Gene Symbol: RelB
Description: RELB proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit
Alias: I-REL, IMD53, IREL, REL-B, transcription factor RelB, v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog B (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 3), v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog B, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 3
Species: human
Products:     RelB

Top Publications

  1. Solan N, Miyoshi H, Carmona E, Bren G, Paya C. RelB cellular regulation and transcriptional activity are regulated by p100. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:1405-18 pubmed
    b>RelB mediates the constitutive nuclear pool of NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in myeloid and lymphoid cells, which is believed to be secondary to its weak interaction with the classical NF-kappaB inhibitor proteins, the IkappaBs...
  2. Saccani S, Pantano S, Natoli G. Modulation of NF-kappaB activity by exchange of dimers. Mol Cell. 2003;11:1563-74 pubmed
    ..g., p50/RelA) bound to a subset of target promoters are gradually replaced by slowly activated dimers (e.g., p52/RelB)...
  3. Yoza B, Hu J, Cousart S, Forrest L, McCall C. Induction of RelB participates in endotoxin tolerance. J Immunol. 2006;177:4080-5 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined this paradox and found that RelB, another member of the NF-kappaB family, is induced during the establishment of tolerance...
  4. Yilmaz Z, Weih D, Sivakumar V, Weih F. RelB is required for Peyer's patch development: differential regulation of p52-RelB by lymphotoxin and TNF. EMBO J. 2003;22:121-30 pubmed
    Targeted disruption of the Rel/NF-kappaB family members NF-kappaB2, encoding p100/p52, and RelB in mice results in anatomical defects of secondary lymphoid tissues...
  5. Chen X, Yoza B, El Gazzar M, Hu J, Cousart S, McCall C. RelB sustains IkappaBalpha expression during endotoxin tolerance. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:104-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that LPS-induced de novo expression of RelB is required for generating tolerance to interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) ..
  6. Hailfinger S, Nogai H, Pelzer C, Jaworski M, Cabalzar K, Charton J, et al. Malt1-dependent RelB cleavage promotes canonical NF-kappaB activation in lymphocytes and lymphoma cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:14596-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that Malt1 cleaved the NF-?B family member RelB after Arg-85...
  7. Maier H, Marienfeld R, Wirth T, Baumann B. Critical role of RelB serine 368 for dimerization and p100 stabilization. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:39242-50 pubmed
    In mature B cells RelB-containing complexes are constitutively present in the nucleus, and they are less susceptible to inhibitory kappaB proteins...
  8. Vogel C, Sciullo E, Li W, Wong P, Lazennec G, Matsumura F. RelB, a new partner of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transcription. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2941-55 pubmed
    ..We show that the NF-kappaB subunit RelB is functionally associated with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and mediates transcription of chemokines such ..
  9. Oliver K, Lenihan C, Bruning U, Cheong A, Laffey J, McLoughlin P, et al. Hypercapnia induces cleavage and nuclear localization of RelB protein, giving insight into CO2 sensing and signaling. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:14004-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that in cells exposed to elevated CO(2), the NF-?B family member RelB was cleaved to a lower molecular weight form and translocated to the nucleus in both mouse embryonic fibroblasts ..

More Information

Publications119 found, 100 shown here

  1. Cejas P, Carlson L, Kolonias D, Zhang J, Lindner I, Billadeau D, et al. Regulation of RelB expression during the initiation of dendritic cell differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:7900-16 pubmed
    The transcription factor RelB is required for proper development and function of dendritic cells (DCs), and its expression is upregulated early during differentiation from a variety of progenitors...
  2. Josson S, Xu Y, Fang F, Dhar S, St Clair D, St Clair W. RelB regulates manganese superoxide dismutase gene and resistance to ionizing radiation of prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2006;25:1554-9 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we demonstrate that RelB plays an important radioprotective role in aggressive prostate cancer cells, in part by the induction of ..
