Gene Symbol: rhodopsin
Description: rhodopsin
Alias: CSNBAD1, OPN2, RP4, rhodopsin, opsin 2, rod pigment, opsin-2
Species: human
Products:     rhodopsin

Top Publications

  1. Mendes H, van der Spuy J, Chapple J, Cheetham M. Mechanisms of cell death in rhodopsin retinitis pigmentosa: implications for therapy. Trends Mol Med. 2005;11:177-85 pubmed
    ..Mutations in rhodopsin are the most common cause of autosomal-dominant RP (ADRP)...
  2. Toledo D, Ramon E, Aguil M, Cordom A, P rez J, Mendes H, et al. Molecular mechanisms of disease for mutations at Gly-90 in rhodopsin. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:39993-40001 pubmed publisher
    Two different mutations at Gly-90 in the second transmembrane helix of the photoreceptor protein rhodopsin have been proposed to lead to different phenotypes...
  3. Fujiki K, Hotta Y, Hayakawa M, Sakuma H, Shiono T, Noro M, et al. Point mutations of rhodopsin gene found in Japanese families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). Jpn J Hum Genet. 1992;37:125-32 pubmed
    The mutations of codon 17, 23, 58, and 347 of rhodopsin gene were investigated in 24 unrelated Japanese families including 33 patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP)...
  4. Al Maghtheh M, Gregory C, Inglehearn C, Hardcastle A, Bhattacharya S. Rhodopsin mutations in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Hum Mutat. 1993;2:249-55 pubmed
    ..cases, approximately 30% of families have mutations in the gene encoding the rod photoreceptor-specific protein rhodopsin. This is the transmembrane protein which, when photoexcited, initiates the visual transduction cascade...
  5. Sung C, Davenport C, Nathans J. Rhodopsin mutations responsible for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Clustering of functional classes along the polypeptide chain. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:26645-9 pubmed
    Over 40 mutations in the rhodopsin gene have been identified in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa...
  6. Sung C, Makino C, Baylor D, Nathans J. A rhodopsin gene mutation responsible for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa results in a protein that is defective in localization to the photoreceptor outer segment. J Neurosci. 1994;14:5818-33 pubmed
    Over 45 mutations in the rhodopsin gene have been identified in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, including a cluster near the extreme carboxy-terminus, a region of the protein for which no function has yet been ..
  7. al Jandal N, Farrar G, Kiang A, Humphries M, Bannon N, Findlay J, et al. A novel mutation within the rhodopsin gene (Thr-94-Ile) causing autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness. Hum Mutat. 1999;13:75-81 pubmed
    More than 100 mutations within the rhodopsin gene have been found to be responsible for some forms of retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive retinal degeneration characterized by night blindness and subsequent disturbance of day vision that ..
  8. Reig C, Antich J, Gean E, Garcia Sandoval B, Ramos C, Ayuso C, et al. Identification of a novel rhodopsin mutation (Met-44-Thr) in a simplex case of retinitis pigmentosa. Hum Genet. 1994;94:283-6 pubmed
    ..Approximately 30% of ADRP patients show point mutations or small deletions in the rhodopsin gene. However, over 50% of the RP patients are simplex cases (sporadic)...
  9. Rao V, Cohen G, Oprian D. Rhodopsin mutation G90D and a molecular mechanism for congenital night blindness. Nature. 1994;367:639-42 pubmed
    Mutations in the gene for the visual pigment rhodopsin cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and congenital night blindness...

More Information


  1. Yong R, Chee C, Yap E. A two-stage approach identifies a Q344X mutation in the rhodopsin gene of a Chinese Singaporean family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2005;34:94-9 pubmed
    ..With this two-stage strategy, the autosomal dominant RP family showed the rhodopsin locus segregating concordantly with the disease...
