Gene Symbol: RND3
Description: Rho family GTPase 3
Alias: ARHE, Rho8, RhoE, memB, rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoE, protein MemB, ras homolog gene family, member E, rho-related GTP-binding protein Rho8, small GTP binding protein Rho8
Species: human
Products:     RND3

Top Publications

  1. Nobes C, Lauritzen I, Mattei M, Paris S, Hall A, Chardin P. A new member of the Rho family, Rnd1, promotes disassembly of actin filament structures and loss of cell adhesion. J Cell Biol. 1998;141:187-97 pubmed
    ..distinct branch of the Rho family: Rnd1, expressed mostly in brain and liver; Rnd2, highly expressed in testis; and Rnd3/RhoE, showing a ubiquitous low expression...
  2. Zhu Z, Todorova K, Lee K, Wang J, Kwon E, Kehayov I, et al. Small GTPase RhoE/Rnd3 is a critical regulator of Notch1 signaling. Cancer Res. 2014;74:2082-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the small GTPase RhoE/Rnd3 as a downstream mediator of Notch signaling in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) that arise in skin epithelia...
  3. Lin X, Liu B, Yang X, Yue X, Diao L, Wang J, et al. Genetic deletion of Rnd3 results in aqueductal stenosis leading to hydrocephalus through up-regulation of Notch signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8236-41 pubmed publisher
    Rho family guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) 3 (Rnd3), a member of the small Rho GTPase family, is involved in the regulation of cell actin cytoskeleton dynamics, cell migration, and proliferation through the Rho kinase-dependent ..
  4. Xia H, Li M, Chen L, Leng W, Yuan D, Pang X, et al. Suppression of RND3 activity by AES downregulation promotes cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Int J Mol Med. 2013;31:1081-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that knockdown of AES by RNA interference (RNAi) downregulated RND3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in MDA-MB-231 and HepG2, two cancer cell lines...
  5. Ma W, Wong C, Tung E, Wong C, Ng I. RhoE is frequently down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and suppresses HCC invasion through antagonizing the Rho/Rho-kinase/myosin phosphatase target pathway. Hepatology. 2013;57:152-61 pubmed publisher
    ..RhoE/Rnd3 belongs to an atypical subfamily of the RhoGTPase, the Rnd family, as it lacks the intrinsic GTPase activity and ..
  6. Zhao H, Yang J, Fan T, Li S, Ren X. RhoE functions as a tumor suppressor in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and modulates the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Tumour Biol. 2012;33:1363-74 pubmed publisher
    Emerging evidence indicates that RhoE as novel member of the Rho GTPases family plays an essential role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression of human various tumors, but the functional significance of RhoE in human esophageal squamous ..
  7. Grise F, Sena S, Bidaud Meynard A, Baud J, Hiriart J, Makki K, et al. Rnd3/RhoE Is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and controls cellular invasion. Hepatology. 2012;55:1766-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Rnd3/RhoE is an atypical RhoGTPase family member because it is always under its active GTP-bound conformation and not ..
  8. Belgiovine C, Frapolli R, Bonezzi K, Chiodi I, Favero F, Mello Grand M, et al. Reduced expression of the ROCK inhibitor Rnd3 is associated with increased invasiveness and metastatic potential in mesenchymal tumor cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14154 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased invasiveness of tumorigenic cells was associated with reduced expression of Rnd3 (also known as RhoE), a cellular inhibitor of ROCK...
  9. Klein R, Aplin A. Rnd3 regulation of the actin cytoskeleton promotes melanoma migration and invasive outgrowth in three dimensions. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2224-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutant B-RAF is required for melanoma cell invasion. The expression of Rnd3, a Rho family GTPase, is regulated by mutant B-RAF, although its role in melanoma progression is unknown...

More Information


  1. Li K, Lu Y, Liang J, Luo G, Ren G, Wang X, et al. RhoE enhances multidrug resistance of gastric cancer cells by suppressing Bax. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:212-6 pubmed publisher
    We have previously reported that RhoE is overexpressed in the SGC7901/VCR cell line. However, the potential role of RhoE in the development of multidrug resistance of gastric cancer is unknown...
  2. Pinner S, Sahai E. PDK1 regulates cancer cell motility by antagonising inhibition of ROCK1 by RhoE. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:127-37 pubmed publisher
    ..activity, but instead involves direct binding of PDK1 to ROCK1 at the plasma membrane; PDK1 competes directly with RhoE for binding to ROCK1...