  3. Xu Y, Josson S, Fang F, Oberley T, St Clair D, Wan X, et al. RelB enhances prostate cancer growth: implications for the role of the nuclear factor-kappaB alternative pathway in tumorigenicity. Cancer Res. 2009;69:3267-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, high constitutive nuclear levels of RelB have been observed in human prostate cancer specimens with high Gleason scores...
  4. Chen X, El Gazzar M, Yoza B, McCall C. The NF-kappaB factor RelB and histone H3 lysine methyltransferase G9a directly interact to generate epigenetic silencing in endotoxin tolerance. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27857-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that de novo induction of the NF-kappaB transcription factor RelB by endotoxin activation is necessary and sufficient for silencing transcription of acute proinflammatory ..
  5. Busino L, Millman S, Scotto L, Kyratsous C, Basrur V, O CONNOR O, et al. Fbxw7?- and GSK3-mediated degradation of p100 is a pro-survival mechanism in multiple myeloma. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:375-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in multiple myeloma, Fbxw7? and GSK3 function as pro-survival factors through the control of p100 degradation. ..
  6. Ruben S, Klement J, Coleman T, Maher M, Chen C, Rosen C. I-Rel: a novel rel-related protein that inhibits NF-kappa B transcriptional activity. Genes Dev. 1992;6:745-60 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that p50 and I-Rel are components of a feedback pathway where expression of I-Rel may modulate indirectly the expression of genes responsive to the NF-kappa B transcription factor complex. ..
  7. Magni M, Buscemi G, Zannini L. Cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 2 at the interface between DNA damage response and cell physiology. Mutat Res. 2018;776:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Through SIRT1 inhibition, CCAR2 is also involved in metabolism control and, suppressing RelB and p65 activities in the NFkB pathway, it restricts B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production...
  8. Vogelsang P, Karlsen M, Brun J, Jonsson R, Appel S. Altered phenotype and Stat1 expression in Toll-like receptor 7/8 stimulated monocyte-derived dendritic cells from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:R166 pubmed publisher
    ..production by moDC, where increased interleukin (IL)-12p40 secretion in mature pSS moDC correlated with increased RelB expression...
  9. Zheng X, Zang G, Jiang J, He W, Johnston N, Ling H, et al. Attenuating Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Kidney Transplantation by Perfusing Donor Organs With siRNA Cocktail Solution. Transplantation. 2016;100:743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The perfused siRNA solution knocked down the expression of complement 3, RelB, and Fas in the kidney at the mRNA and protein levels...
  10. Nottingham L, Yan C, Yang X, Si H, Coupar J, Bian Y, et al. Aberrant IKKα and IKKβ cooperatively activate NF-κB and induce EGFR/AP1 signaling to promote survival and migration of head and neck cancer. Oncogene. 2014;33:1135-47 pubmed publisher
    ..decreased nuclear localization and phosphorylation of canonical RELA and IκBα and alternative p52 and RELB subunits...
  11. Simmons L, Surles Zeigler M, Li Y, Ford G, Newman G, Ford B. Regulation of inflammatory responses by neuregulin-1 in brain ischemia and microglial cells in vitro involves the NF-kappa B pathway. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:237 pubmed publisher
    ..The levels of the p65, p52, and RelB subunits of NF-kB and IkB-α were determined by western blot analysis and ELISA...
  12. Korch S, Malhotra V, Contreras H, Clark Curtiss J. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis relBE toxin:antitoxin genes are stress-responsive modules that regulate growth through translation inhibition. J Microbiol. 2015;53:783-95 pubmed publisher
    ..mycobacterial growth when the toxin gene (relE, relG, relK) is expressed independently of the antitoxin gene (relB, relF, relJ)...
