rev

Summary

Gene Symbol: rev
Description: p19
Alias: p19, Rev
Species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Products:     rev

Top Publications

  1. Yedavalli V, Jeang K. Rev-ing up post-transcriptional HIV-1 RNA expression. RNA Biol. 2011;8:195-9 pubmed
    ..HIV-1 has evolved a protein, Rev, that participates in the export of unspliced / partially spliced viral RNAs from the nucleus...
  2. Cmarko D, Bøe S, Scassellati C, Szilvay A, Davanger S, Fu X, et al. Rev inhibition strongly affects intracellular distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNAs. J Virol. 2002;76:10473-84 pubmed
    ..RNA maturation pathways, we analyzed the intracellular distribution of HIV-1 RNA and the viral regulatory proteins Rev and Tat in transfected COS cells and HIV-1-infected lymphoid C8166 cells by means of ultrastructural in situ ..
  3. Soros V, Carvajal H, Richard S, Cochrane A. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev function by a dominant-negative mutant of Sam68 through sequestration of unspliced RNA at perinuclear bundles. J Virol. 2001;75:8203-15 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 encodes an essential protein, Rev, which functions to transport unspliced and singly spliced viral transcripts from the nucleus to the cytoplasm to allow expression of the viral structural ..
  4. Meyer B, Malim M. The HIV-1 Rev trans-activator shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1538-47 pubmed
    The HIV-1 Rev protein is a nuclear trans-activator essential for the transport of unspliced viral transcripts to the cytoplasm...
  5. Dundr M, Leno G, Hammarskjold M, Rekosh D, Helga Maria C, Olson M. The roles of nucleolar structure and function in the subcellular location of the HIV-1 Rev protein. J Cell Sci. 1995;108 ( Pt 8):2811-23 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Rev transactivator protein plays a critical role in the regulation of expression of structural proteins by controlling the pathway of mRNA transport...
  6. Sánchez Velar N, Udofia E, Yu Z, Zapp M. hRIP, a cellular cofactor for Rev function, promotes release of HIV RNAs from the perinuclear region. Genes Dev. 2004;18:23-34 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus Rev facilitates the cytoplasmic accumulation of viral RNAs that contain a Rev binding site...
  7. Venkatesh L, Gettemeier T, Chinnadurai G. A nuclear kinesin-like protein interacts with and stimulates the activity of the leucine-rich nuclear export signal of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 rev protein. J Virol. 2003;77:7236-43 pubmed
    The Rev protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is essential for the nucleocytoplasmic transport of unspliced and partially spliced HIV mRNAs containing the Rev response element (RRE)...
  8. Hofmann W, Reichart B, Ewald A, Muller E, Schmitt I, Stauber R, et al. Cofactor requirements for nuclear export of Rev response element (RRE)- and constitutive transport element (CTE)-containing retroviral RNAs. An unexpected role for actin. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:895-910 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev-mediated nuclear export and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) constitutive transport element (CTE)-mediated nuclear ..
  9. Miyazaki Y, Takamatsu T, Nosaka T, Fujita S, Martin T, Hatanaka M. The cytotoxicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev: implications for its interaction with the nucleolar protein B23. Exp Cell Res. 1995;219:93-101 pubmed
    ..type 1 (HIV-1) encodes several regulatory proteins, including two essential trans-activators for viral replication, Rev and Tat. Both Rev and Tat have a nucleolar targeting signal and are actually located predominantly in the nucleoli...

More Information

Publications91

  1. Szebeni A, Mehrotra B, Baumann A, Adam S, Wingfield P, Olson M. Nucleolar protein B23 stimulates nuclear import of the HIV-1 Rev protein and NLS-conjugated albumin. Biochemistry. 1997;36:3941-9 pubmed
    ..1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 4910-4916] using NLS peptide-conjugated bovine serum albumin (NLS-BSA) or the HIV-1 Rev protein as substrates for import into isolated rat liver nuclei...
