RNA polymerase II


Gene Symbol: RNA polymerase II
Description: RNA polymerase II subunit A
Alias: POLR2, POLRA, RPB1, RPBh1, RPO2, RPOL2, RpIILS, hRPB220, hsRPB1, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II largest subunit, RNA polymerase II 220 kd subunit, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit A, DNA-directed RNA polymerase III largest subunit, RNA polymerase II subunit B1, RNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1, polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 220kDa, polymerase (RNA) II subunit A
Species: human
Products:     RNA polymerase II

Top Publications

  1. Baillat D, Hakimi M, Naar A, Shilatifard A, Cooch N, Shiekhattar R. Integrator, a multiprotein mediator of small nuclear RNA processing, associates with the C-terminal repeat of RNA polymerase II. Cell. 2005;123:265-76 pubmed
    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is an essential component of transcriptional regulation and RNA processing of protein-coding genes...
  2. Southgate C, Zapp M, Green M. Activation of transcription by HIV-1 Tat protein tethered to nascent RNA through another protein. Nature. 1990;345:640-2 pubmed
    ..Our results further suggest that cellular proteins that bind specifically to TAR RNA or TAR DNA may not be essential for Tat-responsiveness. ..
  3. Carty S, Goldstrohm A, Suñé C, Garcia Blanco M, Greenleaf A. Protein-interaction modules that organize nuclear function: FF domains of CA150 bind the phosphoCTD of RNA polymerase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:9015-20 pubmed
    ..purifying nuclear proteins that bind directly to the hyperphosphorylated C-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II was developed and used to identify one human phosphoCTD-associating protein as CA150...
  4. Larochelle S, Batliner J, Gamble M, Barboza N, Kraybill B, Blethrow J, et al. Dichotomous but stringent substrate selection by the dual-function Cdk7 complex revealed by chemical genetics. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:55-62 pubmed
    ..but distinct functions as a CDK-activating kinase (CAK) required for cell-cycle progression and as the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) CTD kinase of general transcription factor IIH...
  5. Garber M, Mayall T, Suess E, Meisenhelder J, Thompson N, Jones K. CDK9 autophosphorylation regulates high-affinity binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat-P-TEFb complex to TAR RNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:6958-69 pubmed
    ..We show here that Tat also stimulates phosphorylation of affinity-purified core RNA polymerase II and glutathione S-transferase-C-terminal-domain substrates by CycT1-CDK9, but not CycH-CDK7, in vitro...
  6. Wu Baer F, Sigman D, Gaynor R. Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular cofactors and Tat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7153-7 pubmed
    ..Tat effects on transcriptional elongation are likely due to alterations in the elongation properties of RNA polymerase II. In this study we demonstrated that a set of cellular cofactors that modulate the binding of the cellular ..
  7. Rickert P, Seghezzi W, Shanahan F, Cho H, Lees E. Cyclin C/CDK8 is a novel CTD kinase associated with RNA polymerase II. Oncogene. 1996;12:2631-40 pubmed
    ..that this complex is associated with kinase activity towards the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II. We have identified at least two distinct cyclin C/CDK8 containing complexes within the cell, a larger ..
  8. Baumli S, Lolli G, Lowe E, Troiani S, Rusconi L, Bullock A, et al. The structure of P-TEFb (CDK9/cyclin T1), its complex with flavopiridol and regulation by phosphorylation. EMBO J. 2008;27:1907-18 pubmed publisher
    ..T (CycT)) promotes mRNA transcriptional elongation through phosphorylation of elongation repressors and RNA polymerase II. To understand the regulation of a transcriptional CDK by its cognate cyclin, we have determined the ..
  9. McCracken S, Fong N, Yankulov K, Ballantyne S, Pan G, Greenblatt J, et al. The C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II couples mRNA processing to transcription. Nature. 1997;385:357-61 pubmed
    Messenger RNA is produced by RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription, followed by processing of the primary transcript...

