. A major haplotype block at the rho-associated kinase 2 locus is associated with a lower risk of hypertension in a recessive manner: the HYPGENE study. Hypertens Res. 2008;31:1651-7 pubmed publisher
    The goals of our study were to evaluate the haplotype pattern at the Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2) locus and prospectively test the association between the ROCK2 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) with ..
  11. Wong C, Wong C, Tung E, Man K, Ng I. Rho-kinase 2 is frequently overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and involved in tumor invasion. Hepatology. 2009;49:1583-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We first examined the expression of the two Rho-kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) in human HCC, and found that ROCK2 was frequently overexpressed in primary HCCs (22/41 [53.66%])...
  12. Do e Z, Fukumoto Y, Takaki A, Tawara S, Ohashi J, Nakano M, et al. Evidence for Rho-kinase activation in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Circ J. 2009;73:1731-9 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first direct evidence for Rho-kinase activation in patients with PAH, suggesting the therapeutic importance of Rho-kinase in the disorder. ..
  13. Fukata Y, Oshiro N, Kinoshita N, Kawano Y, Matsuoka Y, Bennett V, et al. Phosphorylation of adducin by Rho-kinase plays a crucial role in cell motility. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:347-61 pubmed
  14. Seko T, Ito M, Kureishi Y, Okamoto R, Moriki N, Onishi K, et al. Activation of RhoA and inhibition of myosin phosphatase as important components in hypertension in vascular smooth muscle. Circ Res. 2003;92:411-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that independent of the cause of hypertension, a common point in downstream signaling and a critical component of hypertension is activation of RhoA and subsequent activation of Rho-kinase. ..
  15. Ma Z, Kanai M, Kawamura K, Kaibuchi K, Ye K, Fukasawa K. Interaction between ROCK II and nucleophosmin/B23 in the regulation of centrosome duplication. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:9016-34 pubmed
    ..Here, we identified ROCK II kinase, an effector of Rho small GTPase, as a protein that localizes to centrosomes and physically interacts with ..
  16. Liu Z, Zou D, Yang X, Xue X, Zuo L, Zhou Q, et al. Melatonin inhibits colon cancer RKO cell migration by downregulating Rho?associated protein kinase expression via the p38/MAPK signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:9383-9392 pubmed publisher
    ..The results revealed that the expression levels of ROCK2, p?MYPT1 and p?MLC in RKO cells were decreased, and the membrane protein expression of ZO?1 and occludin increased ..
  17. Breher Esch S, Sahini N, Trincone A, Wallstab C, Borlak J. Genomics of lipid-laden human hepatocyte cultures enables drug target screening for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. BMC Med Genomics. 2018;11:111 pubmed publisher
    ..immunofluorescence microscopy evidenced induced LD-associated PLIN2, CIDEC, HIF1α, HILPDA, JAK1, PDK4 and ROCK2 expression. Notwithstanding, CPT1A protein was repressed to protect mitochondria from lipid overload...
  18. Tseng Y, Jong Y, Liang W, Chang F, Lo Y. The water extract of Liuwei dihuang possesses multi-protective properties on neurons and muscle tissue against deficiency of survival motor neuron protein. Phytomedicine. 2017;34:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..of neurite outgrowth and activation of Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/ Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK2)/ phospho-LIM kinase (p-LIMK)/ phospho-cofilin (p-cofilin) pathway...
  19. Knipe R, Tager A, Liao J. The Rho kinases: critical mediators of multiple profibrotic processes and rational targets for new therapies for pulmonary fibrosis. Pharmacol Rev. 2015;67:103-17 pubmed publisher
    ..by the Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase (ROCK) family of serine/threonine kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2)...
  20. Watanabe S, Matsumoto T, Ando M, Adachi T, Kobayashi S, Iguchi M, et al. Multiple activation mechanisms of serotonin-mediated contraction in the carotid arteries obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pflugers Arch. 2016;468:1271-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of ROCK2 but not ROCK1 was increased in the carotid arteries from SHR compared to WKY...