  3. Riento K, Guasch R, Garg R, Jin B, Ridley A. RhoE binds to ROCK I and inhibits downstream signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4219-29 pubmed
    b>RhoE belongs to the Rho GTPase family, the members of which control actin cytoskeletal dynamics. RhoE induces stress fiber disassembly in a variety of cell types, whereas RhoA stimulates stress fiber assembly...
  4. Ongusaha P, Kim H, Boswell S, Ridley A, Der C, Dotto G, et al. RhoE is a pro-survival p53 target gene that inhibits ROCK I-mediated apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2466-72 pubmed
    ..Unlike typical Rho-family proteins, the Rnd subfamily members, including Rnd1, Rnd2, RhoE (also known as Rnd3), and RhoH, are GTPase deficient and are thus expected to be constitutively active ...
  5. Poch E, Miñambres R, Mocholí E, Ivorra C, Perez Arago A, Guerri C, et al. RhoE interferes with Rb inactivation and regulates the proliferation and survival of the U87 human glioblastoma cell line. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:719-31 pubmed
    ..One of this proteins, RhoE, inhibits cell proliferation, however the mechanism that regulates this effect remains poorly understood...
  6. Oinuma I, Katoh H, Harada A, Negishi M. Direct interaction of Rnd1 with Plexin-B1 regulates PDZ-RhoGEF-mediated Rho activation by Plexin-B1 and induces cell contraction in COS-7 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25671-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that Rnd1 plays an important role in the regulation of Plexin-B1 signaling, leading to Rho activation during axon guidance and cell migration. ..
  7. Fiegen D, Blumenstein L, Stege P, Vetter I, Ahmadian M. Crystal structure of Rnd3/RhoE: functional implications. FEBS Lett. 2002;525:100-4 pubmed
    ..Herein, we report the crystal structure of the Rnd3/RhoE G-domain (amino acids 19-200) at 2.0 A resolution...
  8. Bektic J, Pfeil K, Berger A, Ramoner R, Pelzer A, Schafer G, et al. Small G-protein RhoE is underexpressed in prostate cancer and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Prostate. 2005;64:332-40 pubmed
    b>RhoE/Rnd3, a recently described novel member of the Rho GTPases family, was discussed as a possible antagonist of the RhoA protein that stimulates cell cycle progression and is overexpressed and/or overactivated in prostate cancer...
  9. Foster R, Hu K, Lu Y, Nolan K, Thissen J, Settleman J. Identification of a novel human Rho protein with unusual properties: GTPase deficiency and in vivo farnesylation. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2689-99 pubmed
    We have identified a human Rho protein, RhoE, which has unusual structural and biochemical properties that suggest a novel mechanism of regulation...
  10. Wennerberg K, Forget M, Ellerbroek S, Arthur W, Burridge K, Settleman J, et al. Rnd proteins function as RhoA antagonists by activating p190 RhoGAP. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1106-15 pubmed
    The Rnd proteins Rnd1, Rnd2, and Rnd3 (RhoE) comprise a unique branch of Rho-family G-proteins that lack intrinsic GTPase activity and consequently remain constitutively "active...
  11. Luo H, Dong Z, Zou J, Zeng Q, Wu D, Liu L. Down-regulation of RhoE is associated with progression and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. J Surg Oncol. 2012;105:699-704 pubmed publisher
    b>RhoE is an atypical member of Rho GTPases family, which is a crucial regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics, cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation...
  12. Zhou J, Li K, Gu Y, Feng B, Ren G, Zhang L, et al. Transcriptional up-regulation of RhoE by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells during hypoxia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;415:348-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, hypoxia has been reported to induce EMT, accompanied by cytoskeleton remodeling. As RhoE is a key regulator in cytoskeleton formation, we hypothesized that RhoE may play a role in hypoxia-induced EMT...
  13. Katiyar P, Aplin A. FOXD3 regulates migration properties and Rnd3 expression in melanoma cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:545-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of FOXD3 expression following inhibition of B-RAF and MEK correlates with the downregulation of Rnd3, a Rho GTPase and inhibitor of RhoA-ROCK signaling...
  14. Katoh H, Harada A, Mori K, Negishi M. Socius is a novel Rnd GTPase-interacting protein involved in disassembly of actin stress fibers. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2952-64 pubmed
    ..The Rnd proteins, Rnd1, Rnd2, and Rnd3/RhoE, have been recently identified as new members of the Rho family of GTPases, and expression of Rnd1 or Rnd3 in ..