  2. Antinolo G, Sanchez B, Borrego S, Rueda T, Chaparro P, Cabeza J. Identification of a new mutation at codon 171 of rhodopsin gene causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Hum Mol Genet. 1994;3:1421 pubmed
  3. Fishman G, Stone E, Gilbert L, Sheffield V. Ocular findings associated with a rhodopsin gene codon 106 mutation. Glycine-to-arginine change in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110:646-53 pubmed
    ..family were found to have a guanine-to-adenine transition mutation in the first nucleotide of codon 106 in the rhodopsin gene that results in a glycine-to-arginine change...
  4. Kim K, Kim C, Bok J, Kim K, Lee E, Park S, et al. Spectrum of rhodopsin mutations in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Mol Vis. 2011;17:844-53 pubmed
    To determine the spectrum and frequency of rhodopsin gene (RHO) mutations in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and to characterize genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with mutations...
  5. Olsson J, Gordon J, Pawlyk B, Roof D, Hayes A, Molday R, et al. Transgenic mice with a rhodopsin mutation (Pro23His): a mouse model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Neuron. 1992;9:815-30 pubmed
    ..a mutant or wild-type allele from a patient with retinitis pigmentosa and a missense mutation (P23H) in the rhodopsin gene...
  6. Keen T, Inglehearn C, Lester D, Bashir R, Jay M, Bird A, et al. Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa: four new mutations in rhodopsin, one of them in the retinal attachment site. Genomics. 1991;11:199-205 pubmed
    Several mutations in the rhodopsin gene in patients affected by autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) have recently been described...
  7. Jacobson S, Kemp C, Sung C, Nathans J. Retinal function and rhodopsin levels in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with rhodopsin mutations. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;112:256-71 pubmed
    ..autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, who represented five different point mutations in the gene encoding rhodopsin. In a family with a stop codon mutation at the carboxyl end of the molecule (glutamine-344), young members with ..
  8. Macke J, Davenport C, Jacobson S, Hennessey J, Gonzalez Fernandez F, Conway B, et al. Identification of novel rhodopsin mutations responsible for retinitis pigmentosa: implications for the structure and function of rhodopsin. Am J Hum Genet. 1993;53:80-9 pubmed
    Ten rhodopsin mutations have been found in a screen of 282 subjects with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), 76 subjects with Leber congenital amaurosis, and 3 subjects with congenital stationary night blindness...
  9. Zhang X, Liu M, Meng X, Fu W, Yin Z, Huang J, et al. Mutational analysis of the rhodopsin gene in Chinese ADRP families by conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis. Life Sci. 2006;78:1494-8 pubmed
    ..For autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP), the most common gene is the rhodopsin (RHO) gene, mutations in which contribute to about 25% of ADRP in Caucasian population...
  10. Chapple J, Cheetham M. The chaperone environment at the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum can modulate rhodopsin processing and inclusion formation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:19087-94 pubmed
    ..Because of their enrichment at the site of rhodopsin production, we investigated the effect of HSJ1 isoforms on the cellular processing of wild-type and mutant ..
  11. Guo H, Qin Y, Meng Q, Zhang H, Jin H, Chen Y. Linkage analysis and mutation screening of the rhodopsin gene in a Chinese Bai family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. J Hum Genet. 2010;55:571-6 pubmed publisher
    Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) is a common form of RP worldwide. Although rhodopsin (RHO) is the most frequently reported adRP gene in many populations, it has not been detected in patients from the Bai nationality, one ..
  12. Dryja T, McGee T, Hahn L, Cowley G, Olsson J, Reichel E, et al. Mutations within the rhodopsin gene in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. N Engl J Med. 1990;323:1302-7 pubmed
    ..The rod photoreceptors are responsible for night vision and use rhodopsin as the photosensitive pigment...
  13. Chuang J, Zhao Y, Sung C. SARA-regulated vesicular targeting underlies formation of the light-sensing organelle in mammalian rods. Cell. 2007;130:535-47 pubmed
    ..cilium containing approximately 1,000 stacked disc membranes that are densely packed with visual pigment rhodopsin. The mammalian OS is renewed every ten days; new discs are assembled at the base of the OS by a poorly ..