  2. Pongoski J, Asai K, Cochrane A. Positive and negative modulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev function by cis and trans regulators of viral RNA splicing. J Virol. 2002;76:5108-20 pubmed
    ..1 (HIV-1) viral proteins depends on the competing activities of viral RNA splicing and export into the cytoplasm by Rev. To investigate the possibility that modulation of viral RNA metabolism may alter Rev function, we analyzed the ..
  3. Szilvay A, Brokstad K, Kopperud R, Haukenes G, Kalland K. Nuclear export of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein Rev is mediated by its activation domain and is blocked by transdominant negative mutants. J Virol. 1995;69:3315-23 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein Rev moves repeatedly between the cytoplasm, a perinuclear zone, the nucleoli, and nucleoplasmic speckles...
  4. Reddy T, Xu W, Mau J, Goodwin C, Suhasini M, Tang H, et al. Inhibition of HIV replication by dominant negative mutants of Sam68, a functional homolog of HIV-1 Rev. Nat Med. 1999;5:635-42 pubmed
    The HIV-1 Rev protein facilitates the nuclear export of mRNA containing the Rev response element (RRE) through binding to the export receptor CRM-1...
  5. Black A, Luo J, Chun S, Bakker A, Fraser J, Rosenblatt J. Specific binding of polypyrimidine tract binding protein and hnRNP A1 to HIV-1 CRS elements. Virus Genes. 1996;12:275-85 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Rev and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) Rex proteins regulate viral RNA processing...
  6. Dayton A. Within you, without you: HIV-1 Rev and RNA export. Retrovirology. 2004;1:35 pubmed
    ..This suggests the ubiquity of RNA helicases in RNA export from the nucleus, and has novel mechanistic implications. ..
  7. Hakata Y, Yamada M, Mabuchi N, Shida H. The carboxy-terminal region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein Rev has multiple roles in mediating CRM1-related Rev functions. J Virol. 2002;76:8079-89 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) regulatory protein, Rev, mediates the nuclear export of unspliced and singly spliced viral mRNAs by bridging viral RNA and export receptor human CRM1 (hCRM1)...
  8. Modem S, Reddy T. An anti-apoptotic protein, Hax-1, inhibits the HIV-1 rev function by altering its sub-cellular localization. J Cell Physiol. 2008;214:14-9 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev protein facilitates the nuclear export of viral mRNA containing the Rev response element (RRE)...
  9. Huang Y, Carmichael G. Role of polyadenylation in nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNA. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:1534-42 pubmed
    To examine the role of polyadenylation in the nuclear export of mRNA, we have replaced the poly(A) signal in a Rev-responsive human immunodeficiency virus type 1-based reporter gene with a cis-acting hammerhead ribozyme...
  10. Yedavalli V, Jeang K. Trimethylguanosine capping selectively promotes expression of Rev-dependent HIV-1 RNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14787-92 pubmed publisher
    ..CRM-1 is also used to export Rev/RRE-dependent unspliced/ partially spliced HIV-1 RNAs...
  11. Rosorius O, Reichart B, Kratzer F, Heger P, Dabauvalle M, Hauber J. Nuclear pore localization and nucleocytoplasmic transport of eIF-5A: evidence for direct interaction with the export receptor CRM1. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 14):2369-80 pubmed
    ..The finding that eIF-5A is an essential cofactor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev RNA transport factor suggested that eIF-5A is part of a specific nuclear export pathway...
  12. Ullman K, Shah S, Powers M, Forbes D. The nucleoporin nup153 plays a critical role in multiple types of nuclear export. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:649-64 pubmed
    ..Nup153 antibodies also block the NES protein export pathway, specifically the export of the HIV Rev protein, as well as Rev-dependent RNA export...
  13. Fineberg K, Fineberg T, Graessmann A, Luedtke N, Tor Y, Lixin R, et al. Inhibition of nuclear import mediated by the Rev-arginine rich motif by RNA molecules. Biochemistry. 2003;42:2625-33 pubmed
    The HIV-1 Rev protein plays a pivotal role in viral replication, and therefore, inhibition of its function should block the progression of the virus-induced immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)...