  13. Eckhardt I, Weigert A, Fulda S. Identification of IRF1 as critical dual regulator of Smac mimetic-induced apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine response. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1562 pubmed publisher IRF1 depletion attenuates BV6-stimulated upregulation of TNFα and interleukin-8 (IL-8) but not p100 and RelB. Concomitant knockdown of IRF1 and p65 cooperate to inhibit BV6-induced cell death, implying a cooperative ..
  14. Wood M, Rios D, Williams I. TNF-? augments RANKL-dependent intestinal M cell differentiation in enteroid cultures. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2016;311:C498-507 pubmed publisher
    ..One contributing mechanism is the rapid induction by TNF-? of Relb and Nfkb2 (NF-?B subunit 2), genes encoding the two subunits of the noncanonical NF-?B heterodimer...
  15. Oarada M, Takahashi Nakaguchi A, Abe T, Nikawa T, Miki T, Gonoi T. Refeeding with glucose rather than fructose elicits greater hepatic inflammatory gene expression in mice. Nutrition. 2015;31:757-65 pubmed publisher
    ..or glucose increased the liver expression of Tlr2, proinflammatory genes (Cxcl2, Cxcl10, Cxcl1, Nfkb1, Nfkb2, RelB, Sectm1α, Il1β), stress response genes (Atf3, Asns, Gadd45 a, Perk, Inhbe), detoxification genes (Hmox1, ..
  16. Bhargavan B, Woollard S, Kanmogne G. Toll-like receptor-3 mediates HIV-1 transactivation via NFκB and JNK pathways and histone acetylation, but prolonged activation suppresses Tat and HIV-1 replication. Cell Signal. 2016;28:7-22 pubmed publisher
    ..CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1, STAT-2, RELB, and nuclear factor kappa-B1 (NFκB1), most of which are known to regulate the HIV promoter activity...
  17. Girard B, Knutson T, Kuker B, McDowell L, Schwertfeger K, OSTRANDER J. Cytoplasmic Localization of Proline, Glutamic Acid, Leucine-rich Protein 1 (PELP1) Induces Breast Epithelial Cell Migration through Up-regulation of Inhibitor of ?B Kinase ? and Inflammatory Cross-talk with Macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:339-350 pubmed publisher
    ..HMECs showed up-regulation of inhibitor of ?B kinase ? (IKK?) and increased phosphorylation of the NF-?B subunit RelB. To determine whether secreted factors produced by PELP1-cyto HMECs promote macrophage activation, THP-1 ..
  18. Mao R, Yang R, Chen X, Harhaj E, Wang X, Fan Y. Regnase-1, a rapid response ribonuclease regulating inflammation and stress responses. Cell Mol Immunol. 2017;14:412-422 pubmed publisher
    ..In cancer cells, Regnase-1 promotes apoptosis by inhibiting anti-apoptotic genes including Bcl2L1, Bcl2A1, RelB and Bcl3...
  19. Liu Z, Mar K, Hanners N, Perelman S, Kanchwala M, Xing C, et al. A NIK-SIX signalling axis controls inflammation by targeted silencing of non-canonical NF-κB. Nature. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..gene promoters and directly inhibit the trans-activation function of the transcription factors RELA and RELB in a negative feedback circuit...
  20. Rodgers G, Doucette C, Soutar D, Liwski R, Hoskin D. Piperine impairs the migration and T cell-activating function of dendritic cells. Toxicol Lett. 2016;242:23-33 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of CD40 and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules and decreased nuclear accumulation of RelB. DC production of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in ..
  21. Fang M, Bauer C. Regulation of stringent factor by branched-chain amino acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:6446-6451 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the cellular concentration of amino acids can directly affect Rel alarmone synthetase/hydrolase activity, thus adding another layer of control to current models of cellular control of the stringent response. ..
  22. Campa V, Baltziskueta E, Bengoa Vergniory N, Gorroño Etxebarria I, Wesołowski R, Waxman J, et al. A screen for transcription factor targets of glycogen synthase kinase-3 highlights an inverse correlation of NFκB and androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer. Oncotarget. 2014;5:8173-87 pubmed
    ..Activation of NFκB was accompanied by an increase in the level of the NFκB family member RelB. Conversely, silencing RelB reduced activation of NFκB by CHIR99021...