  14. Chuang J, Vega C, Jun W, Sung C. Structural and functional impairment of endocytic pathways by retinitis pigmentosa mutant rhodopsin-arrestin complexes. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:131-40 pubmed
    ..Mutations at Arg135 of rhodopsin are associated with a severe form of autosomal dominant RP...
  15. Kosmaoglou M, Kanuga N, Aguilà M, Garriga P, Cheetham M. A dual role for EDEM1 in the processing of rod opsin. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:4465-72 pubmed publisher
  16. Azam M, Khan M, Gal A, Hussain A, Shah S, Khan M, et al. A homozygous p.Glu150Lys mutation in the opsin gene of two Pakistani families with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2526-34 pubmed
    ..In two families, RP21 and RP53, homozygosity mapping suggested RHO, the gene encoding rhodopsin, as a candidate disease gene on chromosome 3q21...
  17. Dryja T, Hahn L, Cowley G, McGee T, Berson E. Mutation spectrum of the rhodopsin gene among patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:9370-4 pubmed
    We searched for point mutations in every exon of the rhodopsin gene in 150 patients from separate families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa...
  18. Kumaramanickavel G, Maw M, Denton M, John S, Srikumari C, Orth U, et al. Missense rhodopsin mutation in a family with recessive RP. Nat Genet. 1994;8:10-1 pubmed
  19. Sieving P, Richards J, Naarendorp F, Bingham E, Scott K, Alpern M. Dark-light: model for nightblindness from the human rhodopsin Gly-90-->Asp mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:880-4 pubmed
    A human rhodopsin mutation, Gly-90-->Asp (Gly90Asp), cosegregated with an unusual trait of congenital nightblindness in 22 at-risk members of a large autosomal dominant kindred...
  20. Nathans J, Hogness D. Isolation and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding human rhodopsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:4851-5 pubmed
    We have isolated and completely sequenced the gene encoding human rhodopsin. The coding region of the human rhodopsin gene is interrupted by four introns, which are located at positions analogous to those found in the previously ..
  21. Tsui I, Chou C, Palmer N, Lin C, Tsang S. Phenotype-genotype correlations in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa caused by RHO, D190N. Curr Eye Res. 2008;33:1014-22 pubmed publisher
    ..By combining clinical examination with AF imaging and electrophysiology, it is possible to offer presymptomatic clinical evaluation to families with this RP. ..
  22. Andrés A, Garriga P, Manyosa J. Altered functionality in rhodopsin point mutants associated with retinitis pigmentosa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:294-301 pubmed
    Point mutations found in rhodopsin associated with the retinal degenerative disease retinitis pigmentosa have been expressed in mammalian COS-1 cells, purified, and characterised...
  23. Dryja T, McGee T, Reichel E, Hahn L, Cowley G, Yandell D, et al. A point mutation of the rhodopsin gene in one form of retinitis pigmentosa. Nature. 1990;343:364-6 pubmed
    ..As the gene coding for rhodopsin is also assigned to the long arm of chromosome 3 and is expressed in rod photoreceptors that are affected early ..
  24. Lim K, Yip S, Cheung S, Leung K, Lam S, To C. Novel PRPF31 and PRPH2 mutations and co-occurrence of PRPF31 and RHO mutations in Chinese patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:784-90 pubmed publisher
    ..A search for a common cause for RP in Chinese patients is needed. The co-occurrence of 2 different gene mutations may modify the phenotype severity. ..
  25. Dikshit M, Agarwal R. Mutation analysis of codons 345 and 347 of rhodopsin gene in Indian retinitis pigmentosa patients. J Genet. 2001;80:111-6 pubmed
    More than 100 mutations have been reported till date in the rhodopsin gene in patients with retinitis pigmentosa...
  26. Inglehearn C, Bashir R, Lester D, Jay M, Bird A, Bhattacharya S. A 3-bp deletion in the rhodopsin gene in a family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Am J Hum Genet. 1991;48:26-30 pubmed
    ..The gene encoding rhodopsin, the rod photoreceptor pigment, is closely linked to locus D3S47 on chromosome 3q...