More Information


  1. Yik J, Chen R, Nishimura R, Jennings J, Link A, Zhou Q. Inhibition of P-TEFb (CDK9/Cyclin T) kinase and RNA polymerase II transcription by the coordinated actions of HEXIM1 and 7SK snRNA. Mol Cell. 2003;12:971-82 pubmed
    ..elongation factor b (P-TEFb), consisting of CDK9 and cyclin T, stimulates transcription by phosphorylating RNA polymerase II. It becomes inactivated when associated with the abundant 7SK snRNA...
  2. Chen R, Yang Z, Zhou Q. Phosphorylated positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is tagged for inhibition through association with 7SK snRNA. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:4153-60 pubmed
    ..comprising CDK9 and cyclin T, stimulates transcription of cellular and viral genes by phosphorylating RNA polymerase II. A major portion of nuclear P-TEFb is sequestered and inactivated by the coordinated actions of the 7SK ..
  3. Bushnell D, Westover K, Davis R, Kornberg R. Structural basis of transcription: an RNA polymerase II-TFIIB cocrystal at 4.5 Angstroms. Science. 2004;303:983-8 pubmed
    The structure of the general transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) in a complex with RNA polymerase II reveals three features crucial for transcription initiation: an N-terminal zinc ribbon domain of TFIIB that contacts the "dock" ..
  4. Yik J, Chen R, Pezda A, Samford C, Zhou Q. A human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-like arginine-rich RNA-binding domain is essential for HEXIM1 to inhibit RNA polymerase II transcription through 7SK snRNA-mediated inactivation of P-TEFb. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5094-105 pubmed
    The HEXIM1 protein inhibits the kinase activity of P-TEFb (CDK9/cyclin T) to suppress RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation in a process that specifically requires the 7SK snRNA, which mediates the interaction of HEXIM1 with P-..
  5. Suñé C, Hayashi T, Liu Y, Lane W, Young R, Garcia Blanco M. CA150, a nuclear protein associated with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, is involved in Tat-activated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6029-39 pubmed
    ..the purification and molecular cloning of CA150, a nuclear protein that is associated with the human RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and is involved in Tat-dependent HIV-1 transcriptional activation...
  6. Ivanov D, Kwak Y, Guo J, Gaynor R. Domains in the SPT5 protein that modulate its transcriptional regulatory properties. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:2970-83 pubmed
    SPT5 and its binding partner SPT4 regulate transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II. SPT4 and SPT5 are involved in both 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB)-mediated transcriptional inhibition and the activation ..
  7. Emili A, Shales M, McCracken S, Xie W, Tucker P, Kobayashi R, et al. Splicing and transcription-associated proteins PSF and p54nrb/nonO bind to the RNA polymerase II CTD. RNA. 2002;8:1102-11 pubmed
    The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (pol II) plays an important role in promoting steps of pre-mRNA processing...
  8. Väisänen S, Dunlop T, Sinkkonen L, Frank C, Carlberg C. Spatio-temporal activation of chromatin on the human CYP24 gene promoter in the presence of 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3. J Mol Biol. 2005;350:65-77 pubmed
    ..four promoter regions simultaneous association of VDR with retinoid X receptor, coactivator, mediator and RNA polymerase II proteins...
  9. Fousteri M, Vermeulen W, Van Zeeland A, Mullenders L. Cockayne syndrome A and B proteins differentially regulate recruitment of chromatin remodeling and repair factors to stalled RNA polymerase II in vivo. Mol Cell. 2006;23:471-82 pubmed
    ..in recruitment of TCR-specific factors and that assembly for TCR occurs without disruption of the UV-stalled RNA polymerase II (RNAPIIo)...
  10. Kostek S, Grob P, De Carlo S, Lipscomb J, Garczarek F, Nogales E. Molecular architecture and conformational flexibility of human RNA polymerase II. Structure. 2006;14:1691-700 pubmed
    Transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is a central process in eukaryotic gene regulation...