  14. Liu J, Henao Mejia J, Liu H, Zhao Y, He J. Translational regulation of HIV-1 replication by HIV-1 Rev cellular cofactors Sam68, eIF5A, hRIP, and DDX3. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2011;6:308-21 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Rev functions to export unspliced and incompletely spliced HIV-1 RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; it requires ..
  15. Ishaq M, Hu J, Wu X, Fu Q, Yang Y, Liu Q, et al. Knockdown of cellular RNA helicase DDX3 by short hairpin RNAs suppresses HIV-1 viral replication without inducing apoptosis. Mol Biotechnol. 2008;39:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 is an essential Rev co-factor in the CRM1-Rev-RRE complex that promotes the export of unspliced and single-spliced HIV-1 RNAs from the ..
  16. Kalland K, Szilvay A, Brokstad K, Saetrevik W, Haukenes G. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein shuttles between the cytoplasm and nuclear compartments. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:7436-44 pubmed
    A retroviral regulatory protein, Rev (regulator of virion protein expression), is made in cells infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  17. Shimane K, Kodama E, Nakase I, Futaki S, Sakurai Y, Sakagami Y, et al. Rev-derived peptides inhibit HIV-1 replication by antagonism of Rev and a co-receptor, CXCR4. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:1482-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Rev, a viral regulatory protein of HIV-1, binds through its arginine-rich domain to the Rev-responsive element (RRE), a secondary structure in transcribed HIV-1 RNA...
  18. Fang J, Acheampong E, Dave R, Wang F, Mukhtar M, Pomerantz R. The RNA helicase DDX1 is involved in restricted HIV-1 Rev function in human astrocytes. Virology. 2005;336:299-307 pubmed
    ..Of note, a low ratio of unspliced versus spliced HIV-1-specific RNA was also investigated, as Rev appeared to act aberrantly in astrocytes, via loss of nuclear and/or nucleolar localization and diminished Rev-..
  19. Daugherty M, Liu B, Frankel A. Structural basis for cooperative RNA binding and export complex assembly by HIV Rev. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1337-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Export is mediated by cooperative binding of the Rev protein to the Rev response element (RRE) RNA, to form a highly specific oligomeric ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that ..
  20. Gu L, Tsuji T, Jarboui M, Yeo G, Sheehy N, Hall W, et al. Intermolecular masking of the HIV-1 Rev NLS by the cellular protein HIC: novel insights into the regulation of Rev nuclear import. Retrovirology. 2011;8:17 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 regulatory protein Rev, which is essential for viral replication, mediates the nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts...
  21. Lin M, Sivakumaran H, Apolloni A, Wei T, Jans D, Harrich D. Nullbasic, a potent anti-HIV tat mutant, induces CRM1-dependent disruption of HIV rev trafficking. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51466 pubmed publisher
    Nullbasic, a mutant of the HIV-1 Tat protein, has anti-HIV-1 activity through mechanisms that include inhibition of Rev function and redistribution of the HIV-1 Rev protein from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm...
  22. Suzuki Y, Craigie R. The road to chromatin - nuclear entry of retroviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5:187-96 pubmed
    ..Before integration into the host genome can occur, this complex must be transported to the nucleus and must cross the nuclear envelope. This Review summarizes our current knowledge of how this journey is accomplished. ..
  23. D Agostino D, Ferro T, Zotti L, Meggio F, Pinna L, Chieco Bianchi L, et al. Identification of a domain in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 rev that is required for functional activity and modulates association with subnuclear compartments containing splicing factor SC35. J Virol. 2000;74:11899-910 pubmed
    The activity of human immunodeficiency virus Rev as a regulator of viral mRNA expression is tightly linked to its ability to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm; these properties are conferred by a leucine-rich nuclear export ..
  24. Urcuqui Inchima S, Castaño M, Hernandez Verdun D, St Laurent G, Kumar A. Nuclear Factor 90, a cellular dsRNA binding protein inhibits the HIV Rev-export function. Retrovirology. 2006;3:83 pubmed
    The HIV Rev protein is known to facilitate export of incompletely spliced and unspliced viral transcripts to the cytoplasm, a necessary step in virus life cycle...
