RhoA

Summary

Gene Symbol: RhoA
Description: ras homolog family member A
Alias: ARH12, ARHA, RHO12, RHOH12, transforming protein RhoA, Aplysia ras-related homolog 12, oncogene RHO H12, small GTP binding protein RhoA
Species: human
Products:     RhoA

Top Publications

  1. Blomquist A, Schwörer G, Schablowski H, Psoma A, Lehnen M, Jakobs K, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Biochem J. 2000;352 Pt 2:319-25 pubmed
    ..p114-Rho-GEF interacted specifically with RhoA, in its nucleotide-free and guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate-bound states, but not with Rac1 and Cdc42, and ..
  2. Chang Y, Nalbant P, Birkenfeld J, Chang Z, Bokoch G. GEF-H1 couples nocodazole-induced microtubule disassembly to cell contractility via RhoA. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2147-53 pubmed publisher
    The RhoA GTPase plays a vital role in assembly of contractile actin-myosin filaments (stress fibers) and of associated focal adhesion complexes of adherent monolayer cells in culture...
  3. Argmann C, Edwards J, Sawyez C, O Neil C, Hegele R, Pickering J, et al. Regulation of macrophage cholesterol efflux through hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibition: a role for RhoA in ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22212-21 pubmed
    ..demonstrated to inhibit ABCA1 expression directly, through antagonism of LXR and indirectly through enhanced RhoA geranylgeranylation...
  4. Johnson J, Winterwood N, DeMali K, Stipp C. Tetraspanin CD151 regulates RhoA activation and the dynamic stability of carcinoma cell-cell contacts. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2263-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, the loss of CD151 causes excessive RhoA activation, loss of actin organization at cell-cell junctions, and increased actin stress fibers at the basal cell ..
  5. Hoshino D, Tomari T, Nagano M, Koshikawa N, Seiki M. A novel protein associated with membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase binds p27(kip1) and regulates RhoA activation, actin remodeling, and matrigel invasion. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27315-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This protein, which we call p27RF-Rho, enhances activation of RhoA by releasing it from inhibition by p27(kip1) and thereby regulates actin structures...
  6. Mori K, Amano M, Takefuji M, Kato K, Morita Y, Nishioka T, et al. Rho-kinase contributes to sustained RhoA activation through phosphorylation of p190A RhoGAP. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:5067-76 pubmed publisher
    b>RhoA is transiently activated by specific extracellular signals such as endothelin-1 (ET-1) in vascular smooth muscle cells. RhoGAP negatively regulates RhoA activity: thus, RhoA becomes the GDP-bound inactive form afterward...
  7. Azab A, Azab F, Blotta S, Pitsillides C, Thompson B, Runnels J, et al. RhoA and Rac1 GTPases play major and differential roles in stromal cell-derived factor-1-induced cell adhesion and chemotaxis in multiple myeloma. Blood. 2009;114:619-29 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the role of RhoA and Rac1 GTPases in SDF1-induced adhesion and chemotaxis of MM...
  8. Hutchison N, Hendry B, Sharpe C. Rho isoforms have distinct and specific functions in the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in renal proximal tubular cells. Cell Signal. 2009;21:1522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..However, silencing RhoA or RhoC expression also results in E-cadherin loss, though each by different mechanisms...
  9. Wang H, Liu X, Liang J, Yang K, Sui A, Liu Y. Expression of RhoA and RhoC in colorectal carcinoma and its relations with clinicopathological parameters. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:811-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 68 patients with colorectal carcinoma were recruited and the levels of RhoA and RhoC mRNA transcripts in cancer, paratumoral and normal tissues were characterized by quantitative real-time ..

More Information

Publications82

  1. Nalbant P, Chang Y, Birkenfeld J, Chang Z, Bokoch G. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 regulates cell migration via localized activation of RhoA at the leading edge. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4070-82 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RhoA is activated at the leading edge of motile cells by unknown mechanisms to control actin stress fiber assembly, ..
  2. Swiercz J, Worzfeld T, Offermanns S. Semaphorin 4D signaling requires the recruitment of phospholipase C gamma into the plexin-B1 receptor complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:6321-34 pubmed publisher
    ..interacts with particular Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) and thereby mediates Sema4D-induced RhoA activation, a process which involves the tyrosine phosphorylation of plexin-B1 by ErbB-2...