  15. Liebig T, Erasmus J, Kalaji R, Davies D, Loirand G, Ridley A, et al. RhoE Is required for keratinocyte differentiation and stratification. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:452-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe here a novel function of the Rho family member RhoE as a regulator of epidermal morphogenesis...
  16. Klein R, Spofford L, Abel E, Ortiz A, Aplin A. B-RAF regulation of Rnd3 participates in actin cytoskeletal and focal adhesion organization. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:498-508 pubmed
    ..The expression of Rnd3, a Rho antagonist, was attenuated after B-RAF knockdown or MEK inhibition, but it was enhanced in melanocytes ..
  17. Smit M, Maddalo G, Greig K, Raaijmakers L, Possik P, van Breukelen B, et al. ROCK1 is a potential combinatorial drug target for BRAF mutant melanoma. Mol Syst Biol. 2014;10:772 pubmed publisher
    ..Several proteins were down-regulated, including Rnd3, a negative regulator of ROCK1 kinase...
  18. Pujar M, Vastrad B, Vastrad C. Integrative Analyses of Genes Associated with Subcutaneous Insulin Resistance. Biomolecules. 2019;9: pubmed publisher
    ..kinase 7 (PTK7), Notch homolog 1 (NOTCH1), androgen receptor (AR), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and Rho family GTPase 3 (RND3) were diagnosed as the top hub genes in the up- and down-regulated PPI network and modules...
  19. Li L, Zhang X, Hong S, Chen Y, Ren G. Long non-coding HOTTIP regulates preeclampsia by inhibiting RND3. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2018;22:3277-3285 pubmed publisher
    ..By Western blotting, we found that HOTTIP regulated the progression of preeclampsia via Rho family GTPase 3(RND3). HOTTIP was lowly expressed in preeclampsia and was able to suppress the progression of preeclampsia.
  20. Osiński M, Mostowska A, Wirstlein P, Wender Ozegowska E, Jagodziński P, Szczepańska M. The assessment of GWAS - identified polymorphisms associated with infertility risk in Polish women with endometriosis. Ginekol Pol. 2018;89:304-310 pubmed publisher
    ..in GREB1, rs10859871 near VEZT, rs1537377 near CDKN2B-AS1, rs4141819 near ETAA1, rs7739264 near ID4, rs1519761 near RND3 and rs6542095 near IL1A...
  21. Liu S, Zheng F, Cai Y, Zhang W, Dun Y. Effect of Long-Term Exercise Training on lncRNAs Expression in the Vascular Injury of Insulin Resistance. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2018;11:459-469 pubmed publisher
    ..Exercise might alleviate the vascular injury of IR via FR030200-Col3A1, FR402720-Rnd1, and FR030200/FR402720-Rnd3 signalings in cytoskeletal rearrangement pathway; E2F1-FR030200/FR402720-Nnat and FR030200/ FR402720-Fam46a ..
  22. Zhai C, Shi W, Feng W, Zhu Y, Wang J, Li S, et al. Activation of AMPK prevents monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by suppression of NF-?B-mediated autophagy activation. Life Sci. 2018;208:87-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The translocation of NF-?B p65 from cytosol to nucleus, the protein levels of LC3A, LC3B, and RND3 were determined by immunoblotting. Metformin was used to activate AMPK...
  23. Cavalcanti Y, Morse D, da Silva W, Del Bel Cury A, Wei X, Wilson M, et al. Virulence and pathogenicity of Candida albicans is enhanced in biofilms containing oral bacteria. Biofouling. 2015;31:27-38 pubmed publisher
    ..were generated on acrylic and either analysed directly, or used to infect a reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Analyses included Candida hyphae enumeration and assessment of Candida virulence gene expression...
  24. Sun W, Ma Y, Chen P, Wang D. MicroRNA-10a silencing reverses cisplatin resistance in the A549/cisplatin human lung cancer cell line via the transforming growth factor-β/Smad2/STAT3/STAT5 pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2015;11:3854-9 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of P‑glycoprotein, multi‑drug resistance protein (MDR) 1, MDR‑associated protein 1, RhoE, B cell lymphoma‑2 and survivin in A549/DDP cells...
  25. Thuault S, Comunale F, Hasna J, Fortier M, Planchon D, Elarouci N, et al. The RhoE/ROCK/ARHGAP25 signaling pathway controls cell invasion by inhibition of Rac activity. Mol Biol Cell. 2016;27:2653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the invasive potential of ARMS cells depended on ROCK activity, which is regulated by the GTPase RhoE. Specifically, RhoE expression was low in ARMS biopsies, and its overexpression in ARMS cells reduced their ..