  27. Li S, Xiao X, Wang P, Guo X, Zhang Q. Mutation spectrum and frequency of the RHO gene in 248 Chinese families with retinitis pigmentosa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;401:42-7 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the rhodopsin gene (RHO) are suggested to be the most common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP)...
  28. Ando Y, Ohmori M, Ohtake H, Ohtoko K, Toyama S, Usami R, et al. Mutation screening and haplotype analysis of the rhodopsin gene locus in Japanese patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Mol Vis. 2007;13:1038-44 pubmed
    To identify nucleotide sequence variations in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene of Japanese patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in order to search for mutations or haplotypes responsible for RP...
  29. Rajan R, Kopito R. Suppression of wild-type rhodopsin maturation by mutants linked to autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:1284-91 pubmed
    Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) has been linked to mutations in the gene encoding rhodopsin. Most RP-linked rhodopsin mutants are unable to fold correctly in the endoplasmic reticulum, are degraded by the ubiquitin ..
  30. Noorwez S, Sama R, Kaushal S. Calnexin improves the folding efficiency of mutant rhodopsin in the presence of pharmacological chaperone 11-cis-retinal. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33333-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations of rhodopsin, the glycoprotein pigment of rod photoreceptors, cause misfolding resulting in retinitis pigmentosa...
  31. Kranich H, Bartkowski S, Denton M, Krey S, Dickinson P, Duvigneau C, et al. Autosomal dominant 'sector' retinitis pigmentosa due to a point mutation predicting an Asn-15-Ser substitution of rhodopsin. Hum Mol Genet. 1993;2:813-4 pubmed
  32. Sheffield V, Fishman G, Beck J, Kimura A, Stone E. Identification of novel rhodopsin mutations associated with retinitis pigmentosa by GC-clamped denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Am J Hum Genet. 1991;49:699-706 pubmed
    ..of RP has been the recognition that some cases of autosomal dominant RP (ADRP) are caused by mutations in the rhodopsin gene...
  33. Neidhardt J, Barthelmes D, Farahmand F, Fleischhauer J, Berger W. Different amino acid substitutions at the same position in rhodopsin lead to distinct phenotypes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:1630-5 pubmed
    Identification of a novel rhodopsin mutation in a family with retinitis pigmentosa and comparison of the clinical phenotype to a known mutation at the same amino acid position...
  34. Farrar G, Findlay J, Kumar Singh R, Kenna P, Humphries M, Sharpe E, et al. Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa: a novel mutation in the rhodopsin gene in the original 3q linked family. Hum Mol Genet. 1992;1:769-71 pubmed
  35. Oh K, Weleber R, Lotery A, Oh D, Billingslea A, Stone E. Description of a new mutation in rhodopsin, Pro23Ala, and comparison with electroretinographic and clinical characteristics of the Pro23His mutation. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:1269-76 pubmed
    ..autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa caused by a proline-to-alanine mutation at codon 23 (Pro23Ala) of the rhodopsin gene and to compare this phenotype with that associated with the more common proline-to-histidine mutation at ..
  36. Heckenlively J, Rodriguez J, Daiger S. Autosomal dominant sectoral retinitis pigmentosa. Two families with transversion mutation in codon 23 of rhodopsin. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;109:84-91 pubmed
    A cytosine-to-adenine transversion in codon 23 of rhodopsin, the rod visual pigment gene, was reported recently by Dryja et al in 17 of 148 unrelated patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, but the clinical findings ..
  37. Illing M, Rajan R, Bence N, Kopito R. A rhodopsin mutant linked to autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa is prone to aggregate and interacts with the ubiquitin proteasome system. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:34150-60 pubmed
    ..30-40% of human autosomal dominant (AD) RP is caused by dominantly inherited missense mutations in the rhodopsin gene...