  21. Chakravarthi B, Goswami M, Pathi S, Robinson A, Cieślik M, Chandrashekar D, et al. MicroRNA-101 regulated transcriptional modulator SUB1 plays a role in prostate cancer. Oncogene. 2016;35:6330-6340 pubmed publisher
    ..of zeste homolog 2), COX2 (cyclooxygenase-2), POMP (proteasome maturation protein), CERS6, STMN1, MCL-1 and ROCK2, among others...
  22. Jadeja R, Thounaojam M, Bartoli M, Khurana S. Deoxycholylglycine, a conjugated secondary bile acid, reduces vascular tone by attenuating Ca2+ sensitivity via rho kinase pathway. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2018;348:14-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In VSMCs, long-term treatment with DCG had no effect on ROCK2 and RhoA expression...
  23. De Silva T, Hu C, Kinzenbaw D, Modrick M, Sigmund C, Faraci F. Genetic Interference With Endothelial PPAR-? (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-?) Augments Effects of Angiotensin II While Impairing Responses to Angiotensin 1-7. Hypertension. 2017;70:559-565 pubmed publisher
    ..mice was restored to normal by inhibitors of superoxide (tempol), NADPH oxidase (VAS-2870), Rho kinase (Y-27632), ROCK2 (SLX-2119), NF-?B (nuclear factor-kappa B essential modulator-binding domain peptide), or interleukin-6 (..
  24. Herraiz C, Calvo F, Pandya P, Cantelli G, Rodriguez Hernandez I, Orgaz J, et al. Reactivation of p53 by a Cytoskeletal Sensor to Control the Balance Between DNA Damage and Tumor Dissemination. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016;108: pubmed publisher
    ..2261, p < .0001; rock2 vs pig3: r = -0.1381, p = .0093)...
  25. Ohyama K, Matsumoto Y, Amamizu H, Uzuka H, Nishimiya K, Morosawa S, et al. Association of Coronary Perivascular Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Drug-Eluting Stent-Induced Coronary Hyperconstricting Responses in Pigs: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1757-1764 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Importantly, Rho-kinase expressions (ROCK1/ROCK2) and Rho-kinase activity (phosphorylated myosin phosphatase target subunit-1) at the EES edges were significantly ..
  26. Li H, Jiang X, Yu Y, Huang W, Xing H, Agar N, et al. KAP regulates ROCK2 and Cdk2 in an RNA-activated glioblastoma invasion pathway. Oncogene. 2015;34:1432-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, we find that KAP binds and activates ROCK2. Thus, RNA-mediated downregulation of KAP leads to decreased ROCK2 activity and this, in turn, increases Rac1-..
  27. Bouin A, Kyumurkov A, R gent Kloeckner M, Ribba A, Faurobert E, Fournier H, et al. Correction: ICAP-1 monoubiquitylation coordinates matrix density and rigidity sensing for cell migration through ROCK2-MRCK? balance. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:1195 pubmed publisher
  28. Singh J, Mohanty I, Addya S, Phillips B, Mee Yong H, An S, et al. Role of differentially expressed microRNA-139-5p in the regulation of phenotypic internal anal sphincter smooth muscle tone. Sci Rep. 2017;7:1477 pubmed publisher
    ..the truly tonic smooth muscle of IAS. This pattern of miRNA-139-5p expression, previously shown to target ROCK2, was validated by target prediction using ingenuity pathway (IPA) and by qPCR analyses...
  29. Huang G, Wang Y, Su J, Zhou P, Li B, Yin L, et al. Up-regulation of Rho-associated kinase 1/2 by glucocorticoids promotes migration, invasion and metastasis of melanoma. Cancer Lett. 2017;410:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings provide new data to understand the possible promoting roles and mechanisms of GCs in melanoma metastasis. ..