  26. Yue X, Yang X, Lin X, Yang T, Yi X, Dai Y, et al. Rnd3 haploinsufficient mice are predisposed to hemodynamic stress and develop apoptotic cardiomyopathy with heart failure. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1284 pubmed publisher
    Rho family guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) 3 (Rnd3), a member of the small Rho GTPase family, has been suggested to regulate cell actin cytoskeleton dynamics, cell migration, and apoptosis through the Rho kinase-dependent signaling ..
  27. Zhang Z, Xing T, Chen Y, Xiao J. Exosome-mediated miR-200b promotes colorectal cancer proliferation upon TGF-β1 exposure. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;106:1135-1143 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies showing that the exosomal miR-200b could directly target 3'-UTRs of p27 and RND3 resulted in knockdown of respective target proteins in recipient cells...
  28. Hernández Sánchez M, Poch E, Guasch R, Ortega J, López Almela I, Palmero I, et al. RhoE is required for contact inhibition and negatively regulates tumor initiation and progression. Oncotarget. 2015;6:17479-90 pubmed
    b>RhoE is a small GTPase involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, cell cycle and apoptosis. The role of RhoE in cancer is currently controversial, with reports of both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive functions for RhoE...
  29. Løset M, Johnson M, Melton P, Ang W, Huang R, Mori T, et al. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease share genetic risk factors on chromosome 2q22. Pregnancy Hypertens. 2014;4:178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..at the preeclampsia susceptibility locus on chromosome 2q22; rs2322659 (LCT), rs35821928 (LRP1B), rs115015150 (RND3) and rs17783344 (GCA), were recently shown to associate with known cardiovascular risk factors in a Mexican ..
  30. Wang Q, Wang Z, Chu L, Li X, Kan P, Xin X, et al. The Effects and Molecular Mechanisms of MiR-106a in Multidrug Resistance Reversal in Human Glioma U87/DDP and U251/G Cell Lines. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0125473 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we detected decreased expression of P-glycoprotein, MDR1, MRP1, GST-π, CDX2, ERCC1, RhoE, Bcl-2, Survivin and Topo-II, as well as reduced production of IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-β in these cell lines...
  31. Dong J, Levine D, Buas M, Zhang R, Onstad L, Fitzgerald R, et al. Interactions Between Genetic Variants and Environmental Factors Affect Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Barrett's Esophagus. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;16:1598-1606.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..82; 95% CI, 4.03-34.67). Three SNPs (rs12465911, rs2341926, rs13396805) at chromosome 2q23.3, near the RND3-RBM43 gene, interacted with GERD symptoms (P = 1.70×10-7, P = 1.83×10-7, and P = 3...
  32. Wang J, Wang Y, Yang J, Ma C, Zhang Y, Ge T, et al. Arabidopsis ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3 is involved in nitrogen starvation-induced anthocyanin accumulation. J Integr Plant Biol. 2015;57:708-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Correction added on 6 August 2015, after first online publication: "RND3" corrected to "RHD3".].
  33. Pacary E, Azzarelli R, Guillemot F. Rnd3 coordinates early steps of cortical neurogenesis through actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1635 pubmed publisher
    ..The atypical RhoGTPase Rnd3 is expressed by progenitors in the embryonic brain but its role in early steps of neurogenesis has not been ..
  34. Pich C, Sarrabayrouse G, Teiti I, Mariamé B, Rochaix P, Lamant L, et al. Melanoma-expressed CD70 is involved in invasion and metastasis. Br J Cancer. 2016;114:63-70 pubmed publisher
    ..monoclonal antibody binding led to an increase in CD70+ melanoma cell invasiveness through MAPK pathway activation, RhoE overexpression, ROCK1 and MYPT1 phosphorylation decrease, and stress fibres and focal adhesions disappearance...
  35. Guo X, Cao C, Sun J, Zhang D, Liu L, Wu D. [miR-128a is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes tumor cell proliferation by targeting RND3]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2014;34:1408-13 pubmed
    ..A miR-128a mimics or inhibitor was transfected into HCC cells, and the cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay. RND3, one of the potential targets of miR-128a, was predicted by bioinformatics software and demonstrated by dual ..
  36. Priya R, Gomez G, Budnar S, Verma S, Cox H, Hamilton N, et al. Feedback regulation through myosin II confers robustness on RhoA signalling at E-cadherin junctions. Nat Cell Biol. 2015;17:1282-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The key is scaffolding of ROCK1 to the ZA by myosin II. ROCK1 protects junctional RhoA by phosphorylating Rnd3 to prevent the cortical recruitment of the Rho suppressor, p190B RhoGAP...