  38. Hwa J, Reeves P, Klein Seetharaman J, Davidson F, Khorana H. Structure and function in rhodopsin: further elucidation of the role of the intradiscal cysteines, Cys-110, -185, and -187, in rhodopsin folding and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:1932-5 pubmed
    ..Cys-110 and Cys-187 in the intradiscal domain is required for correct folding in vivo and function of mammalian rhodopsin. Misfolding in rhodopsin, characterized by the loss of ability to bind 11-cis-retinal, has been shown to be ..
  39. Sung C, Davenport C, Hennessey J, Maumenee I, Jacobson S, Heckenlively J, et al. Rhodopsin mutations in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:6481-5 pubmed
    ..161 unrelated patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa were screened for point mutations in the rhodopsin gene by using the polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis...
  40. Sullivan L, Makris G, Dickinson P, Mulhall L, Forrest S, Cotton R, et al. A new codon 15 rhodopsin gene mutation in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa is associated with sectorial disease. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111:1512-7 pubmed
    To ascertain and characterize rhodopsin gene mutations in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and to correlate these mutations with the clinical phenotypes...
  41. Zeitz C, Gross A, Leifert D, Kloeckener Gruissem B, McAlear S, Lemke J, et al. Identification and functional characterization of a novel rhodopsin mutation associated with autosomal dominant CSNB. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:4105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Twelve family members were screened for mutations in RHO. The ability of mutant rhodopsin to activate transducin constitutively was monitored by measuring the catalytic exchange of bound GDP for ..
  42. Athanasiou D, Kosmaoglou M, Kanuga N, Novoselov S, Paton A, Paton J, et al. BiP prevents rod opsin aggregation. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore inhibition of BiP function results in aggregation of rod opsin in the ER, which suggests that BiP is important for maintaining the solubility of rod opsin in the ER. ..
  43. Audo I, Manes G, Mohand Said S, Friedrich A, Lancelot M, Antonio A, et al. Spectrum of rhodopsin mutations in French autosomal dominant rod-cone dystrophy patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3687-700 pubmed publisher
    PURPOSE. To identify the prevalence of rhodopsin (RHO) mutations in French patients with autosomal dominant rod-cone dystrophies (adRPs). Methods...
  44. Rakoczy E, Kiel C, McKeone R, Stricher F, Serrano L. Analysis of disease-linked rhodopsin mutations based on structure, function, and protein stability calculations. J Mol Biol. 2011;405:584-606 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 103 mutations in rhodopsin are linked to RP to date, and the phenotypes range from severe to asymptomatic...
  45. Griciuc A, Aron L, Piccoli G, Ueffing M. Clearance of Rhodopsin(P23H) aggregates requires the ERAD effector VCP. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:424-34 pubmed publisher
    Dominant mutations in the visual pigment Rhodopsin (Rh) cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP) characterized by progressive blindness and retinal degeneration...
  46. Dryja T, Berson E, Rao V, Oprian D. Heterozygous missense mutation in the rhodopsin gene as a cause of congenital stationary night blindness. Nat Genet. 1993;4:280-3 pubmed
    A number of mutations in the rhodopsin gene have been shown to cause both dominant and recessive retinitis pigmentosa. Here we describe another phenotype associated with a defect in this gene...
  47. Gandra M, Anandula V, Authiappan V, Sundaramurthy S, Raman R, Bhattacharya S, et al. Retinitis pigmentosa: mutation analysis of RHO, PRPF31, RP1, and IMPDH1 genes in patients from India. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1105-13 pubmed
    To screen for possible disease-causing mutations in rhodopsin (RHO), pre-mRNA processing factor 31 (PRPF31), retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1), and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 1 (IMPDH1) genes in Indian patients with isolated and ..
  48. Knezovic M, Pintarić S, Jelavic M, Kes V, Nesek V, Bogović S, et al. The role of weather conditions and normal level of air pollution in appearance of stroke in the region of Southeast Europe. Acta Neurol Belg. 2018;118:267-275 pubmed publisher
    ..Positive correlation between the number of HS and values of O3 requires an additional reduction of the legally permitted pollutants concentrations. ..