  11. Anindya R, Aygün O, Svejstrup J. Damage-induced ubiquitylation of human RNA polymerase II by the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, but not Cockayne syndrome proteins or BRCA1. Mol Cell. 2007;28:386-97 pubmed
    UV-induced RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) ubiquitylation and degradation are important DNA damage responses, conserved from yeast to man. However, the identity of the human enzymes that mediate these responses has been unclear...
  12. Hsin J, Sheth A, Manley J. RNAP II CTD phosphorylated on threonine-4 is required for histone mRNA 3' end processing. Science. 2011;334:683-6 pubmed publisher
    The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) largest subunit contains a C-terminal domain (CTD) with up to 52 Tyr(1)-Ser(2)-Pro(3)-Thr(4)-Ser(5)-Pro(6)-Ser(7) consensus repeats...
  13. Lu D, Wu Y, Wang Y, Ren F, Wang D, Su F, et al. CREPT accelerates tumorigenesis by regulating the transcription of cell-cycle-related genes. Cancer Cell. 2012;21:92-104 pubmed publisher
    ..by binding to its promoter, enhancing its transcription both in vivo and in vitro, and interacting with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)...
  14. Hamasaki T, Okamoto M, Baba M. Identification of novel inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by in silico screening targeting cyclin T1/Tat interaction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:1323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..TAR) RNA, leading to the activation of viral transcription through the hyperphosphorylation of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)...
  15. He N, Chan C, Sobhian B, Chou S, Xue Y, Liu M, et al. Human Polymerase-Associated Factor complex (PAFc) connects the Super Elongation Complex (SEC) to RNA polymerase II on chromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E636-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding explains the YEATS domain's dispensability for leukemogenesis when ENL/AF9 is translocated to MLL, whose interactions with PAFc and DNA likely substitute for the PAFc/chromatin-targeting function of the YEATS domain. ..
  16. Kim Y, Bourgeois C, Isel C, Churcher M, Karn J. Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain by CDK9 is directly responsible for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-activated transcriptional elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4622-37 pubmed
    ..by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein is mediated by CDK9, a kinase that phosphorylates the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD)...
  17. Tantin D, Kansal A, Carey M. Recruitment of the putative transcription-repair coupling factor CSB/ERCC6 to RNA polymerase II elongation complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6803-14 pubmed
    ..The two principle proteins involved in CS, CSA and CSB/ERCC6, have been hypothesized to bind RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and link transcription to DNA repair...
  18. Agostini I, Navarro J, Rey F, Bouhamdan M, Spire B, Vigne R, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr transactivator: cooperation with promoter-bound activator domains and binding to TFIIB. J Mol Biol. 1996;261:599-606 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that the portion of Vpr ranging from amino acids 15 to 77 interacts specifically with the basal transcription factor TFIIB. Also, our data indicated that the N-terminal domain of TFIIB is required for the interaction. ..
  19. Yamaguchi Y, Takagi T, Wada T, Yano K, Furuya A, Sugimoto S, et al. NELF, a multisubunit complex containing RD, cooperates with DSIF to repress RNA polymerase II elongation. Cell. 1999;97:41-51 pubmed
    DRB is a classic inhibitor of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (pol II). Since DRB generally affects class II genes, factors involved in this process must play fundamental roles in pol II elongation...
  20. Pan G, Aso T, Greenblatt J. Interaction of elongation factors TFIIS and elongin A with a human RNA polymerase II holoenzyme capable of promoter-specific initiation and responsive to transcriptional activators. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:24563-71 pubmed
    ..essential large subunit, Elongin A, of the trimeric elongation factor, Elongin, was used to purify a human RNA polymerase II holoenzyme from HeLa whole cell extract...
  21. West S, Gromak N, Proudfoot N. Human 5' --> 3' exonuclease Xrn2 promotes transcription termination at co-transcriptional cleavage sites. Nature. 2004;432:522-5 pubmed
    ..signals that define the end of the messenger RNA and mediate downstream transcriptional termination by RNA polymerase II (Pol II)...