  25. Luo Y, Yu H, Peterlin B. Cellular protein modulates effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev. J Virol. 1994;68:3850-6 pubmed
    Replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 requires expression of the viral trans activator Rev. Rev binds to a highly structured RNA, the Rev response element, which is present in singly spliced and unspliced genomic viral RNAs...
  26. Yang X, Gabuzda D. Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectivity by the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. J Virol. 1999;73:3460-6 pubmed
    ..The HIV-1 Rev, Tat, p17(Gag), and Nef proteins were directly phosphorylated by MAPK in vitro, suggesting that other HIV-1 ..
  27. Kimura T, Hashimoto I, Yamamoto A, Nishikawa M, Fujisawa J. Rev-dependent association of the intron-containing HIV-1 gag mRNA with the nuclear actin bundles and the inhibition of its nucleocytoplasmic transport by latrunculin-B. Genes Cells. 2000;5:289-307 pubmed
    ..b>Rev directs this transport through the nuclear export signal (NES)...
  28. Ariumi Y, Trono D. Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein can enhance human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by stimulating Rev function. J Virol. 2006;80:2445-52 pubmed
    ..a series of experiences that indicate that ATM can enhance HIV-1 replication by stimulating the action of the Rev viral posttranscriptional regulator...
  29. Henderson B, Percipalle P. Interactions between HIV Rev and nuclear import and export factors: the Rev nuclear localisation signal mediates specific binding to human importin-beta. J Mol Biol. 1997;274:693-707 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev protein binds to unspliced HIV-1 pre-mRNA and exports it from the nucleus. Rev itself can "shuttle" between the nucleus and cytoplasm...
  30. Smulevitch S, Bear J, Alicea C, Rosati M, Jalah R, Zolotukhin A, et al. RTE and CTE mRNA export elements synergistically increase expression of unstable, Rev-dependent HIV and SIV mRNAs. Retrovirology. 2006;3:6 pubmed
    ..RTE and CTE are potent in nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport and expression, neither element is as powerful as the Rev-RRE posttranscriptional control...
  31. Li J, Liu Y, Park I, He J. Expression of exogenous Sam68, the 68-kilodalton SRC-associated protein in mitosis, is able to alleviate impaired Rev function in astrocytes. J Virol. 2002;76:4526-35 pubmed
    ..Impaired Rev function has been documented in these cells...
  32. Fischer U, Pollard V, Luhrmann R, Teufel M, Michael M, Dreyfuss G, et al. Rev-mediated nuclear export of RNA is dominant over nuclear retention and is coupled to the Ran-GTPase cycle. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:4128-34 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Rev protein induces the nuclear export of intron-containing viral mRNAs that harbor its binding site, the Rev response element (RRE)...
  33. Bogerd H, Echarri A, Ross T, Cullen B. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus Rev and human T-cell leukemia virus Rex function, but not Mason-Pfizer monkey virus constitutive transport element activity, by a mutant human nucleoporin targeted to Crm1. J Virol. 1998;72:8627-35 pubmed
    The hypothesis that the cellular protein Crm1 mediates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev-dependent nuclear export posits that Crm1 can directly interact both with the Rev nuclear export signal (NES) and with cellular ..
  34. Marin O, Sarno S, Boschetti M, Pagano M, Meggio F, Ciminale V, et al. Unique features of HIV-1 Rev protein phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 ('casein kinase-2'). FEBS Lett. 2000;481:63-7 pubmed
    The HIV-1 Rev transactivator is phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase CK2 at two residues, Ser-5 and Ser-8; these sites are also phosphorylated in vivo...
  35. Meggio F, D Agostino D, Ciminale V, Chieco Bianchi L, Pinna L. Phosphorylation of HIV-1 Rev protein: implication of protein kinase CK2 and pro-directed kinases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;226:547-54 pubmed
    HIV-1 Rev transactivator is readily phosphorylated at separate regions by protein kinase CK2 and MAP kinase...
  36. Li J, Tang H, Mullen T, Westberg C, Reddy T, Rose D, et al. A role for RNA helicase A in post-transcriptional regulation of HIV type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:709-14 pubmed
    ..by a cis-acting constitutive transport element (CTE) for simple retroviruses and by the trans-acting viral protein Rev in concert with its response element (RRE) for complex retroviruses (e.g., HIV)...