  49. Hiew F, Ong J, Viswanathan S, Puvanarajah S. Outcome in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from a Malaysian centre over sixteen years. J Clin Neurosci. 2018;50:203-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies with larger cohort of patients from other parts of Asia are important to determine the long-term outcome of this heterogenous disease in this region. ..
  50. Müller M, Brand M, Mies J, Lachmann B, Sariyska R, Montag C. The 2D:4D Marker and Different Forms of Internet Use Disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2017;8:213 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, the present work demonstrates that the 2D:4D marker is an interesting marker for Internet addiction and can be easily included as a biomarker to understand the biological underpinnings of Internet (over-)usage...
  51. Brandwein D, Wang Z. Interaction between Rho GTPases and 14-3-3 Proteins. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in this article we thoroughly review all the reported interactions between the signaling pathways regulated by 14-3-3 proteins and Rho GTPases (mostly Rac1). ..
  52. Morrow J, Castiglione G, Dungan S, Tang P, Bhattacharyya N, Hauser F, et al. An experimental comparison of human and bovine rhodopsin provides insight into the molecular basis of retinal disease. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:1720-1731 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodopsin is the visual pigment that mediates dim-light vision in vertebrates and is a model system for the study of retinal disease...
  53. Schoonheim M, Geurts J, Wiebenga O, de Munck J, Polman C, Stam C, et al. Changes in functional network centrality underlie cognitive dysfunction and physical disability in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2014;20:1058-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The thalamus, however, displays increased connectivity with these areas. These findings may aid in further elucidating the function of functional reorganization processes in MS. ..
  54. Auguste D, Maier M, Baldwin C, Aoudjit L, Robins R, Gupta I, et al. Disease-causing mutations of RhoGDI? induce Rac1 hyperactivation in podocytes. Small Gtpases. 2016;7:107-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, active Rac1 was detected only in immature, but not in mature, podocytes. The results indicate that GDI? has a critical role in suppressing Rac1 activity in mature podocytes, to prevent podocyte injury and nephrotic syndrome. ..
  55. El Yazbi A, Ibrahim K, El Gowelli H, El Deeb N, El Mas M. Modulation by NADPH oxidase of the chronic cardiovascular and autonomic interaction between cyclosporine and NSAIDs in female rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2017;806:96-104 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, CSA/diclofenac-treated female rats exhibit exacerbated hemodynamic, autonomic, LV, and histopathologic disturbances via ROCK-independent NOX2 upregulation. ..
  56. Pagler T, Wang M, Mondal M, Murphy A, Westerterp M, Moore K, et al. Deletion of ABCA1 and ABCG1 impairs macrophage migration because of increased Rac1 signaling. Circ Res. 2011;108:194-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast free cholesterol loading of macrophages leads to imbalanced Rac1/Rho activities and impaired chemotaxis...
  57. Patel R, Sriramoji S, Marucci M, Aziz I, Shah S, Sesti F. Cytoskeletal remodeling via Rho GTPases during oxidative and thermal stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;492:338-342 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the stability of the actin cytoskeleton, in part through a conserved mechanism mediated by Rho signaling, is a crucial factor for the cell's survival to environmental challenges. ..
  58. Kim C, Kim K, Bok J, Lee E, Kim D, Oh J, et al. Microarray-based mutation detection and phenotypic characterization in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2398-410 pubmed
    ..Ten RP-related mutations of five RP genes (PRP3 pre-mRNA processing factor 3 homolog [PRPF3], rhodopsin [RHO], phosphodiesterase 6B [PDE6B], peripherin 2 [PRPH2], and retinitis pigmentosa 1 [RP1]) were identified in ..
  59. Ohki R, Tateno K, Takizawa T, Aiso T, Murata M. Transcriptional termination control of a novel ABC transporter gene involved in antibiotic resistance in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5946-54 pubmed
    ..No stabilization of vmlR mRNA occurred under the induced conditions...