  3. Rousseau M, Gaugler M, Rodallec A, Bonnaud S, Paris F, Corre I. RhoA GTPase regulates radiation-induced alterations in endothelial cell adhesion and migration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;414:750-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Small GTPase RhoA and its effector ROCK are crucial signaling molecules involved in many endothelial cellular functions...
  4. Vega F, Fruhwirth G, Ng T, Ridley A. RhoA and RhoC have distinct roles in migration and invasion by acting through different targets. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:655-65 pubmed publisher
    Several studies suggest that RhoA and RhoC, despite their sequence similarity, have different roles in cell migration and invasion, but the molecular basis for this is not known...
  5. Bielnicki J, Shkumatov A, Derewenda U, Somlyo A, Svergun D, Derewenda Z. Insights into the molecular activation mechanism of the RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, PDZRhoGEF. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:35163-75 pubmed publisher
    PDZRhoGEF (PRG) belongs to a small family of RhoA-specific nucleotide exchange factors that mediates signaling through select G-protein-coupled receptors via Gα(12/13) and activates RhoA by catalyzing the exchange of GDP to GTP...
  6. Terry S, Zihni C, Elbediwy A, Vitiello E, Leefa Chong San I, Balda M, et al. Spatially restricted activation of RhoA signalling at epithelial junctions by p114RhoGEF drives junction formation and morphogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:159-66 pubmed publisher
    Signalling by the GTPase RhoA, a key regulator of epithelial cell behaviour, can stimulate opposing processes: RhoA can promote junction formation and apical constriction, and reduce adhesion and cell spreading...
  7. von Thun A, Preisinger C, Rath O, Schwarz J, Ward C, Monsefi N, et al. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase regulates RhoA activation and tumor cell plasticity by inhibiting guanine exchange factor H1 activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4526-37 pubmed publisher
    In certain Ras mutant cell lines, the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling increases RhoA activity and inhibits cell motility, which was attributed to a decrease in Fra-1 levels...
  8. Costa P, Scales T, Ivaska J, Parsons M. Integrin-specific control of focal adhesion kinase and RhoA regulates membrane protrusion and invasion. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74659 pubmed publisher
    ..1 integrins was directly coupled with reduced activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the small GTPase RhoA resulting in formation of enhanced dynamic protrusions and increased invasion...
  9. Yamazaki D, Kurisu S, Takenawa T. Involvement of Rac and Rho signaling in cancer cell motility in 3D substrates. Oncogene. 2009;28:1570-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, Rac1 and RhoA signaling regulated the mesenchymal and amoeboid motility in these cells, respectively, and the inhibition of both ..
  10. Zhang W, Huang Y, Gunst S. The small GTPase RhoA regulates the contraction of smooth muscle tissues by catalyzing the assembly of cytoskeletal signaling complexes at membrane adhesion sites. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:33996-4008 pubmed publisher
    The activation of the small GTPase RhoA is necessary for ACh-induced actin polymerization and airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction, but the mechanism by which it regulates these events is unknown...
  11. LARREA M, Hong F, Wander S, da Silva T, HELFMAN D, Lannigan D, et al. RSK1 drives p27Kip1 phosphorylation at T198 to promote RhoA inhibition and increase cell motility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9268-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We present evidence that RSK1 drives p27 phosphorylation at T198 to increase RhoA-p27 binding and cell motility. RSK1 activation and p27pT198 both increase in early G(1)...
  12. O Connor K, Chen M, Towers L. Integrin ?6?4 cooperates with LPA signaling to stimulate Rac through AKAP-Lbc-mediated RhoA activation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;302:C605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..RhoC for motility, whereas integrin ?(6)?(4)-expressing cells utilize RhoC but additionally activate and utilize RhoA for LPA-dependent cell motility and lamellae formation...
  13. Sugimoto K, Ishibashi T, Sawamura T, Inoue N, Kamioka M, Uekita H, et al. LOX-1-MT1-MMP axis is crucial for RhoA and Rac1 activation induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein in endothelial cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:127-36 pubmed publisher
    b>RhoA and Rac1 activation plays a key role in endothelial dysfunction. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a major receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in endothelial cells (ECs)...