  30. Giagulli C, Magiera A, Bugatti A, Caccuri F, Marsico S, Rusnati M, et al. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 binds to the IL-8 receptor CXCR1 and shows IL-8-like chemokine activity on monocytes through Rho/ROCK activation. Blood. 2012;119:2274-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have highlighted the role of IL-8 and CXCR1 in HIV-1 replication and AIDS pathogenesis. Our findings herein call for an exploration of the therapeutic potential of blocking the p17/IL-8/CXCR1 axis in HIV-1 infection. ..
  31. Chuang H, Liang S, Chang Z, Lee H. Ser1333 phosphorylation indicates ROCKI activation. J Biomed Sci. 2013;20:83 pubmed publisher
    ..Active ROCKI is phosphorylated at Ser1333 site. Antibodies that recognize phospho-Ser1333 of ROCKI and phospho-S1366 residues of ROCKII offer a means to discriminate their individual active status in cells and tissues. ..
  32. Schwickert A, Weghake E, Brüggemann K, Engbers A, Brinkmann B, Kemper B, et al. microRNA miR-142-3p Inhibits Breast Cancer Cell Invasiveness by Synchronous Targeting of WASL, Integrin Alpha V, and Additional Cytoskeletal Elements. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0143993 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ROCK2, IL6ST, KLF4, PGRMC2 and ADCY9 were identified as additional targets in a subset of cell lines...
  33. Liu Y, Liao S, Quan H, Lin Y, Li J, Yang Q. Involvement of microRNA-135a-5p in the Protective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide Against Parkinson's Disease. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;40:18-26 pubmed
    ..During the progression of Parkinson's disease, Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) is activated to promote neurodegeneration...
  34. Pinca R, Manara M, Chiadini V, Picci P, Zucchini C, Scotlandi K. Targeting ROCK2 rather than ROCK1 inhibits Ewing sarcoma malignancy. Oncol Rep. 2017;37:1387-1393 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effect of ROCK in EWS has not been extensively investigated. Expression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 was analyzed by western blotting in a representative panel of human EWS cell lines, in comparison with the ..
  35. Yang D, Wang Y, Jiang M, Deng X, Pei Z, Li F, et al. Downregulation of Profilin-1 Expression Attenuates Cardiomyocytes Hypertrophy and Apoptosis Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products in H9c2 Cells. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:9716087 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, AGEs increased PFN-1 expression through elevating ROS production and RhoA and ROCK2 expression. Consequently, elevated PFN-1 promoted actin cytoskeleton disorganization...
  36. Kher S, Worthylake R. Regulation of ROCKII membrane localization through its C-terminus. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:2845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In other words, efficient membrane targeting requires the ROCKII RBD to receive the RhoA signal and the PH domain to receive the phospholipid signal. ..
  37. Fusella F, Ferretti R, Recupero D, Rocca S, Di Savino A, Tornillo G, et al. Morgana acts as a proto-oncogene through inhibition of a ROCK-PTEN pathway. J Pathol. 2014;234:152-63 pubmed publisher
    Morgana/CHP-1 is a ubiquitously expressed protein able to inhibit ROCK II kinase activity...
  38. Unbekandt M, Belshaw S, Bower J, Clarke M, Cordes J, Crighton D, et al. Discovery of Potent and Selective MRCK Inhibitors with Therapeutic Effect on Skin Cancer. Cancer Res. 2018;78:2096-2114 pubmed publisher
    ..cytoskeleton organization and dynamics, acting in concert with the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2. The absence of highly potent and selective MRCK inhibitors has resulted in relatively little knowledge of the ..
  39. Wang X, Sun D, Tai J, Chen S, Yu M, Ren D, et al. TFAP2C promotes stemness and chemotherapeutic resistance in colorectal cancer via inactivating hippo signaling pathway. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018;37:27 pubmed publisher
    ..chemoresistance of CRC cells to 5-FU by inhibiting Hippo signaling via transcriptionally upregulating ROCK1 and ROCK2 in CRC cells...
  40. Lambert J, Song W. Ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness: roles of ROCK isoforms. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;309:L1394-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, the authors report that ROCK1(+/-) and ROCK2(+/-) mice exhibited significantly reduced AHR following acute exposure to O3...