  22. Isel C, Karn J. Direct evidence that HIV-1 Tat stimulates RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain hyperphosphorylation during transcriptional elongation. J Mol Biol. 1999;290:929-41 pubmed
    ..In pre-initiation complexes formed at the HIV-1 LTR, the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II is rapidly phosphorylated by transcription factor IIH (TFIIH)...
  23. Suñé C, Garcia Blanco M. Transcriptional cofactor CA150 regulates RNA polymerase II elongation in a TATA-box-dependent manner. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:4719-28 pubmed
    ..immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) by enhancing the elongation efficiency of RNA polymerase II complexes...
  24. Yamaguchi Y, Wada T, Watanabe D, Takagi T, Hasegawa J, Handa H. Structure and function of the human transcription elongation factor DSIF. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:8085-92 pubmed
    5,6-Dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) is a classic inhibitor of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (pol II)...
  25. Zhou C, Rana T. A bimolecular mechanism of HIV-1 Tat protein interaction with RNA polymerase II transcription elongation complexes. J Mol Biol. 2002;320:925-42 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that Tat protein associates with RNA polymerase II complexes during early transcription elongation after the promoter clearance and before the synthesis of ..
  26. Pinhero R, Liaw P, Bertens K, Yankulov K. Three cyclin-dependent kinases preferentially phosphorylate different parts of the C-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:1004-14 pubmed
    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II plays critical roles in the initiation, elongation and processing of primary transcripts...
  27. D ORSO I, Frankel A. RNA-mediated displacement of an inhibitory snRNP complex activates transcription elongation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:815-21 pubmed publisher
    ..to elongation at the HIV-1 promoter is controlled by Tat, which recruits P-TEFb to TAR RNA to phosphorylate RNA polymerase II. It has long been unclear why the HIV-1 promoter is incompetent for elongation...
  28. Wang W, Cote J, Xue Y, Zhou S, Khavari P, Biggar S, et al. Purification and biochemical heterogeneity of the mammalian SWI-SNF complex. EMBO J. 1996;15:5370-82 pubmed
    ..Certain cell lines completely lack BRG1 and hbrm, indicating that they are not essential for cell viability and that the mammalian SWI-SNF complex may be tailored to the needs of a differentiated cell type. ..
  29. Kim D, Villeneuve L, Morris K, Rossi J. Argonaute-1 directs siRNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in human cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:793-7 pubmed
    ..AGO1 associates with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and is required for histone H3 Lys9 dimethylation and TGS...
  30. Keen N, Gait M, Karn J. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat is an integral component of the activated transcription-elongation complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2505-10 pubmed
    ..cleavage of the templates with restriction enzymes and were immunoblotted with antibodies to Tat, LacR and RNA polymerase II. The Tat protein copurified with RNA polymerase bound to wild-type templates but did not copurify with ..
  31. Chapman R, Heidemann M, Albert T, Mailhammer R, Flatley A, Meisterernst M, et al. Transcribing RNA polymerase II is phosphorylated at CTD residue serine-7. Science. 2007;318:1780-2 pubmed
    b>RNA polymerase II is distinguished by its large carboxyl-terminal repeat domain (CTD), composed of repeats of the consensus heptapeptide Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7...
  32. Ramanathan Y, Rajpara S, Reza S, Lees E, Shuman S, Mathews M, et al. Three RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain kinases display distinct substrate preferences. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:10913-20 pubmed
    CDK7, CDK8, and CDK9 are cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that phosphorylate the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II. They have distinct functions in transcription...
  33. Montanuy I, Torremocha R, Hernández Munain C, Suñé C. Promoter influences transcription elongation: TATA-box element mediates the assembly of processive transcription complexes responsive to cyclin-dependent kinase 9. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7368-78 pubmed publisher
    Pausing of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) during transcript elongation is an important mechanism for regulating gene expression at many genes...