  14. Ando K, Ishibashi T, Ohkawara H, Inoue N, Sugimoto K, Uekita H, et al. Crucial role of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1- MMP) in RhoA/Rac1-dependent signaling pathways in thrombin- stimulated endothelial cells. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2011;18:762-73 pubmed
    ..factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein expression, which is modulated by small GTPases RhoA and Rac1, Ca(2+) signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  15. Bear M, Li M, Liu Y, Giel Moloney M, Fanburg B, Toksoz D. The Lbc Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor α-catulin axis functions in serotonin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell mitogenesis and RhoA/ROCK activation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:32919-26 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) function is required for 5-HT-induced PASMC mitogenesis, and 5-HT activates RhoA; however, the ..
  16. Cavnar P, Berthier E, Beebe D, Huttenlocher A. Hax1 regulates neutrophil adhesion and motility through RhoA. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Hax1-deficient cells also display increased integrin-mediated adhesion and reduced RhoA activity...
  17. Kakiashvili E, Dan Q, Vandermeer M, Zhang Y, Waheed F, Pham M, et al. The epidermal growth factor receptor mediates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced activation of the ERK/GEF-H1/RhoA pathway in tubular epithelium. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9268-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that ERK-mediated stimulation of the RhoA GDP/GTP exchange factor GEF-H1/Lfc is critical for TNF-?-induced RhoA stimulation...
  18. Heasman S, Carlin L, Cox S, Ng T, Ridley A. Coordinated RhoA signaling at the leading edge and uropod is required for T cell transendothelial migration. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:553-63 pubmed publisher
    ..this study, we use an RNA interference screen to identify which Rho GTPases affect T cell TEM and demonstrate that RhoA is critical for this process...
  19. Aghajanian A, Wittchen E, Campbell S, Burridge K. Direct activation of RhoA by reactive oxygen species requires a redox-sensitive motif. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8045 pubmed publisher
    ..cytoskeletal dynamics, and in this report we conclude this is indeed a novel mechanism of regulating the GTPase RhoA. In this report, we show that RhoA can be directly activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, and that ..
  20. Hirose A, Tanikawa T, Mori H, Okada Y, Tanaka Y. Advanced glycation end products increase endothelial permeability through the RAGE/Rho signaling pathway. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also showed that RhoA and RAGE spontaneously formed a complex...
  21. Okuhira K, Fitzgerald M, Tamehiro N, Ohoka N, Suzuki K, Sawada J, et al. Binding of PDZ-RhoGEF to ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) induces cholesterol efflux through RhoA activation and prevention of transporter degradation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16369-77 pubmed publisher
    ..LARG bind to the C terminus of ABCA1 by a PDZ-PDZ interaction and prevent ABCA1 protein degradation by activating RhoA. ABCA1 is a protein with a short half-life, and apoA-I stabilizes ABCA1 protein; however, depletion of PDZ-RhoGEF/..
  22. Godsel L, Dubash A, Bass Zubek A, Amargo E, Klessner J, Hobbs R, et al. Plakophilin 2 couples actomyosin remodeling to desmosomal plaque assembly via RhoA. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2844-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that these defects result from the failure of activated RhoA to localize at intercellular interfaces after cell-cell contact and an elevation of cellular RhoA, stress fibers, ..
  23. Dietrich K, Schwarz R, Liska M, Grass S, Menke A, Meister M, et al. Specific induction of migration and invasion of pancreatic carcinoma cells by RhoC, which differs from RhoA in its localisation and activity. Biol Chem. 2009;390:1063-77 pubmed publisher
    b>RhoA and RhoC are highly related Rho GTPases, but differentially control cellular behaviour. We combined molecular, cellular, and biochemical experiments to characterise differences between these highly similar GTPases...
  24. Medina F, Carter A, Dada O, Gutowski S, Hadas J, Chen Z, et al. Activated RhoA is a positive feedback regulator of the Lbc family of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor proteins. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:11325-33 pubmed publisher
    ..A direct mechanism for hormonal regulation of the RhoA-type GTPases is their modulation by the G12 and G13 proteins via RH (RGS homology) containing RhoGEFs...
  25. Zhang S, Tang Q, Xu F, Xue Y, Zhen Z, Deng Y, et al. RhoA regulates G1-S progression of gastric cancer cells by modulation of multiple INK4 family tumor suppressors. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:570-80 pubmed publisher
    b>RhoA, a member of the Rho GTPase family, has been extensively studied in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, gene transcription, cell cycle progression, and cell transformation...