  41. Song L, Liu Q, Meng X, Li S, Wang L, Fan Q, et al. DLC-1 is an independent prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target in hepatocellular cancer. Diagn Pathol. 2016;11:19 pubmed publisher
    ..With the method of immunohistochemistry, the expression of DLC-1 as well as Rho A, ROCK2, moesin had been characterized in 80 HCC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues...
  42. Molck M, Simioni M, Paiva Vieira T, Sgardioli I, Paoli Monteiro F, Souza J, et al. Genomic imbalances in syndromic congenital heart disease. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2017;93:497-507 pubmed publisher
    ..3). Genes inside the CNV regions found in this study, such as IRX4, BMPR1A, SORBS2, ID2, ROCK2, E2F6, GATA4, SOX7, SEMAD6D, FBN1, and LTPB1 are known to participate in cardiac development and could be ..
  43. Zafar S, Younas N, Sheikh N, Tahir W, Shafiq M, Schmitz M, et al. Cytoskeleton-Associated Risk Modifiers Involved in Early and Rapid Progression of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55:4009-4029 pubmed publisher
    ..upstream regulators; LIM kinase isoform 1 (LIMK1), slingshot phosphatase isoform 1 (SSH1), RhoA-associated kinase (Rock2), and amyloid precursor protein (APP) in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease MM1 mice and in human MM1 and VV2 ..
  44. Lefort K, Mandinova A, Ostano P, Kolev V, Calpini V, Kolfschoten I, et al. Notch1 is a p53 target gene involved in human keratinocyte tumor suppression through negative regulation of ROCK1/2 and MRCKalpha kinases. Genes Dev. 2007;21:562-77 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Notch1 gene is a p53 target with a role in human tumor suppression through negative regulation of Rho effectors. ..
  45. Newell Litwa K, Badoual M, Asmussen H, Patel H, Whitmore L, Horwitz A. ROCK1 and 2 differentially regulate actomyosin organization to drive cell and synaptic polarity. J Cell Biol. 2015;210:225-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that the two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, differentially regulate distinct molecular pathways downstream of RhoA, and their coordinated activities drive ..
  46. Soliman H, Varela J, Nyamandi V, García Patiño M, Lin G, Bankar G, et al. Attenuation of obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice with heterozygous deletion of ROCK2. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016;40:1435-43 pubmed publisher
    ..has been implicated in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the relative contribution of ROCK2 has not been elucidated. This was investigated in the present study...
  47. Singh J, Boopathi E, Addya S, Phillips B, Rigoutsos I, Penn R, et al. Aging-associated changes in microRNA expression profile of internal anal sphincter smooth muscle: Role of microRNA-133a. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;311:G964-G973 pubmed publisher
    ..and downregulation of multiple, predicted targets (Eln, Col3a1, Col1a1, Zeb2, Myocd, Srf, Smad1, Smad2, Rhoa/Rock2, Fn1, Tagln v2, Klf4, and Acta2) involved in regulation of smooth muscle contractility...
  48. Hu Y, Zou Y, Huang Y, Zhang Y, Lourenco G, Chen S, et al. ROCK1 Is Associated with Alzheimer's Disease-Specific Plaques, as well as Enhances Autophagosome Formation But not Autophagic A? Clearance. Front Cell Neurosci. 2016;10:253 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest ROCK1 participates in regulating A? secretion, APP shedding and autophagosome accumulation, and that ROCK1, rather than other kinases, is more likely to be a targetable enzyme for AD therapy. ..
  49. Kalender M, Demiryurek S, Oztuzcu S, Kizilyer A, Demiryurek A, Sevinc A, et al. Association between the Thr431Asn polymorphism of the ROCK2 gene and risk of developing metastases of breast cancer. Oncol Res. 2010;18:583-91 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to analyze the genotype distributions and allele frequencies for ROCK2 Thr431Asn and Arg83Lys polymorphisms among breast cancer patients...