  34. Calera M, Zamora Ramos C, Araiza Villanueva M, Moreno Aguilar C, Peña Gómez S, Castellanos Terán F, et al. Parcs/Gpn3 is required for the nuclear accumulation of RNA polymerase II. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:1708-16 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) co-immunoprecipitated with Parcs/Gpn3...
  35. Stevens M, De Clercq E, Balzarini J. The regulation of HIV-1 transcription: molecular targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. Med Res Rev. 2006;26:595-625 pubmed
    ..with p-TEFb then binds the loop structures of TAR RNA thereby positioning CDK9 to phosphorylate the cellular RNA polymerase II. The Tat-TAR-dependent phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II plays an important role in transcriptional ..
  36. Archambault J, Pan G, Dahmus G, Cartier M, Marshall N, Zhang S, et al. FCP1, the RAP74-interacting subunit of a human protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase IIO. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:27593-601 pubmed
    TFIIF (RAP30/74) is a general initiation factor that also increases the rate of elongation by RNA polymerase II. A two-hybrid screen for RAP74-interacting proteins produced cDNAs encoding FCP1a, a novel, ubiquitously expressed human ..
  37. De la Mata M, Alonso C, Kadener S, Fededa J, Blaustein M, Pelisch F, et al. A slow RNA polymerase II affects alternative splicing in vivo. Mol Cell. 2003;12:525-32 pubmed
    ..These results provide a direct proof for the elongation control of alternative splicing in vivo. ..
  38. Kato H, Sumimoto H, Pognonec P, Chen C, Rosen C, Roeder R. HIV-1 Tat acts as a processivity factor in vitro in conjunction with cellular elongation factors. Genes Dev. 1992;6:655-66 pubmed
    ..We propose the hypothesis that Tat acts as a processivity factor on RNA polymerase II in an analogous manner to TFIIF.
  39. van Gool A, Citterio E, Rademakers S, van Os R, Vermeulen W, Constantinou A, et al. The Cockayne syndrome B protein, involved in transcription-coupled DNA repair, resides in an RNA polymerase II-containing complex. EMBO J. 1997;16:5955-65 pubmed
    ..However, a minor but significant portion (10-15%) of RNA polymerase II was found to be tightly associated with CSB...
  40. Izumikawa K, Yanagida M, Hayano T, Tachikawa H, Komatsu W, Shimamoto A, et al. Association of human DNA helicase RecQ5beta with RNA polymerase II and its possible role in transcription. Biochem J. 2008;413:505-16 pubmed publisher
    ..and MS-based analyses to show that human DNA helicase RecQ5beta is associated with at least four RNAP II (RNA polymerase II) subunits...
  41. Wintzerith M, Acker J, Vicaire S, Vigneron M, Kedinger C. Complete sequence of the human RNA polymerase II largest subunit. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:910 pubmed
  42. Bourgeois C, Kim Y, Churcher M, West M, Karn J. Spt5 cooperates with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat by preventing premature RNA release at terminator sequences. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1079-93 pubmed
    ..is activated and induces hyperphosphorylation of Spt5 in parallel to the hyperphosphorylation of the CTD of RNA polymerase II. However, immunodepletion experiments demonstrate that Spt5 is not required for Tat-dependent activation of ..
  43. Zheng L, Kanagaraj R, Mihaljevic B, Schwendener S, Sartori A, Gerrits B, et al. MRE11 complex links RECQ5 helicase to sites of DNA damage. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:2645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that the MRN complex recruits RECQ5 to sites of DNA damage to regulate DNA repair. ..
  44. Narita T, Yamaguchi Y, Yano K, Sugimoto S, Chanarat S, Wada T, et al. Human transcription elongation factor NELF: identification of novel subunits and reconstitution of the functionally active complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1863-73 pubmed
    ..sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF)/human Spt4-Spt5 to cause transcriptional pausing of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). NELF activity is associated with five polypeptides, A to E...