  26. Garcia M, Ray D, Lackford B, Rubino M, Olden K, Roberts J. Arachidonic acid stimulates cell adhesion through a novel p38 MAPK-RhoA signaling pathway that involves heat shock protein 27. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20936-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that in MDA-MB-435 human melanoma cells, arachidonic acid activates RhoA, and inhibition of RhoA signaling with either C3 exoenzyme or dominant negative Rho blocked arachidonic acid-..
  27. Chiba Y, Tanabe M, Goto K, Sakai H, Misawa M. Down-regulation of miR-133a contributes to up-regulation of Rhoa in bronchial smooth muscle cells. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein RhoA and its downstream pathways have now been proposed as a new target for asthma therapy...
  28. Nusser N, Gosmanova E, Makarova N, Fujiwara Y, Yang L, Guo F, et al. Serine phosphorylation differentially affects RhoA binding to effectors: implications to NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Cell Signal. 2006;18:704-14 pubmed
    Activation of RhoA prevents NGF-induced outgrowth and causes retraction of neurites in neuronal cells, including PC12 cells...
  29. Pasvolsky R, Grabovsky V, Giagulli C, Shulman Z, Shamri R, Feigelson S, et al. RhoA is involved in LFA-1 extension triggered by CXCL12 but not in a novel outside-in LFA-1 activation facilitated by CXCL9. J Immunol. 2008;180:2815-23 pubmed
    ..The GTPase RhoA was previously implicated in CCL21-triggered LFA-1 affinity triggering in murine T lymphocytes and in LFA-1-..
  30. Simpson K, Dugan A, Mercurio A. Functional analysis of the contribution of RhoA and RhoC GTPases to invasive breast carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2004;64:8694-701 pubmed
    Although the RhoA and RhoC proteins comprise an important subset of the Rho GTPase family that have been implicated in invasive breast carcinomas, attributing specific functions to these individual members has been difficult...
  31. Pillé J, Li H, Blot E, Bertrand J, Pritchard L, Opolon P, et al. Intravenous delivery of anti-RhoA small interfering RNA loaded in nanoparticles of chitosan in mice: safety and efficacy in xenografted aggressive breast cancer. Hum Gene Ther. 2006;17:1019-26 pubmed
    Overexpression of RhoA in cancer indicates a poor prognosis, because of increased tumor cell proliferation and invasion and tumor angiogenesis...
  32. Arakawa Y, Cordeiro J, Way M. F11L-mediated inhibition of RhoA-mDia signaling stimulates microtubule dynamics during vaccinia virus infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2007;1:213-26 pubmed
    ..They do, however, require F11L-mediated inhibition of signaling via the GTPase RhoA and its effector, mDia...
  33. Xiaorong L, Wei W, Liyuan Q, Kaiyan Y. Underexpression of deleted in liver cancer 2 (DLC2) is associated with overexpression of RhoA and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:205 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the expression of DLC2 protein, and its relationship with RhoA in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma have not been studied...
  34. Rümenapp U, Blomquist A, Schwörer G, Schablowski H, Psoma A, Jakobs K. Rho-specific binding and guanine nucleotide exchange catalysis by KIAA0380, a dbl family member. FEBS Lett. 1999;459:313-8 pubmed
    ..an amino-terminal PDZ domain and a regulator of G protein signalling (RGS) homology domain, is a specific GEF for RhoA, but not for Rac1 and Cdc42, as determined by GDP release, guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS) binding ..
  35. Wennerberg K, Forget M, Ellerbroek S, Arthur W, Burridge K, Settleman J, et al. Rnd proteins function as RhoA antagonists by activating p190 RhoGAP. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1106-15 pubmed
    ..suggested that Rnd proteins play pivotal roles in cell regulation by counteracting the biological functions of the RhoA GTPase, but the molecular basis for this antagonism is unknown...
  36. Arthur W, Ellerbroek S, Der C, Burridge K, Wennerberg K. XPLN, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RhoA and RhoB, but not RhoC. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42964-72 pubmed
    ..In vitro, XPLN stimulates guanine nucleotide exchange on RhoA and RhoB, but not RhoC, RhoG, Rac1, or Cdc42...