  37. Paysan L, Piquet L, Saltel F, Moreau V. Rnd3 in Cancer: A Review of the Evidence for Tumor Promoter or Suppressor. Mol Cancer Res. 2016;14:1033-1044 pubmed
    ..Among these proteins, Rnd3/RhoE, an atypical Rho-GTPase devoid of GTP hydrolytic activity, has recently been studied for its putative role in ..
  38. Breslin J, Daines D, Doggett T, Kurtz K, Souza Smith F, Zhang X, et al. Rnd3 as a Novel Target to Ameliorate Microvascular Leakage. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5:e003336 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to identify the role of Rnd3, an atypical Rho family GTPase, in the control of endothelial barrier integrity...
  39. Yue X, Lin X, Yang T, Yang X, Yi X, Jiang X, et al. Rnd3/RhoE Modulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling by Stabilizing Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α and Regulates Responsive Cardiac Angiogenesis. Hypertension. 2016;67:597-605 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identified Rnd3, a small Rho GTPase, as a proangiogenic factor participating in the regulation of the HIF1α-VEGF signaling ..
  40. Li J, Luo N, Zhong M, Xiao Z, Wang J, Yao X, et al. Inhibition of microRNA-196a might reverse cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP non-small-cell lung cancer cell line. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:2387-94 pubmed publisher
    ..repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1), survivin, and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) decreased significantly while RhoE increased significantly in the anti-miR-196a group than the blank group and the miR-NC group (all P <â€..
  41. Gladwyn Ng I, Huang L, Ngo L, Li S, Qu Z, Vanyai H, et al. Bacurd1/Kctd13 and Bacurd2/Tnfaip1 are interacting partners to Rnd proteins which influence the long-term positioning and dendritic maturation of cerebral cortical neurons. Neural Dev. 2016;11:7 pubmed publisher
    ..The RhoA GTPases Rnd2 and Rnd3 are important for neurogenesis and cell migration within the embryonic cortex (Nat Commun 4:1635, 2013), and we ..
  42. He P, Sun L, Zhu D, Zhang H, Zhang L, Guo Y, et al. Knock-Down of Endogenous Bornavirus-Like Nucleoprotein 1 Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Oligodendroglia Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:435 pubmed publisher
    ..The top 10 most upregulated genes were PI3, RND3, BLZF1, SOD2, EPGN, SBSN, INSIG1, OSMR, CREB3L2, and MSMO1, and the top 10 most-downregulated genes were KRTAP2-4, ..
  43. Wang T, Feugang J, Crenshaw M, Regmi N, Blanton J, Liao S. A Systems Biology Approach Using Transcriptomic Data Reveals Genes and Pathways in Porcine Skeletal Muscle Affected by Dietary Lysine. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..i>DNAJA1, HSP90AB1 and UBE2B mRNA; (2) reduced muscle protein synthesis via the up-regulated RND3 and ZIC1 mRNA; (3) increased serine and glycine synthesis via the up-regulated PHGDH and PSPH
  44. Sun Y, Ge Y, Fu Y, Yan L, Cai J, Shi K, et al. Mitomycin C induces fibroblasts apoptosis and reduces epidural fibrosis by regulating miR-200b and its targeting of RhoE. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;765:198-208 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-200b in human fibroblasts was determined after MMC treatment, and the targeted association between miR-200b and RhoE was determined using the luciferase activity assay...
  45. Cheng Y, Chen G, Chen C, Zhang Q, Pan F, Hu M, et al. MicroRNA-200b inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration of cervical cancer cells by directly targeting RhoE. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:3139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..A lack of E-cadherin expression and overexpression of vimentin are hallmarks of EMT. It is well‑known that RhoE, which is associated with regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and migration via alterations in cell motility, ..
  46. Singh V, Singh L, Vasudevan M, Chattopadhyay I, Borthakar B, Rai A, et al. Esophageal Cancer Epigenomics and Integrome Analysis of Genome-Wide Methylation and Expression in High Risk Northeast Indian Population. OMICS. 2015;19:688-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These included four genes (PTK2, RND1, RND3, and UBL3) with promoter hypermethylation and downregulation, and 19 genes (SEMG2, CD97, CTNND2, CADM3, OMD, NEFM, ..
  47. Wong A, Clements A, Raymond B, Crepin V, Frankel G. The interplay between the Escherichia coli Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor effectors and the mammalian RhoGEF inhibitor EspH. MBio. 2012;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Our data point to an intriguing infection strategy in which EPEC and EHEC override cellular Rho GTPase signaling by disabling mammalian RhoGEFs and replacing them with with bacterial RhoGEFs that promote cell adhesion and survival. ..