  23. Øvrevik J, Låg M, Lecureur V, Gilot D, Lagadic Gossmann D, Refsnes M, et al. AhR and Arnt differentially regulate NF-κB signaling and chemokine responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Cell Commun Signal. 2014;12:48 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Arnt suppressed expression of the NF-κB-subunit RelB which is under transcriptional regulation by p65...
  24. Kim N, Mbongue J, Nicholas D, Esebanmen G, Unternaehrer J, Firek A, et al. Chimeric Vaccine Stimulation of Human Dendritic Cell Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase Occurs via the Non-Canonical NF-κB Pathway. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0147509 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of CTB-INS inoculated DCs showed that RelB bound to NF-κB consensus sequences in the IDO1 promoter, suggesting vaccine stimulation of the non-canonical NF-κ..
  25. Richa R, Yadawa A, Chaturvedi C. Hyperglycemia and high nitric oxide level induced oxidative stress in the brain and molecular alteration in the neurons and glial cells of laboratory mouse, Mus musculus. Neurochem Int. 2017;104:64-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, in addition to alterations in the expressions of iNOS, IKK?, IKB? and NF-?B subunits (RelA-p65/RelB-p50) observed in the neurons and glial cells of different brain regions (hypothalamus, basolateral amygdala and ..
  26. Yang J, Sun Y, He K, Ren J, Liu Z, Liu B, et al. Lymphotoxins Promote the Progression of Human Lymphatic Malformation by Enhancing Lymphatic Endothelial Cell Proliferation. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2602-2615 pubmed publisher
    ..Nuclear translocation of p65, p52, and RelB in the LECs of LMs indicated the activation of classic and alternative NF-?B pathways...
  27. Wang Q, Liu F, Zhang M, Zhou P, Xu C, Li Y, et al. NLRP12 Promotes Mouse Neutrophil Differentiation through Regulation of Non-canonical NF-κB and MAPKERK1/2 Signaling. Int J Biol Sci. 2018;14:147-155 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic ablation of NLRP12 suppresses NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) stabilization, RelB nuclear translocation and neutrophil differentiation in vitro...
  28. Lee S, Li Z, Wu Z, Aau M, Guan P, Karuturi R, et al. Context-specific regulation of NF-?B target gene expression by EZH2 in breast cancers. Mol Cell. 2011;43:798-810 pubmed publisher
    ..of EZH2 is independent of its histone methyltransferase activity but requires the physical interaction with RelA/RelB to promote the expression of NF-?B targets...
  29. Jacque E, Billot K, Authier H, Bordereaux D, Baud V. RelB inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth through p53 transcriptional activation. Oncogene. 2013;32:2661-9 pubmed publisher
    ..factor-kappaB (NF-?B) -activation pathway proceeds via inducible p100 processing, leading to the activation of RelB-containing dimers...
  30. Labonté L, Coulombe P, Zago M, Bourbeau J, Baglole C. Alterations in the expression of the NF-κB family member RelB as a novel marker of cardiovascular outcomes during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e112965 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RelB, an NF-κB family member, suppresses cigarette smoke-induced inflammation but its expression in COPD is unknown...
  31. Seki T, Yamamoto M, Taguchi Y, Miyauchi M, Akiyama N, Yamaguchi N, et al. Visualization of RelB expression and activation at the single-cell level during dendritic cell maturation in Relb-Venus knock-in mice. J Biochem. 2015;158:485-95 pubmed publisher
    b>RelB is activated by the non-canonical NF-κB pathway, which is crucial for immunity by establishing lymphoid organogenesis and B-cell and dendritic cell (DC) maturation...