  37. McBeath R, Pirone D, Nelson C, Bhadriraju K, Chen C. Cell shape, cytoskeletal tension, and RhoA regulate stem cell lineage commitment. Dev Cell. 2004;6:483-95 pubmed
    ..Cell shape regulated the switch in lineage commitment by modulating endogenous RhoA activity...
  38. Bhadriraju K, Yang M, Alom Ruiz S, Pirone D, Tan J, Chen C. Activation of ROCK by RhoA is regulated by cell adhesion, shape, and cytoskeletal tension. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:3616-23 pubmed
    ..that adhesion and the associated changes in cell shape and cytoskeletal tension are all required for GTP-bound RhoA to activate its downstream effector, ROCK...
  39. Takami Y, Higashi M, Kumagai S, Kuo P, Kawana H, Koda K, et al. The activity of RhoA is correlated with lymph node metastasis in human colorectal cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53:467-73 pubmed
    ..The expression levels of RhoA, active RhoA, Rac1, and active Rac1 in tumor tissues were higher than in normal tissues...
  40. Moreau V, Tatin F, Varon C, Genot E. Actin can reorganize into podosomes in aortic endothelial cells, a process controlled by Cdc42 and RhoA. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6809-22 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first description of podosomes in endothelial cells. The identification of such specialized structures opens up a new field of investigation in terms of endothelium pathophysiology. ..
  41. Sahai E, Garcia Medina R, Pouyssegur J, Vial E. Smurf1 regulates tumor cell plasticity and motility through degradation of RhoA leading to localized inhibition of contractility. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:35-42 pubmed
    ..It has been reported that RhoA is targeted for degradation at the leading edge of migrating cells by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf1, and that this ..
  42. Hancock J, Hall A. A novel role for RhoGDI as an inhibitor of GAP proteins. EMBO J. 1993;12:1915-21 pubmed
    ..with RhoGDI and that, whilst geranylgeranylation and -AAX proteolysis of the C-terminal CAAX motif of Rac1 and RhoA are required for efficient interaction with RhoGDI, methylesterification of the C-terminal cysteine residue is not ..
  43. Kiian I, Tkachuk N, Haller H, Dumler I. Urokinase-induced migration of human vascular smooth muscle cells requires coupling of the small GTPases RhoA and Rac1 to the Tyk2/PI3-K signalling pathway. Thromb Haemost. 2003;89:904-14 pubmed
    ..We report that active GTP-bound forms of small GTPases RhoA and Rac1, but not Cdc42, are directly associated with Tyk2 and PI3-K in an uPA/uPAR-dependent fashion...
  44. Guerra L, Carr H, Richter Dahlfors A, Masucci M, Thelestam M, Frost J, et al. A bacterial cytotoxin identifies the RhoA exchange factor Net1 as a key effector in the response to DNA damage. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2254 pubmed publisher
    ..such as the bacterial cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) or ionizing radiations (IR), activates the small GTPase RhoA, which promotes the formation of actin stress fibers and delays cell death...
  45. Leung T, Chen X, Manser E, Lim L. The p160 RhoA-binding kinase ROK alpha is a member of a kinase family and is involved in the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:5313-27 pubmed
    The GTPase RhoA has been implicated in various cellular activities, including the formation of stress fibers, motility, and cytokinesis...
  46. Ohkawara H, Ishibashi T, Sakamoto T, Sugimoto K, Nagata K, Yokoyama K, et al. Thrombin-induced rapid geranylgeranylation of RhoA as an essential process for RhoA activation in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10182-8 pubmed
    b>RhoA plays a critical signaling role in thrombin-induced endothelial dysfunction...
  47. Wang H, Zhang Y, Ozdamar B, Ogunjimi A, Alexandrova E, Thomsen G, et al. Regulation of cell polarity and protrusion formation by targeting RhoA for degradation. Science. 2003;302:1775-9 pubmed
    ..Cdc42/Rac1-PAR6 polarity complex, recruited Smurf1 to cellular protrusions, where it controlled the local level of RhoA. Smurf1 thus links the polarity complex to degradation of RhoA in lamellipodia and filopodia to prevent RhoA ..
  48. Cardone R, Bellizzi A, Busco G, Weinman E, Dell Aquila M, Casavola V, et al. The NHERF1 PDZ2 domain regulates PKA-RhoA-p38-mediated NHE1 activation and invasion in breast tumor cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1768-80 pubmed
    ..deprivation and hypoxia stimulate the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, invasion, and activate a protein kinase A (PKA)-gated RhoA/p38 invasion signal module...