  37. Zolotukhin A, Felber B. Nucleoporins nup98 and nup214 participate in nuclear export of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev. J Virol. 1999;73:120-7 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal that is essential for its nucleocytoplasmic export mediated by hCRM1...
  38. Reddy T, Tang H, Xu W, Wong Staal F. Sam68, RNA helicase A and Tap cooperate in the post-transcriptional regulation of human immunodeficiency virus and type D retroviral mRNA. Oncogene. 2000;19:3570-5 pubmed
    ..nuclear export pathways for retroviral mRNA have been described: a CRM-1 dependent pathway mediated by the HIV-1 Rev protein and the Rev Response Element (RRE), and a CRM-1 independent pathway mediated by the Constitutive Transport ..
  39. Bøe S, Bjørndal B, Røsok B, Szilvay A, Kalland K. Subcellular localization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNAs, Rev, and the splicing factor SC-35. Virology. 1998;244:473-82 pubmed
    The HIV-1 protein Rev regulates the cytoplasmic levels of incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNAs. The plasmid pSVc21, which contains a HIV-1 provirus, was introduced into COS cells by transient transfection...
  40. Edgcomb S, Carmel A, Naji S, Ambrus Aikelin G, Reyes J, Saphire A, et al. DDX1 is an RNA-dependent ATPase involved in HIV-1 Rev function and virus replication. J Mol Biol. 2012;415:61-74 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev protein is essential for the virus because it promotes nuclear export of alternatively processed mRNAs, and Rev is also linked to translation of viral mRNAs and genome encapsidation...
  41. Fankhauser C, Izaurralde E, Adachi Y, Wingfield P, Laemmli U. Specific complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 rev and nucleolar B23 proteins: dissociation by the Rev response element. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:2567-75 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) Rev protein is thought to be involved in the export of unspliced or singly spliced viral mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm...
  42. Fritz C, Zapp M, Green M. A human nucleoporin-like protein that specifically interacts with HIV Rev. Nature. 1995;376:530-3 pubmed
    The Rev protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) facilitates the nuclear export of unspliced and partly spliced viral RNAs...
  43. Truant R, Cullen B. The arginine-rich domains present in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat and Rev function as direct importin beta-dependent nuclear localization signals. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:1210-7 pubmed
    ..that the arginine-rich NLS sequences present in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 regulatory proteins Tat and Rev fail to interact with Imp alpha and instead bind directly to Imp beta...
  44. Jablonski J, Caputi M. Role of cellular RNA processing factors in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mRNA metabolism, replication, and infectivity. J Virol. 2009;83:981-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates that cellular factors regulating mRNA processing have wide-ranging effects on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication and should be considered novel therapeutic targets. ..
  45. Levin A, Rosenbluh J, Hayouka Z, Friedler A, Loyter A. Integration of HIV-1 DNA is regulated by interplay between viral rev and cellular LEDGF/p75 proteins. Mol Med. 2010;16:34-44 pubmed publisher
    The present work describes a novel interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev protein and the cellular lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75) protein in vitro and in virus-infected cells...
  46. Ruhl M, Himmelspach M, Bahr G, Hammerschmid F, Jaksche H, Wolff B, et al. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A is a cellular target of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev activation domain mediating trans-activation. J Cell Biol. 1993;123:1309-20 pubmed
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) structural proteins requires the presence of the viral trans-activator protein Rev. Rev is localized in the nucleus and binds specifically to the Rev response element (RRE) sequence in viral RNA...
  47. Robertson Anderson R, Wang J, Edgcomb S, Carmel A, Williamson J, Millar D. Single-molecule studies reveal that DEAD box protein DDX1 promotes oligomerization of HIV-1 Rev on the Rev response element. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:959-71 pubmed publisher
    Oligomeric assembly of Rev on the Rev response element (RRE) is essential for the nuclear export of unspliced and singly spliced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral mRNA transcripts...