  32. Jenkinson W, McCarthy N, Dutton E, Cowan J, Parnell S, White A, et al. Natural Th17 cells are critically regulated by functional medullary thymic microenvironments. J Autoimmun. 2015;63:13-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We reveal that thymic stromal MHC class II expression and RelB-dependent medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC), including Aire(+) mTEC, are an essential requirement for nTh17 ..
  33. Al Sadi R, Guo S, Ye D, Rawat M, Ma T. TNF-α Modulation of Intestinal Tight Junction Permeability Is Mediated by NIK/IKK-α Axis Activation of the Canonical NF-κB Pathway. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:1151-65 pubmed publisher
    ..NIK/IKK-α axis regulated the activation of both NF-κB p50/p65 and RelB/p52 pathways...
  34. Mavin E, Nicholson L, Rafez Ahmed S, Gao F, Dickinson A, Wang X. Human Regulatory T Cells Mediate Transcriptional Modulation of Dendritic Cell Function. J Immunol. 2017;198:138-146 pubmed
    ..regulator of the aforementioned genes, concomitant with reduced expression of two NF-?B-signaling related genes RELB and NF?BIZ, in the Treg-DC, together with an increased expression of Wnt5a, a negative regulator of DC ..
  35. Xiao E, Chen Q, Goldman A, Tan H, Healy K, Zoltick B, et al. Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Polygenic Risk Profile Score Predicts Hippocampal Function. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2017;2:673-679 pubmed publisher
    ..individual single nucleotide polymorphisms used in calculating LOAD-RPS, variants in CLU, PICALM, BCL3, PVRL2, and RELB showed strong effects (p < ...
  36. Baik S, Sekai M, Hamazaki Y, Jenkinson W, Anderson G. Relb acts downstream of medullary thymic epithelial stem cells and is essential for the emergence of RANK(+) medullary epithelial progenitors. Eur J Immunol. 2016;46:857-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we have investigated how requirements for the key regulators Foxn1 and Relb map to specific stages of mTEC development...
  37. Iu M, Zago M, Rico De Souza A, Bouttier M, Pareek S, White J, et al. RelB attenuates cigarette smoke extract-induced apoptosis in association with transcriptional regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;108:19-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A major hallmark of COPD is elevated apoptosis of structural lung cells including fibroblasts. The NF-κB member RelB may suppress apoptosis in response to cigarette smoke, but its role in lung cell survival is not known...
  38. Petersheim D, Massaad M, Lee S, Scarselli A, Cancrini C, Moriya K, et al. Mechanisms of genotype-phenotype correlation in autosomal dominant anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141:1060-1073.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Canonical NF-κB-dependent IL-6 secretion and upregulation of the NF-κB subunit 2/p100 and RELB proto-oncogene, NF-κB subunit (RelB) components of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway were diminished significantly ..
  39. Nair P, Starkey M, Haw T, Ruscher R, Liu G, Maradana M, et al. RelB-Deficient Dendritic Cells Promote the Development of Spontaneous Allergic Airway Inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2018;58:352-365 pubmed publisher
    b>RelB is a member of the NF-?B family, which is essential for dendritic cell (DC) function and maturation. However, the contribution of RelB to the development of allergic airway inflammation (AAI) is unknown...
  40. Zhang Y, Wang S, Zhu J, Li C, Zhang T, Liu H, et al. Effect of Atmospheric PM2.5 on Expression Levels of NF-?B Genes and Inflammatory Cytokines Regulated by NF-?B in Human Macrophage. Inflammation. 2018;41:784-794 pubmed publisher
    ..The NF-?B1, NF-?B2, RelA, RelB, and Rel mRNA levels in macrophages were measured with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction...
  41. Westendorp M, Li Weber M, Frank R, Krammer P. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat upregulates interleukin-2 secretion in activated T cells. J Virol. 1994;68:4177-85 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it might contribute to the hypergammaglobulinemia or, together with other cytokines found to be dysregulated, the T-helper cell dysfunctions observed in AIDS patients. ..