  49. Sakurai Yageta M, Recchi C, Le Dez G, Sibarita J, Daviet L, Camonis J, et al. The interaction of IQGAP1 with the exocyst complex is required for tumor cell invasion downstream of Cdc42 and RhoA. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:985-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Sec3 and Sec8 interact with the polarity protein IQGAP1 and that this interaction is triggered by active Cdc42 and RhoA, which are essential for matrix degradation...
  50. Reid T, Furuyashiki T, Ishizaki T, Watanabe G, Watanabe N, Fujisawa K, et al. Rhotekin, a new putative target for Rho bearing homology to a serine/threonine kinase, PKN, and rhophilin in the rho-binding domain. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:13556-60 pubmed
    ..One clone obtained by this procedure contained a novel cDNA of 291 base pairs and interacted strongly with RhoA and RhoC, weakly with RhoB, and not at all with Rac1 and Cdc42Hs...
  51. Longenecker K, Read P, Lin S, Somlyo A, Nakamoto R, Derewenda Z. Structure of a constitutively activated RhoA mutant (Q63L) at 1.55 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003;59:876-80 pubmed
    Mutants of the small G protein RhoA that are deficient in GTPase activity and thereby exhibit constitutive molecular signaling activity are commonly used to discover its cellular functions...
  52. Reuther G, Lambert Q, Booden M, Wennerberg K, Becknell B, Marcucci G, et al. Leukemia-associated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, a Dbl family protein found mutated in leukemia, causes transformation by activation of RhoA. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:27145-51 pubmed
    ..where the isolated Dbl homology (DH) or DH/pleckstrin homology domains of LARG functioned as a strong activator of RhoA, but exhibited no activity toward Rac1 or Cdc42...
  53. Ihara K, Muraguchi S, Kato M, Shimizu T, Shirakawa M, Kuroda S, et al. Crystal structure of human RhoA in a dominantly active form complexed with a GTP analogue. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:9656-66 pubmed
    The 2.4-A resolution crystal structure of a dominantly active form of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RhoA, RhoAV14, complexed with the nonhydrolyzable GTP analogue, guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS), reveals a ..
  54. Klussmann E, Edemir B, Pepperle B, Tamma G, Henn V, Klauschenz E, et al. Ht31: the first protein kinase A anchoring protein to integrate protein kinase A and Rho signaling. FEBS Lett. 2001;507:264-8 pubmed
    ..The Ht31 cDNA includes the estrogen receptor cofactor Brx and the RhoA GDP/GTP exchange factor proto-lymphoid blast crisis (Lbc) sequences...
  55. Peck J, Oberst M, Bouker K, Bowden E, Burbelo P. The RhoA-binding protein, rhophilin-2, regulates actin cytoskeleton organization. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:43924-32 pubmed
    ..Here we have identified a ubiquitously expressed human RhoA-binding protein, designated Rhophilin-2...
  56. Zhang B, Zheng Y. Regulation of RhoA GTP hydrolysis by the GTPase-activating proteins p190, p50RhoGAP, Bcr, and 3BP-1. Biochemistry. 1998;37:5249-57 pubmed
    The small GTP-binding protein RhoA becomes inactivated by hydrolyzing bound GTP to GDP through its intrinsic GTPase activity which is further stimulated by a family of Rho GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs)...
  57. Owen D, Lowe P, Nietlispach D, Brosnan C, Chirgadze D, Parker P, et al. Molecular dissection of the interaction between the small G proteins Rac1 and RhoA and protein kinase C-related kinase 1 (PRK1). J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50578-87 pubmed
    ..Here we investigate the binding of PRK1 to RhoA and Rac1, two members of the Rho family. We demonstrate that PRK1 binds with a similar affinity to RhoA and Rac1...
  58. Yoshizaki H, Ohba Y, Parrini M, Dulyaninova N, Bresnick A, Mochizuki N, et al. Cell type-specific regulation of RhoA activity during cytokinesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:44756-62 pubmed
    ..probes based on the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we have shown that in HeLa cells RhoA activity increases with the progression of cytokinesis...