  50. Han J, Yang B, Li Y, Li H, Zheng X, Yu L, et al. RhoB/ROCK mediates oxygen-glucose deprivation-stimulated syncytiotrophoblast microparticle shedding in preeclampsia. Cell Tissue Res. 2016;366:411-425 pubmed publisher
    ..In villous tissue cultures or BeWo cells, OGD activated RhoB, ROCK1 and ROCK2 and promoted STBM shedding and actin stress fibers formation...
  51. Bobo Jiménez V, Delgado Esteban M, Angibaud J, Sánchez Morán I, de la Fuente A, Yajeya J, et al. APC/CCdh1-Rock2 pathway controls dendritic integrity and memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:4513-4518 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the dendrite destabilizer Rho protein kinase 2 (Rock2), which accumulates in the brain of AD patients, is an APC/CCdh1 substrate in vivo and that Rock2 ..
  52. Shimizu T, Narang N, Chen P, Yu B, Knapp M, Janardanan J, et al. Fibroblast deletion of ROCK2 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction. JCI Insight. 2017;2: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the actin cytoskeletal regulator, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase-2 (ROCK2), is a critical mediator of LV diastolic dysfunction...
  53. Zeng K, Zhong B, Shen X, Fang M, Lin B, Ma D. RNAi targeting Nogo Receptor enhanced survival and proliferation of murine retinal ganglion cells during N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced optic nerve crush. Oncotarget. 2017;8:65009-65021 pubmed publisher
    ..murine retinal tissues revealed that NgR silencing resulted in downregulation of RhoA signaling (RhoA and ROCK2)...
  54. Singh J, Mohanty I, Rattan S. In vivo magnetofection: a novel approach for targeted topical delivery of nucleic acids for rectoanal motility disorders. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017;:ajpgi.00233.2017 pubmed publisher
    ..IAS tone is known to play a major role in the rectoanal continence via activation of RhoA-associated kinase (RhoA/ROCK2)...
  55. Zou Y, Ma L, Zhao Y, Zhang S, Zhou C, Cai Y. Inhibition of Rho kinase protects against colitis in mice by attenuating intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction via MLC and the NF-?B pathway. Int J Mol Med. 2018;41:430-438 pubmed publisher
    ..in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induced mouse colitis; and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of ROCK1/ROCK2 inhibition in enhancing intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) function...
  56. Lock F, Ryan K, Poulter N, Parsons M, Hotchin N. Differential regulation of adhesion complex turnover by ROCK1 and ROCK2. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31423 pubmed publisher
    ROCK1 and ROCK2 are serine/threonine kinases that function downstream of the small GTP-binding protein RhoA...
  57. Sari I, Berberoglu B, Ozkara E, Oztuzcu S, Camci C, Demiryurek A. Role of rho-kinase gene polymorphisms and protein expressions in colorectal cancer development. Pathobiology. 2013;80:138-45 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between Rho-kinase (ROCK1 and ROCK2) gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) development...
  58. Gerarduzzi C, He Q, Antoniou J, Di Battista J. Prostaglandin E(2)-dependent blockade of actomyosin and stress fibre formation is mediated through S1379 phosphorylation of ROCK2. J Cell Biochem. 2014;115:1516-27 pubmed publisher
    ..a unique, non-redundant, phosphorylated (>30-fold) site on rho-associated coiled coil-containing kinase 2 (ROCK2) at S1379. Analysis of ROCK2 mutant behaviour (e.g...
  59. Demiryurek S, Okumus S, Bozgeyik I, Oztuzcu S, Coskun E, Mat E, et al. Investigation of the Rho-kinase Gene Polymorphism in Primary Open-angle Glaucoma. Ophthalmic Genet. 2016;37:9-13 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA was extracted from leukocytes of the peripheral blood, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ROCK1 and ROCK2 genes were analysed in 179 patients with POAG and in 182 healthy controls of similar age by using BioMark HD ..