  48. Zhang J, Liu Y, Henao J, Rugeles M, Li J, Chen T, et al. Requirement of an additional Sam68 domain for inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by Sam68 dominant negative mutants lacking the nuclear localization signal. Gene. 2005;363:67-76 pubmed
    ..This process is evolutionally made possible by expression of HIV-1 Rev, one of the three HIV-1 proteins encoded by completely spliced HIV-1 RNAs...
  49. Reddy T, Xu W, Wong Staal F. General effect of Sam68 on Rev/Rex regulated expression of complex retroviruses. Oncogene. 2000;19:4071-4 pubmed
    ..demonstrated that overexpression of Sam68 functionally substitutes for, as well as synergizes with, HIV-1 Rev in RRE-mediated gene expression and virus replication...
  50. Ristea S, Dobbelstein M, Roth J. Rev protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and cellular exportin 1 protein relocalize each other to a subnucleolar structure. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000;16:857-65 pubmed
    ..We show here that exportin 1 and the NES-containing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 Rev protein relocalize each other to a characteristic dotlike structure within the nucleoli of human cells...
  51. Vitte A, Buchsbaum S, Jalinot P. Modulation of HIV-1 Rev protein abundance and activity by polyubiquitination with unconventional Lys-33 branching. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6155-60 pubmed
    The HIV-1 Rev protein plays a key role in virus replication by allowing export to the cytoplasm of unspliced or singly-spliced RNAs. In this report, we investigated whether Rev is modified by ubiquitination or sumoylation...
  52. Yi R, Bogerd H, Cullen B. Recruitment of the Crm1 nuclear export factor is sufficient to induce cytoplasmic expression of incompletely spliced human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs. J Virol. 2002;76:2036-42 pubmed
    ..that encode the late, structural proteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is dependent on the viral Rev regulatory protein...
  53. Yasuda Inoue M, Kuroki M, Ariumi Y. Distinct DDX DEAD-box RNA helicases cooperate to modulate the HIV-1 Rev function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;434:803-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, DDX1 and DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicases are known to be required for efficient HIV-1 Rev-dependent RNA export...
  54. McLaren M, Marsh K, Cochrane A. Modulating HIV-1 RNA processing and utilization. Front Biosci. 2008;13:5693-707 pubmed
    ..Some of the strategies involve viral encoded proteins (i.e. Rev, Gag)...
  55. Zhang R, Mehla R, Chauhan A. Perturbation of host nuclear membrane component RanBP2 impairs the nuclear import of human immunodeficiency virus -1 preintegration complex (DNA). PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15620 pubmed publisher
    ..pore complex and has been implicated in various nucleo-cytoplasmic transport pathways including those for HIV Rev-protein. We sought to investigate the role of RanBP2 in HIV-1 replication...
  56. Vincendeau M, Kramer S, Hadian K, Rothenaigner I, Bell J, Hauck S, et al. Control of HIV replication in astrocytes by a family of highly conserved host proteins with a common Rev-interacting domain (Risp). AIDS. 2010;24:2433-42 pubmed publisher
    In human astrocytes, restriction of HIV replication involves inhibition of HIV Rev activity. We previously identified a Rev-interacting human protein fragment (16.4.1) that can reduce Rev activity. The 16.4...
  57. Levin A, Hayouka Z, Friedler A, Loyter A. Over-expression of the HIV-1 Rev promotes death of nondividing eukaryotic cells. Virus Genes. 2010;40:341-6 pubmed publisher
    Expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev protein is essential for completion of the viral life cycle...
  58. Kula A, Gharu L, Marcello A. HIV-1 pre-mRNA commitment to Rev mediated export through PSF and Matrin 3. Virology. 2013;435:329-40 pubmed publisher
    ..viral RNAs and full-length genomic RNA contain the RRE element and are bound by the viral trans-acting protein Rev to be transported out of the nucleus...