  59. Blumenstein L, Ahmadian M. Models of the cooperative mechanism for Rho effector recognition: implications for RhoA-mediated effector activation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53419-26 pubmed
    ..By characterizing the molecular mechanism of RhoA interaction with its effectors, we have determined the equilibrium dissociation constants of several Rho-binding ..
  60. Derewenda U, Oleksy A, Stevenson A, Korczynska J, Dauter Z, Somlyo A, et al. The crystal structure of RhoA in complex with the DH/PH fragment of PDZRhoGEF, an activator of the Ca(2+) sensitization pathway in smooth muscle. Structure. 2004;12:1955-65 pubmed
    Calcium sensitization in smooth muscle is mediated by the RhoA GTPase, activated by hitherto unspecified nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) acting downstream of Galphaq/Galpha(12/13) trimeric G proteins...
  61. Dreissigacker U, Mueller M, Unger M, Siegert P, Genze F, Gierschik P, et al. Oncogenic K-Ras down-regulates Rac1 and RhoA activity and enhances migration and invasion of pancreatic carcinoma cells through activation of p38. Cell Signal. 2006;18:1156-68 pubmed
    ..Stable expression of EGFP-K-Ras (V12) down-regulated the activity of Rac1 and RhoA, resulting in reduced subcortical actin filaments and stress fibers, which might contribute to the epithelial ..
  62. Kabuyama Y, Langer S, Polvinen K, Homma Y, Resing K, Ahn N. Functional proteomics identifies protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B as a target of RhoA signaling. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5:1359-67 pubmed
    ..To identify cellular targets regulated by Rho GTPases, we screened global protein responses to Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA activation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry...
  63. Symons M, Derry J, Karlak B, Jiang S, Lemahieu V, McCormick F, et al. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, a novel effector for the GTPase CDC42Hs, is implicated in actin polymerization. Cell. 1996;84:723-34 pubmed
    ..The WASP sequence contains two novel domains that are homologous to other proteins involved in action organization. ..
  64. Vincent S, Settleman J. The PRK2 kinase is a potential effector target of both Rho and Rac GTPases and regulates actin cytoskeletal organization. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2247-56 pubmed
    ..Activated RhoA has recently been reported to interact directly with several protein kinases, p120 PKN, p150 ROK alpha and -beta, ..
  65. Michaelson D, Silletti J, Murphy G, D EUSTACHIO P, Rush M, Philips M. Differential localization of Rho GTPases in live cells: regulation by hypervariable regions and RhoGDI binding. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:111-26 pubmed
    ..Targeting was regulated by binding to RhoGDI alpha in the case of RhoA, Rac1, Rac2, and Cdc42hs but not RhoB or TC10...
  66. Lutz S, Shankaranarayanan A, Coco C, Ridilla M, Nance M, Vettel C, et al. Structure of Galphaq-p63RhoGEF-RhoA complex reveals a pathway for the activation of RhoA by GPCRs. Science. 2007;318:1923-7 pubmed
    ..and thereby links Galphaq-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to the activation of the small-molecular-weight G protein RhoA. We determined the crystal structure of the Galphaq-p63RhoGEF-RhoA complex, detailing the interactions of Galphaq ..
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    ..Here we show that the RhoA effector mDia is induced in vitro in activated PBL and is highly expressed in vivo in diseased tissue-infiltrating ..
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    ..These results have demonstrated important roles for GAPs and Cdc42 in neuronal migration. We propose a signal transduction pathway from the extracellular guidance cue to intracellular actin polymerization. ..
  69. Vicente Manzanares M, Cabrero J, Rey M, Perez Martinez M, Ursa A, Itoh K, et al. A role for the Rho-p160 Rho coiled-coil kinase axis in the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha-induced lymphocyte actomyosin and microtubular organization and chemotaxis. J Immunol. 2002;168:400-10 pubmed
    ..SDF-1alpha induced activation of RhoA, but not that of Rac...
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    Geranylgeranylation of RhoA small G-protein is essential for its localization to cell membranes and for its biological functions. Many RhoA effects are mediated by its downstream effector RhoA kinase...
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    ..that MEKK1 binds to p115 Rho GTPase-activating protein, which has GTPase-activating protein activity toward RhoA. Thus, we tested whether Rho GTPases interact with the regulatory domain of MEKK1...
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    ..and the subsequent release of virus particles, which are both actin dependent, require F11L-mediated inhibition of RhoA-mDia signaling...