  48. Tong J, Fu Y, Xu X, Fan S, Sun H, Liang Y, et al. TGF-?1 stimulates human Tenon's capsule fibroblast proliferation by miR-200b and its targeting of p27/kip1 and RND3. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:2747-56 pubmed publisher
    ..of HTFs was analyzed using both miR200b-mimic and inhibitor-transfected HTFs and confirmed in p27/kip1 and RND3 (the target of miR-200b) knockdown cells...
  49. Feng B, Li K, Zhong H, Ren G, Wang H, Shang Y, et al. RhoE promotes metastasis in gastric cancer through a mechanism dependent on enhanced expression of CXCR4. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81709 pubmed publisher
    b>RhoE, a novel member of the Rho protein family, is a key regulator of the cytoskeleton and cell migration...
  50. Lonjedo M, Poch E, Mocholí E, Hernández Sánchez M, Ivorra C, Franke T, et al. The Rho family member RhoE interacts with Skp2 and is degraded at the proteasome during cell cycle progression. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:30872-82 pubmed publisher
    RhoE/Rnd3 is an atypical member of the Rho family of small GTPases. In addition to regulating actin cytoskeleton dynamics, RhoE is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, and metastasis...
  51. Riou P, Kjær S, Garg R, Purkiss A, George R, Cain R, et al. 14-3-3 proteins interact with a hybrid prenyl-phosphorylation motif to inhibit G proteins. Cell. 2013;153:640-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a high-affinity 14-3-3-binding site at the C terminus of Rnd3 consisting of both the Cys241-farnesyl moiety and a Rho-associated coiled coil containing protein kinase (ROCK)-..
  52. Dong H, Lin X, Li Y, Hu R, Xu Y, Guo X, et al. Genetic deletion of Rnd3 in neural stem cells promotes proliferation via upregulation of Notch signaling. Oncotarget. 2017;8:91112-91122 pubmed publisher
    b>Rnd3, a Rho GTPase, is involved in the inhibition of actin cytoskeleton dynamics through the Rho kinase-dependent signaling pathway...
  53. Palmer N, McDonough C, Hicks P, Roh B, Wing M, An S, et al. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29202 pubmed publisher
    ..5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P?=?7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI)?=?0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0...
  54. Komander D, Garg R, Wan P, Ridley A, Barford D. Mechanism of multi-site phosphorylation from a ROCK-I:RhoE complex structure. EMBO J. 2008;27:3175-85 pubmed publisher
    ..ROCK-I phosphorylates the unconventional G-protein RhoE on multiple N- and C-terminal sites...
  55. McColl B, Garg R, Riou P, Riento K, Ridley A. Rnd3-induced cell rounding requires interaction with Plexin-B2. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:4046-4056 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Rnd3 interacts preferentially with plexin-B2 of the three plexin-B proteins, whereas Rnd2 interacts with all three B-..
  56. Liu B, Dong H, Lin X, Yang X, Yue X, Yang J, et al. RND3 promotes Snail 1 protein degradation and inhibits glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. Oncotarget. 2016;7:82411-82423 pubmed publisher
    ..By screening human GBM specimens, we found that the expression levels of small GTPase RND3 positively correlated with the expression levels of E-cadherin and claudin, the glioblastoma migration biomarkers ..
  57. Meyers J, Zhang J, Manz N, Rangaswamy M, Kamarajan C, Wetherill L, et al. A genome wide association study of fast beta EEG in families of European ancestry. Int J Psychophysiol. 2017;115:74-85 pubmed publisher
    ..e., DSE, ZEB2, RND3, MCTP1, and CTBP2) were also associated with beta EEG (empirical p<0...
  58. Li X, Chen H, Wang S, Dai J, Yan L, Wang J, et al. Tacrolimus induces fibroblasts apoptosis and reduces epidural fibrosis by regulating miR-429 and its target of RhoE. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1197-1204 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, luciferase activity assays were used to determine the target relationship between miR-429 and RhoE. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis were used to determine the effects of FK506 and miR-429 on fibroblast ..
  59. Xu Y, Ge Z, Zhang E, Zuo Q, Huang S, Yang N, et al. The lncRNA TUG1 modulates proliferation in trophoblast cells via epigenetic suppression of RND3. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e3104 pubmed publisher
    ..and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays validated that TUG1 can epigenetically inhibit the level of RND3 through binding to EZH2, thus promoting PE development...