  60. Berger K, Cooper J, Heaton N, Yoon R, Oakland T, Jordan T, et al. Roles for endocytic trafficking and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III alpha in hepatitis C virus replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7577-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified 7 host cofactors of viral replication, including Cdc42 and Rock2 (actin polymerization), EEA1 and Rab5A (early endosomes), Rab7L1, and PI3-kinase C2gamma and PI4-kinase IIIalpha (..
  61. Jerrell R, Parekh A. Matrix rigidity differentially regulates invadopodia activity through ROCK1 and ROCK2. Biomaterials. 2016;84:119-129 pubmed publisher
    ..However, emerging evidence indicates that the ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms perform different functions in cells suggesting that alternative mechanisms may potentially regulate ..
  62. Ghazizadeh Z, Kao D, Amin S, Cook B, Rao S, Zhou T, et al. ROCKII inhibition promotes the maturation of human pancreatic beta-like cells. Nat Commun. 2017;8:298 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the authors identify a ROCKII inhibitor H1152 as increasing insulin secreting cells from hPSCs and improving beta-cell maturation on transplantation in vivo. ..
  63. Singh U, Kunar M, Kao Y, Baker K. Role of transglutaminase II in retinoic acid-induced activation of RhoA-associated kinase-2. EMBO J. 2001;20:2413-23 pubmed
    ..Biochemical effects of TGase activation, coupled with the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesion complexes, are proposed to have a significant role in cell differentiation. ..
  64. Oguz E, Alasehirli B, Pehlivan Y, Onat A, Oztuzcu S, Ozkara E, et al. Association between Rho-kinase (ROCK2) gene polymorphisms and Behçet's disease. Transl Res. 2012;160:428-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Rho-kinase (ROCK2) gene polymorphisms and patients with BD in a Turkish population...
  65. Liu L, Cao Y, Cui G, Li Z, Sun J, Zhang L, et al. Association analysis of polymorphisms in ROCK2 with cardiovascular disease in a Chinese population. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53905 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, common variants of ROCK2 have been reported to influence blood pressure, but the relationship between common ROCK2 variants and ..
  66. Bouin A, Kyumurkov A, Régent Kloeckner M, Ribba A, Faurobert E, Fournier H, et al. ICAP-1 monoubiquitylation coordinates matrix density and rigidity sensing for cell migration through ROCK2-MRCK? balance. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:626-636 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that ICAP-1 monoubiquitylation helps in switching from ROCK2-mediated to MRCK?-mediated cell contractility...
  67. Kurasawa O, Oguro Y, Miyazaki T, Homma M, Mori K, Iwai K, et al. Identification of a new class of potent Cdc7 inhibitors designed by putative pharmacophore model: Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2,3-dihydrothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4(1H)-ones. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:2133-2147 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the high selectivity of 14c, e for Cdc7 over Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) is discussed by utilizing a docking study with Cdc7 and ROCK2 crystal structures.
  68. Koo J, Kim T, Park S, Joo M, Han C, Choi C, et al. G?13 ablation reprograms myofibers to oxidative phenotype and enhances whole-body metabolism. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3845-3860 pubmed publisher
    ..T cells 1 (NFATc1), a chief regulator of myofiber conversion, by increasing Rho-associated kinase 2-mediated (Rock2-mediated) phosphorylation at Ser243...
  69. Couzens A, Saridakis V, Scheid M. The hydrophobic motif of ROCK2 requires association with the N-terminal extension for kinase activity. Biochem J. 2009;419:141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The process of ROCK2 activation is complex and requires suppression of an autoinhibitory mechanism that is facilitated by Rho binding...
  70. Shimada H, Rajagopalan L. Rho kinase-2 activation in human endothelial cells drives lysophosphatidic acid-mediated expression of cell adhesion molecules via NF-kappaB p65. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:12536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..signal transduction downstream of LPA and to investigate the contributions of the Rho kinase isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2 to adhesion molecule expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells...
  71. Aksoy M, Uygun H, Baspinar O, Demiryurek S, Oztuzcu S, Cengiz B, et al. Is there any association between childhood cardiac septal defects and ROCK2 gene polymorphism?. Genet Mol Res. 2014;13:1949-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to analyze the genotype distributions and allele frequencies for the ROCK2 gene Thr431Asn polymorphisms in the development of cardiac septal defects in a Turkish population...