  42. Ott M, Lovett J, Mueller L, Verdin E. Superinduction of IL-8 in T cells by HIV-1 Tat protein is mediated through NF-kappaB factors. J Immunol. 1998;160:2872-80 pubmed
    ..The effect of Tat101 on CD28REs in the IL-8 promoter and the subsequent up-regulation of IL-8 secretion is likely to contribute to the immune dysregulation observed during HIV-1 infection. ..
  43. Clark G, Gunningham S, Troy A, Vuckovic S, Hart D. Expression of the RelB transcription factor correlates with the activation of human dendritic cells. Immunology. 1999;98:189-96 pubmed
    The RelB gene product is a member of the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB family of transcription factors. It has been identified recently within mouse antigen-presenting cells and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC)...
  44. Toborek M, Lee Y, Pu H, Malecki A, Flora G, Garrido R, et al. HIV-Tat protein induces oxidative and inflammatory pathways in brain endothelium. J Neurochem. 2003;84:169-79 pubmed
    ..These changes can directly lead to disruption of the BBB. Thus, Tat can play an important role in the development of detrimental vascular changes in the brains of HIV-infected patients. ..
  45. Bellet M, Zocchi L, Sassone Corsi P. The RelB subunit of NF?B acts as a negative regulator of circadian gene expression. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:3304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the RelB subunit of NF?B acts as a repressor of circadian transcription...
  46. Nolin J, Tully J, Hoffman S, Guala A, van der Velden J, Poynter M, et al. The glutaredoxin/S-glutathionylation axis regulates interleukin-17A-induced proinflammatory responses in lung epithelial cells in association with S-glutathionylation of nuclear factor κB family proteins. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;73:143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..both RelA-SSG and IKKα-SSG and acutely increased nuclear content of RelA and tended to decrease nuclear RelB. SiRNA-mediated ablation or genetic ablation of Glrx1 decreased the expression of the NF-κB-regulated genes KC ..
  47. Jimi E, Fukushima H. [NF-κB signaling pathways and the future perspectives of bone disease therapy using selective inhibitors of NF-κB]. Clin Calcium. 2016;26:298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..NF-κB consists of five members, such as p65(RelA), RelB, c-Rel, p50/p105(NF-κB1), and p52/p100(NF-κB2)...
  48. Shankar E, Zhang A, Franco D, Gupta S. Betulinic Acid-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells Involves p53 and Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Pathways. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical studies demonstrate higher expression of NF-κB/p65/RelA, NF-κB/p50/RelB, and cRel as well as downregulation of the p53 network in primary prostate cancer specimens and in metastatic ..
  49. Colomer Winter C, Gaca A, Lemos J. Association of Metal Homeostasis and (p)ppGpp Regulation in the Pathophysiology of Enterococcus faecalis. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..faecalis and beyond. ..
  50. Keogh C, Scholz C, Rodriguez J, Selfridge A, von Kriegsheim A, Cummins E. Carbon dioxide-dependent regulation of NF-?B family members RelB and p100 gives molecular insight into CO2-dependent immune regulation. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11561-11571 pubmed publisher
    ..NF-?B family members p100 and RelB translocate to the nucleus in response to CO2 A cohort of RelB protein-protein interactions (e.g...
  51. Masat E, Gasparini C, Agostinis C, Bossi F, Radillo O, De Seta F, et al. RelB activation in anti-inflammatory decidual endothelial cells: a master plan to avoid pregnancy failure?. Sci Rep. 2015;5:14847 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, DECs show a unique hypo-responsive phenotype to the pro-inflammatory stimulus LPS in order to control the inflammatory response at feto-maternal interface. ..