  60. Kim Y, Hori M, Yasuda K, Ozaki H. Differences in the gestational pattern of mRNA expression of the Rnd family in rat and human myometria. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2005;142:410-5 pubmed
    ..In addition to Rnd1, there are two other members, Rnd2 and Rnd3, in the Rnd family of Rho proteins...
  61. Collett G, Goh X, Linton E, Redman C, Sargent I. RhoE is regulated by cyclic AMP and promotes fusion of human BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30453 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we examined the role of the Rho GTPase family member RhoE in trophoblast differentiation and fusion using the BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line, a model of villous ..
  62. Clarke K, Daubon T, Turan N, Soulet F, Mohd Zahari M, Ryan K, et al. Inference of Low and High-Grade Glioma Gene Regulatory Networks Delineates the Role of Rnd3 in Establishing Multiple Hallmarks of Cancer. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005325 pubmed publisher
    ..Next, the development and application of a novel data integration methodology reveals novel functions of RND3 in controlling glioma cell migration, invasion, proliferation, angiogenesis and clinical outcome.
  63. Villalonga P, Fernandez De Mattos S, Ridley A. RhoE inhibits 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and eIF4E function impairing cap-dependent translation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35287-96 pubmed publisher
    The Rho GTPase family member RhoE inhibits RhoA/ROCK signaling to promote actin stress fiber and focal adhesion disassembly...
  64. Xia W, Li J, Chen L, Huang B, Li S, Yang G, et al. MicroRNA-200b regulates cyclin D1 expression and promotes S-phase entry by targeting RND3 in HeLa cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;344:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..assays to demonstrate that mir-200b interacts with predicted target sites in the 3' untranslated region of RND3. In HeLa cells, mir-200b directly reduced the expression of RND3 at the mRNA and protein levels, which thereby ..
  65. Zhu Y, Zhou J, Xia H, Chen X, Qiu M, Huang J, et al. The Rho GTPase RhoE is a p53-regulated candidate tumor suppressor in cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2014;44:896-904 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have shown that RhoE, an atypical member of the Rho GTPase family, may play an opposite role to RhoA in regulating cell proliferation and invasion...
  66. Chang L, Guo F, Wang Y, Lv Y, Huo B, Wang L, et al. MicroRNA-200c regulates the sensitivity of chemotherapy of gastric cancer SGC7901/DDP cells by directly targeting RhoE. Pathol Oncol Res. 2014;20:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of miRNA-200c and RhoE were investigated in gastric cancer tissues and cells (SGC7901 and SGC7901/DDP) by qRT-PCR...
  67. Aoki K, Maeda F, Nagasako T, Mochizuki Y, Uchida S, Ikenouchi J. A RhoA and Rnd3 cycle regulates actin reassembly during membrane blebbing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E1863-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that a RhoA-ROCK-Rnd3 feedback loop determined the local reassembly sites of the actin cortex during membrane blebbing.
  68. Albertsen H, Chettier R, Farrington P, Ward K. Genome-wide association study link novel loci to endometriosis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58257 pubmed publisher
    ..12 (rs2235529; P?=?8.65×10(-9), OR?=?1.29, CI?=?1.18-1.40) and RND3-RBM43 on 2q23.3 (rs1519761; P?=?4.70×10(-8), OR?=?1.20, Cl?=?1.13-1.29, and rs6757804; P?=?4.05×10(-8), OR?=?1...
  69. Klein R, Higgins P. A switch in RND3-RHOA signaling is critical for melanoma cell invasion following mutant-BRAF inhibition. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:114 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF inhibitor treatments were associated with reduced expression of RND3, an antagonist of RHOA activation, and elevated RHOA-dependent signaling...
  70. Chen J, Zhou H, Li Q, Qiu M, Li Z, Tang Q, et al. Epigenetic modification of RhoE expression in gastric cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:173-80 pubmed
    b>RhoE is a unique member of Rho family of GTPases without detectable intrinsic GTPase activity. Our previous study showed that RhoE is a tumor suppressor gene and its expression is down-regulated in gastric cancer...
  71. Ionin B, Hammamieh R, Shupp J, Das R, Pontzer C, Jett M. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B causes differential expression of Rnd3 and RhoA in renal proximal tubule epithelial cells while inducing actin stress fiber assembly and apoptosis. Microb Pathog. 2008;45:303-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the down-regulated DETs matched the sequence for Rnd3, which normally inhibits Rho protein function...