  72. Pandey P, Mohammad G, Singh Y, Pasha M. Polymorphisms and haplotype of ROCK2 associate with high altitude essential hypertension in native high altitude Ladakhi Indian population: a preliminary study. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2016;38:238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..e. the disease has genetic component. Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) is a stress-activated serine-threonine kinase known to disturb vascular-homeostasis leading to an increase in ..
  73. Chong C, Ai N, Lee S. ROCK in CNS: Different Roles of Isoforms and Therapeutic Target for Neurodegenerative Disorders. Curr Drug Targets. 2017;18:455-462 pubmed publisher
    ..However, ROCK has two highly homologous isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2. Accumulated evidences indicate that ROCK1 and ROCK2 might involve in distinct cellular functions in central ..
  74. Weiss J, Chen W, Nyuydzefe M, Trzeciak A, Flynn R, Tonra J, et al. ROCK2 signaling is required to induce a subset of T follicular helper cells through opposing effects on STATs in autoimmune settings. Sci Signal. 2016;9:ra73 pubmed publisher
    Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2) determines the balance between human T helper 17 (TH17) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells...
  75. Stanimirovic J, Obradovic M, Panic A, Petrović V, Alavantic D, Melih I, et al. Regulation of hepatic Na+/K+-ATPase in obese female and male rats: involvement of ERK1/2, AMPK, and Rho/ROCK. Mol Cell Biochem. 2018;440:77-88 pubmed publisher
    ..in plasma membrane fractions, and protein levels of IRS-1, PI3K-p85, -p110, RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, ERK1/2, AMPK?, ER?, and ER? in liver lysates were assessed...
  76. Olgar Y, Celen M, Yamasan B, Ozturk N, Turan B, Ozdemir S. Rho-kinase inhibition reverses impaired Ca2+ handling and associated left ventricular dysfunction in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Cell Calcium. 2017;67:81-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The hearts of rats in the TAC group showed a significant decrease in ROCK1, ROCK2, RyR2 protein levels and p-PLBS16/T17/SERCA2 ratio and increase in RhoA expression and MLC ..
  77. Kapoor A, Barai A, Thakur B, Das A, Patwardhan S, Monteiro M, et al. Soft drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells migrate via two distinct mechanisms utilizing myosin II-based contractility. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018;1865:392-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite these differences, actomyosin contractility, mediated by the RhoA-ROCK2-Myosin II signaling pathway, regulates both modes of migration...
  78. Song Y, Hoang B, Chang D. ROCK-II-induced membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation require actin cytoskeleton. Exp Cell Res. 2002;278:45-52 pubmed
    Ectopic expression of ROCK II (Rho kinase II or ROKalpha), an effector of Rho GTPase, induces membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation...
  79. Yotova I, Quan P, Leditznig N, Beer U, Wenzl R, Tschugguel W. Abnormal activation of Ras/Raf/MAPK and RhoA/ROCKII signalling pathways in eutopic endometrial stromal cells of patients with endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:885-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences in cell proliferation and migration between both cell types are likely due to increased activation of Ras/Raf/MAPK and RhoA/ROCKII signalling pathways in cells from endometriosis patients. ..
  80. Giagulli C, Marsico S, Magiera A, Bruno R, Caccuri F, Barone I, et al. Opposite effects of HIV-1 p17 variants on PTEN activation and cell growth in B cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17831 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it provides the first evidence on the presence of a p17 natural variant mimicking the p17?36-induced signalling in B cells and displaying the capacity of promoting B cell growth and tumorigenesis. ..
  81. Kirschstein T, Sahre T, Kernig K, Protzel C, Porath K, Köhling R, et al. Inverse relationship of Rho kinase and myosin-light chain kinase expression in the aging human detrusor smooth muscle. BMC Urol. 2015;15:104 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have analyzed the transcriptional expression of Rho kinase isoforms (ROCK1 and ROCK2) as well as MLCK in the aging human detrusor smooth muscle obtained from resected tissue...