  52. Ortiz A, Husi H, González Lafuente L, Valiño Rivas L, Fresno M, Sanz A, et al. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14 Promotes AKI. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:823-836 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14 (MAP3K14), the NFκB DNA binding heterodimer RelB/NFκB2, and proteins involved in NFκB2 p100 ubiquitination and proteasomal processing to p52, as ..
  53. Ma L, Shen Y, Zhou P, Zhou J, Guo F. [NF-?B subunits regulate maspin expression in prostate cancer cells in vitro]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2012;34:165-8 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA interference was performed to analyze whether RelB- or RelA-deletion affectes cell death as well as the expression of NF-?B subunits and maspin...
  54. Zeng R, Faccio R, Novack D. Alternative NF-κB Regulates RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation and Mitochondrial Biogenesis via Independent Mechanisms. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30:2287-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we used mice with mutations in key alternative NF-κB pathway proteins, RelB and NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), to dissect the complex relationship between mitochondrial biogenesis and ..
  55. Averina O, Alekseeva M, Shkoporov A, Danilenko V. Functional analysis of the type II toxin-antitoxin systems of the MazEF and RelBE families in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697. Anaerobe. 2015;35:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..ATCC 15697 genome sequence for the presence of toxin-antitoxin genes revealed two relBE-like operons, three relB-mazF-like operons, one relB-vapC-like operon, one solitary gene coding for the MazF toxin and one gene coding for ..
  56. Di Stefano V, Wang B, Parobchak N, Roche N, Rosen T. RelB/p52-mediated NF-κB signaling alters histone acetylation to increase the abundance of corticotropin-releasing hormone in human placenta. Sci Signal. 2015;8:ra85 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucocorticoid stimulates CRH expression in full-term human placenta by promoting noncanonical (RelB/p52 heterodimer-mediated) nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway activity...
  57. Nguyen C, Senfter D, Basílio J, Holzner S, Stadler S, Krieger S, et al. NF-κB contributes to MMP1 expression in breast cancer spheroids causing paracrine PAR1 activation and disintegrations in the lymph endothelial barrier in vitro. Oncotarget. 2015;6:39262-75 pubmed publisher
    RELA, RELB, CREL, NFKB1 and NFKB2, and the upstream regulators NEMO and NIK were knocked-down in lymph endothelial cells (LECs) and in MDA-MB231 breast cancer spheroids to study the contribution of NF-κB in vascular barrier breaching...
  58. Riemann M, Andreas N, Fedoseeva M, Meier E, Weih D, Freytag H, et al. Central immune tolerance depends on crosstalk between the classical and alternative NF-κB pathways in medullary thymic epithelial cells. J Autoimmun. 2017;81:56-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We here demonstrate by TEC-specific gene manipulation in mice that the NF-κB transcription factor subunit RelB, which is activated by the alternative NF-κB pathway, regulates development of mature mTECs in a dose-dependent ..
  59. Shatrov V, Boelaert J, Chouaib S, Droge W, Lehmann V. Iron chelation decreases human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat potentiated tumor necrosis factor-induced NF-kappa B activation in Jurkat cells. Eur Cytokine Netw. 1997;8:37-43 pubmed the presence of iron ions play a major role in HIV-1 Tat enhancement of TNF-induced NF-kappa B activation and that iron chelation may protect Jurkat T cells, at least in part, against oxidative stress induced by Tat. ..
  60. Patrizio M, Colucci M, Levi G. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein decreases cyclic AMP synthesis in rat microglia cultures. J Neurochem. 2001;77:399-407 pubmed
  61. Ohtsu N, Nakatani Y, Yamashita D, Ohue S, Ohnishi T, Kondo T. Eva1 Maintains the Stem-like Character of Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells by Activating the Noncanonical NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Cancer Res. 2016;76:171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate that Eva1 induced GIC proliferation through the activation of the RelB-dependent noncanonical NF-κB pathway by recruiting TRAF2 to the cytoplasmic tail...