  59. Marsh K, Soros V, Cochrane A. Selective translational repression of HIV-1 RNA by Sam68DeltaC occurs by altering PABP1 binding to unspliced viral RNA. Retrovirology. 2008;5:97 pubmed publisher
  60. Ma J, Rong L, Zhou Y, Roy B, Lu J, Abrahamyan L, et al. The requirement of the DEAD-box protein DDX24 for the packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA. Virology. 2008;375:253-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The decreased viral RNA packaging as a result of DDX24-knockdown is observed only in the context of the Rev/RRE (Rev response element)-dependent but not the CTE (constitutive transport element)-mediated nuclear export of ..
  61. Karn J, Stoltzfus C. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of HIV-1 gene expression. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a006916 pubmed publisher
    Control of HIV-1 gene expression depends on two viral regulatory proteins, Tat and Rev. Tat stimulates transcription elongation by directing the cellular transcriptional elongation factor P-TEFb to nascent RNA polymerases...
  62. Miyazaki Y, Nosaka T, Hatanaka M. The post-transcriptional regulator Rev of HIV: implications for its interaction with the nucleolar protein B23. Biochimie. 1996;78:1081-6 pubmed
    ..HIV-1 encodes several regulatory proteins, including two essential trans-activations for viral replication, Rev and Tat. Both Rev and Tat have a nucleolar targeting signal and are actually located predominantly in the nucleoli...
  63. Sloan E, Kearney M, Gray L, Anastos K, Daar E, Margolick J, et al. Limited nucleotide changes in the Rev response element (RRE) during HIV-1 infection alter overall Rev-RRE activity and Rev multimerization. J Virol. 2013;87:11173-86 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 Rev and the Rev response element (RRE) enable a critical step in the viral replication cycle by facilitating the nuclear export of intron-containing mRNAs, yet their activities have rarely been analyzed in natural infections...
  64. Bogerd H, Fridell R, Madore S, Cullen B. Identification of a novel cellular cofactor for the Rev/Rex class of retroviral regulatory proteins. Cell. 1995;82:485-94 pubmed
    HIV-1 Rev is the prototype of a class of retroviral regulatory proteins that induce the sequence-specific nuclear export of target RNAs...
  65. Stutz F, Izaurralde E, Mattaj I, Rosbash M. A role for nucleoporin FG repeat domains in export of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein and RNA from the nucleus. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:7144-50 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein contains a nuclear export signal (NES) that is required for Rev-mediated RNA export in mammals as well as in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  66. Kiss A, Li L, Gettemeier T, Venkatesh L. Functional analysis of the interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev nuclear export signal with its cofactors. Virology. 2003;314:591-600 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev-mediated nuclear export of viral RNAs involves the interaction of its leucine-rich nuclear export sequence (NES) with nuclear cofactors...
  67. Aligeti M, Behrens R, Pocock G, Schindelin J, Dietz C, Eliceiri K, et al. Cooperativity among Rev-associated nuclear export signals regulates HIV-1 gene expression and is a determinant of virus species tropism. J Virol. 2014;88:14207-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In human cells, the HIV-1 Rev protein recruits hCRM1 to intron-containing viral mRNAs encoding the Rev response element (RRE), thereby ..
  68. Rousseau C, Daniels M, Carlson J, Kadie C, Crawford H, Prendergast A, et al. HLA class I-driven evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype c proteome: immune escape and viral load. J Virol. 2008;82:6434-46 pubmed publisher
    ..to resistant residues among those without the corresponding HLA alleles varied in the order Vpr > Gag > Rev > Pol > Nef > Vif > Tat > Env > Vpu (Fisher's exact test; P < or = 0...
  69. Kramer Hammerle S, Ceccherini Silberstein F, Bickel C, Wolff H, Vincendeau M, Werner T, et al. Identification of a novel Rev-interacting cellular protein. BMC Cell Biol. 2005;6:20 pubmed
    ..The HIV Rev protein is a post-transcriptional inducer of HIV gene expression and an important target for interaction with ..
  70. Fang J, Kubota S, Yang B, Zhou N, Zhang H, Godbout R, et al. A DEAD box protein facilitates HIV-1 replication as a cellular co-factor of Rev. Virology. 2004;330:471-80 pubmed
    HIV-1 Rev escorts unspliced viral mRNAs out of the nucleus of infected cells, which allows formation of infectious HIV-1 virions...