  82. Kushida N, Yamaguchi O, Kawashima Y, Akaihata H, Hata J, Ishibashi K, et al. Uni-axial stretch induces actin stress fiber reorganization and activates c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase via RhoA and Rho kinase in human bladder smooth muscle cells. BMC Urol. 2016;16:9 pubmed publisher
  83. Hudson C, Heesom K, Lopez Bernal A. Phasic contractions of isolated human myometrium are associated with Rho-kinase (ROCK)-dependent phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit (MYPT1). Mol Hum Reprod. 2012;18:265-79 pubmed publisher
  84. Boku S, Nakagawa S, Toda H, Kato A, Takamura N, Omiya Y, et al. ROCK2 regulates bFGF-induced proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells through GSK-3? and ?-catenin pathway. Brain Res. 2013;1492:7-17 pubmed publisher
    ..ROCK has two subtypes: ROCK1 and ROCK2. Investigation with siRNA for ROCKs showed that ROCK2 is involved in bFGF-induced proliferation, but not ROCK1...
  85. Chen Y, Chou W, Ding Y, Wu Y. Caffeine inhibits migration in glioma cells through the ROCK-FAK pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014;33:1888-98 pubmed
    ..Caffeine decreased the migration of glioma cell through the ROCK-focal adhesion complex pathway; this mechanism may be useful as part of clinical therapy in the future. ..
  86. Liao Y, Liu P, Lin H, Lin W, Liao J, Juo S. Two functional polymorphisms of ROCK2 enhance arterial stiffening through inhibiting its activity and expression. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;79:180-6 pubmed publisher
    Derangement of Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) has been related to coronary artery disease and stroke. ROCK2, rather than ROCK1, plays a predominant role in vascular contractility...
  87. Hsu C, Chang Z, Lee H. Immunohistochemical evaluation of ROCK activation in invasive breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:943 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in ROCK activation that underlie the phenotypes of breast cancer could enhance our understanding for the use of ROCK inhibitors in cancer therapy. ..
  88. Tang F, Wang H, Ma M, Guan T, Pan L, Yao D, et al. Simvastatin attenuated rat thoracic aorta remodeling by decreasing ROCK2?mediated CyPA secretion and CD147?ERK1/2?cyclin pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:8123-8129 pubmed publisher
    ..CyPA secretion in cultured VSMCs, whereas GGTI?298 and KD025 [a selective Rho?associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) inhibitor] mimicked the inhibitory effect of simvastatin...
  89. Gallo R, Khan M, Shi J, Kapur R, Wei L, Bailey J, et al. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by Rho kinase controls antigen presentation by CD1d. J Immunol. 2012;189:1689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we have found that the Rho kinases, Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK)1 and ROCK2, negatively regulate both human and mouse CD1d-mediated Ag presentation...
  90. Mertsch S, Thanos S. Opposing signaling of ROCK1 and ROCK2 determines the switching of substrate specificity and the mode of migration of glioblastoma cells. Mol Neurobiol. 2014;49:900-15 pubmed publisher
    ..are two ROCK isoforms: ROCK1, which is upregulated in glioblastoma tissue compared to normal brain tissue, and ROCK2, which is also expressed in normal brain tissue...
  91. Perey A, Weishaar I, McGee D. The effect of ROCK on TNF-α-induced CXCL8 secretion by intestinal epithelial cell lines is mediated through MKK4 and JNK signaling. Cell Immunol. 2015;293:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi knockdown experiments indicated that the inhibitory effect was mediated by ROCK2, and not ROCK1...
  92. Zhu H, Zhou X, Ma C, Chang H, Li H, Liu F, et al. Low Expression of miR-448 Induces EMT and Promotes Invasion by Regulating ROCK2 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;36:487-98 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-448 could regulate ROCK2 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Knockdown of ROCK2 expression partially reversed the effect of miR-448 inhibitor...