  72. Oinuma I, Kawada K, Tsukagoshi K, Negishi M. Rnd1 and Rnd3 targeting to lipid raft is required for p190 RhoGAP activation. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1593-604 pubmed publisher
    The Rnd proteins Rnd1, Rnd2, and Rnd3/RhoE are well known as key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types, but they comprise a distinct subgroup of the Rho family in that they are GTP bound and constitutively active...
  73. Ryan K, Lock F, Heath J, Hotchin N. Plakoglobin-dependent regulation of keratinocyte apoptosis by Rnd3. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that a member of this family, Rnd3, regulates desmosomal cell-cell adhesion in that loss of Rnd3 expression leads to an increase in desmosomes at ..
  74. Luo H, Zou J, Dong Z, Zeng Q, Wu D, Liu L. Up-regulated miR-17 promotes cell proliferation, tumour growth and cell cycle progression by targeting the RND3 tumour suppressor gene in colorectal carcinoma. Biochem J. 2012;442:311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We also confirmed that miR-17 exerted this function by directly targeting RND3 in vitro, and that the expression of miR-17 was negatively correlated with that of RND3 in CRC tissues and CRC ..
  75. Rubenstein N, Chan J, Kim J, Hansen S, Firestone G. Rnd3/RhoE induces tight junction formation in mammary epithelial tumor cells. Exp Cell Res. 2005;305:74-82 pubmed
    ..Here we identified Rnd3/RhoE, a GTPase-deficient Rho family member and RhoA antagonist, as a key regulator of apical junction dynamics...
  76. Bai C, Pan Y, Wang D, Cai F, Yan S, Zhao Z, et al. Genome-wide association analysis of residual feed intake in Junmu No. 1 White pigs. Anim Genet. 2017;48:686-690 pubmed publisher
    ..7 × 10-7 , and 204 were found to have suggestive (moderately significant) association with RFI at P?<?5 × 10-5 . NMBR, KCTD16, ASGR1, PRKCQ, PITRM1, TIAM1 and RND3 were identified as candidate genes for RFI.
  77. Wylie T, Garg R, Ridley A, Conte M. Analysis of the interaction of Plexin-B1 and Plexin-B2 with Rnd family proteins. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185899 pubmed publisher
    The Rnd family of proteins, Rnd1, Rnd2 and Rnd3, are atypical Rho family GTPases, which bind to but do not hydrolyse GTP. They interact with plexins, which are receptors for semaphorins, and are hypothesised to regulate plexin signalling...
  78. Wang H, Wang Y, Liang B, He F, Li Y, Che J, et al. The Rho GTPase RhoE exerts tumor-suppressing effects in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma via negatively regulating epidermal growth factor receptor. J Cancer Res Ther. 2016;12:60-63 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression pattern, functions, and possible mechanisms of RhoE/Rnd3, a novel member of the Rho GTPases family, in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells by using molecular ..
  79. Tang Y, Hu C, Yang H, Cao L, Li Y, Deng P, et al. Rnd3 regulates lung cancer cell proliferation through notch signaling. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e111897 pubmed publisher
    b>Rnd3/RhoE is a small Rho GTPase involved in the regulation of different cell behaviors. Dysregulation of Rnd3 has been linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis...
  80. Liu B, Lin X, Yang X, Dong H, Yue X, Andrade K, et al. Downregulation of RND3/RhoE in glioblastoma patients promotes tumorigenesis through augmentation of notch transcriptional complex activity. Cancer Med. 2015;4:1404-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression levels of RND3 and its clinical implication were analyzed in GBM patients...
  81. Ma W, Sze K, Chan L, Lee J, Wei L, Wong C, et al. RhoE/ROCK2 regulates chemoresistance through NF-?B/IL-6/ STAT3 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2016;7:41445-41459 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we further demonstrated that downregulation of RhoE, a RhoA antagonist, and upregulation of ROCK enhanced resistance to chemotherapy in HCC in both in vitro cell and ..
  82. Zhou J, Yang J, Fan X, Hu S, Zhou F, Dong J, et al. Chaperone-mediated autophagy regulates proliferation by targeting RND3 in gastric cancer. Autophagy. 2016;12:515-28 pubmed publisher
    ..hindered proliferation, accompanied with altered expression of cell cycle-related proteins and accumulation of RND3/RhoE. Interactomic and KEGG analysis revealed that RND3 was a putative CMA substrate...
  83. Goh L, Manser E. The GTPase-deficient Rnd proteins are stabilized by their effectors. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:31311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently described a new Rnd3 effector Syx, also named PLEKHG5, that interacts with Rnds via a Raf1-like "Ras-binding domain...