  45. Yik J, Chen R, Pezda A, Zhou Q. Compensatory contributions of HEXIM1 and HEXIM2 in maintaining the balance of active and inactive positive transcription elongation factor b complexes for control of transcription. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16368-76 pubmed
    ..T heterodimer, stimulates general and disease-specific transcriptional elongation by phosphorylating RNA polymerase II. The HEXIM1 protein, aided by the 7SK snRNA, sequesters P-TEFb into an inactive 7SK.HEXIM1...
  46. Fujinaga K, Cujec T, Peng J, Garriga J, Price D, Grana X, et al. The ability of positive transcription elongation factor B to transactivate human immunodeficiency virus transcription depends on a functional kinase domain, cyclin T1, and Tat. J Virol. 1998;72:7154-9 pubmed
    ..Two cyclin-dependent serine/threonine kinases, CDK7 and CDK9, which phosphorylate the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, have been implicated in Tat transactivation in vivo and in vitro...
  47. Wei P, Garber M, Fang S, Fischer W, Jones K. A novel CDK9-associated C-type cyclin interacts directly with HIV-1 Tat and mediates its high-affinity, loop-specific binding to TAR RNA. Cell. 1998;92:451-62 pubmed
    ..Moreover, overexpression of human cyclin T rescues Tat activity in nonpermissive rodent cells. We propose that Tat directs cyclin T-CDK9 to RNAPII through cooperative binding to TAR RNA. ..
  48. Nekhai S, Jeang K. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of HIV-1 gene expression: role of cellular factors for Tat and Rev. Future Microbiol. 2006;1:417-26 pubmed
    ..Rev primarily functions to export unspliced and partially spliced viral RNAs from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. For this activity, Rev cooperates with cellular transport protein CRM1 and RNA helicases DDX1 and DDX3, amongst others. ..
  49. Zhou M, Halanski M, Radonovich M, Kashanchi F, Peng J, Price D, et al. Tat modifies the activity of CDK9 to phosphorylate serine 5 of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5077-86 pubmed
    ..Hyperphosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) CTD in the HIV-1 preinitiation complex, in the absence of Tat, takes place at CTD serine 2 and ..
  50. He N, Liu M, Hsu J, Xue Y, Chou S, Burlingame A, et al. HIV-1 Tat and host AFF4 recruit two transcription elongation factors into a bifunctional complex for coordinated activation of HIV-1 transcription. Mol Cell. 2010;38:428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Recruitment of the P-TEFb kinase by HIV-1 Tat to the viral promoter triggers the phosphorylation and escape of RNA polymerase II from promoter-proximal pausing...
  51. Yamaguchi Y, Inukai N, Narita T, Wada T, Handa H. Evidence that negative elongation factor represses transcription elongation through binding to a DRB sensitivity-inducing factor/RNA polymerase II complex and RNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2918-27 pubmed
    ..complex that cooperates with DRB sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF)/hSpt4-hSpt5 to repress elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)...
  52. Ping Y, Rana T. DSIF and NELF interact with RNA polymerase II elongation complex and HIV-1 Tat stimulates P-TEFb-mediated phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and DSIF during transcription elongation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:12951-8 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a molecular mechanism for the negative and positive regulation of transcriptional elongation at the HIV-1 promoter. ..
  53. Williams S, Chen L, Kwon H, Ruiz Jarabo C, Verdin E, Greene W. NF-kappaB p50 promotes HIV latency through HDAC recruitment and repression of transcriptional initiation. EMBO J. 2006;25:139-49 pubmed
    ..and repressive changes in chromatin structure of the HIV LTR, changes that impair recruitment of RNA polymerase II and transcriptional initiation...
  54. Herrmann C, Rice A. Lentivirus Tat proteins specifically associate with a cellular protein kinase, TAK, that hyperphosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II: candidate for a Tat cofactor. J Virol. 1995;69:1612-20 pubmed
    ..have further identified an in vitro substrate of TAK, the carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain has been proposed to trigger the transition from initiation ..