  71. Fridell R, Bogerd H, Cullen B. Nuclear export of late HIV-1 mRNAs occurs via a cellular protein export pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:4421-4 pubmed
    The Rev protein of HIV-1 is essential for the nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs...
  72. Invernizzi C, Xie B, Richard S, Wainberg M. PRMT6 diminishes HIV-1 Rev binding to and export of viral RNA. Retrovirology. 2006;3:93 pubmed
    The HIV-1 Rev protein mediates nuclear export of unspliced and partially spliced viral RNA through interaction with the Rev response element (RRE) by means of an arginine rich motif that is similar to the one found in Tat...
  73. Coyle J, Bor Y, Rekosh D, Hammarskjold M. The Tpr protein regulates export of mRNAs with retained introns that traffic through the Nxf1 pathway. RNA. 2011;17:1344-56 pubmed publisher
    ..reporters in which the mRNA was exported either via the Nxf1/Nxt1 pathway using a CTE or via the Crm1 pathway using Rev/RRE...
  74. Modem S, Badri K, Holland T, Reddy T. Sam68 is absolutely required for Rev function and HIV-1 production. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:873-9 pubmed
    Sam68 functionally complements for, as well as synergizes with, HIV-1 Rev in Rev response element (RRE)-mediated gene expression and virus production...
  75. Sherer N, Swanson C, Hue S, Roberts R, Bergeron J, Malim M. Evolution of a species-specific determinant within human CRM1 that regulates the post-transcriptional phases of HIV-1 replication. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002395 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Rev protein regulates the nuclear export of intron-containing viral RNAs by recruiting the CRM1 nuclear export receptor...
  76. Marchand V, Mereau A, Jacquenet S, Thomas D, Mougin A, Gattoni R, et al. A Janus splicing regulatory element modulates HIV-1 tat and rev mRNA production by coordination of hnRNP A1 cooperative binding. J Mol Biol. 2002;323:629-52 pubmed
    ..The HIV-1 acceptor site A7 is required for tat and rev mRNA production...
  77. Schatz O, Oft M, Dascher C, Schebesta M, Rosorius O, Jaksche H, et al. Interaction of the HIV-1 rev cofactor eukaryotic initiation factor 5A with ribosomal protein L5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:1607-12 pubmed
    It has previously been shown that interaction of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) with the Rev trans-activator protein of HIV-1 mediates the transport of unspliced or incompletely spliced viral mRNAs across the nuclear envelope...
  78. Fouts D, True H, Cengel K, Celander D. Site-specific phosphorylation of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Rev protein accelerates formation of an efficient RNA-binding conformation. Biochemistry. 1997;36:13256-62 pubmed
    ..In this report, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of a recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Rev protein promotes rapid formation of an efficient RNA-binding state...
  79. Powell D, Amaral M, Wu J, Maniatis T, Greene W. HIV Rev-dependent binding of SF2/ASF to the Rev response element: possible role in Rev-mediated inhibition of HIV RNA splicing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:973-8 pubmed
    ..of the structural and enzymatic proteins of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is controlled by the rev regulatory gene product...
  80. Yasuda Inoue M, Kuroki M, Ariumi Y. DDX3 RNA helicase is required for HIV-1 Tat function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:607-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, DDX1 and DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicases are known to be required for efficient HIV-1 Rev-dependent RNA export. However, it remains unclear whether DDX RNA helicases modulate the HIV-1 Tat function...
  81. Farjot G, Sergeant A, Mikaelian I. A new nucleoporin-like protein interacts with both HIV-1 Rev nuclear export signal and CRM-1. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:17309-17 pubmed
    The HIV-1 Rev is a shuttling protein required for the nuclear export of unspliced and partially spliced viral mRNA...
  82. Fang X, Wang J, O Carroll I, Mitchell M, Zuo X, Wang Y, et al. An unusual topological structure of the HIV-1 Rev response element. Cell. 2013;155:594-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe an unusual topological structure that the virus uses to recognize its own mRNA. The viral Rev response element (RRE) adopts an "A"-like structure in which the two legs constitute two tracks of binding sites ..