  62. De Silva N, Silva K, Anderson M, Bhagat G, Klein U. Impairment of Mature B Cell Maintenance upon Combined Deletion of the Alternative NF-κB Transcription Factors RELB and NF-κB2 in B Cells. J Immunol. 2016;196:2591-601 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factors RELB and NF-κB2 (p100/p52) are the downstream mediators of the alternative pathway; however, the B cell-intrinsic ..
  63. Xiao X, Fan Y, Li J, Zhang X, Lou X, Dou Y, et al. Guidance of super-enhancers in regulation of IL-9 induction and airway inflammation. J Exp Med. 2018;215:559-574 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, we found that OX40 costimulation induces RelB expression, which recruits the histone acetyltransferase p300 to the Il9 locus to catalyze H3K27 acetylation...
  64. Zhang T, Gonzalez D, Cote C, Kerfoot S, Deng S, Cheng Y, et al. Germinal center B cell development has distinctly regulated stages completed by disengagement from T cell help. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..GC precursors first expressed intermediate levels of BCL6 while co-expressing the transcription factors RelB and IRF4, the latter known to repress Bcl6 transcription...
  65. Alcami J, Lain de Lera T, Folgueira L, Pedraza M, Jacque J, Bachelerie F, et al. Absolute dependence on kappa B responsive elements for initiation and Tat-mediated amplification of HIV transcription in blood CD4 T lymphocytes. EMBO J. 1995;14:1552-60 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  66. Kundu M, Sharma S, De Luca A, Giordano A, Rappaport J, Khalili K, et al. HIV-1 Tat elongates the G1 phase and indirectly promotes HIV-1 gene expression in cells of glial origin. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:8130-6 pubmed
    ..The significance of these findings relates to the current hypothesis that indirect effects of HIV-1 infection of the CNS may contribute to the neurological complications associated with AIDS dementia complex. ..
  67. Demarchi F, Gutierrez M, Giacca M. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat protein activates transcription factor NF-kappaB through the cellular interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. J Virol. 1999;73:7080-6 pubmed
    ..Activation of NF-kappaB by Tat required integrity of the basic domain of Tat; previous studies have indicated that this domain is necessary for specific Tat-PKR interaction. ..
  68. Bruce Keller A, Barger S, Moss N, Pham J, Keller J, Nath A. Pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant properties of the HIV protein Tat in a microglial cell line: attenuation by 17 beta-estradiol. J Neurochem. 2001;78:1315-24 pubmed
    ..Together, these data elucidate specific components of the microglial response to Tat and suggest that Tat could contribute to the neuropathology associated with HIV infection through microglial promulgation of oxidative stress. ..
  69. Lee D, Ramakrishnan D, Valenta J, Parney I, Bayless K, Sitcheran R. The NF-?B RelB protein is an oncogenic driver of mesenchymal glioma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57489 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that the NF-?B protein RelB is expressed in a particularly aggressive mesenchymal subtype of glioma, and loss of RelB significantly attenuated ..
  70. Liu R, Tan J, Lin Y, Jia R, Yang W, Liang C, et al. HIV-1 Vpr activates both canonical and noncanonical NF-?B pathway by enhancing the phosphorylation of IKK?/?. Virology. 2013;439:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Knock down of endogenous IKK?/? result in a decrease in Vpr-mediated NF-?B and HIV-1 LTR activation. Given that Vpr is present in HIV-1 particles, our data suggest that Vpr activates the NF-?B pathway immediately after HIV-1 entry. ..
  71. Koliesnik I, Andreas N, Romanov V, Sreekantapuram S, Krljanac B, Haenold R, et al. RelB regulates Th17 differentiation in a cell-intrinsic manner. Immunobiology. 2018;223:191-199 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenotype was dependent on increased RelB activation and suboptimal ROR?t expression...
  72. Vogel C, Sciullo E, Matsumura F. Involvement of RelB in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated induction of chemokines. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;363:722-6 pubmed
    ..factor interferon gamma responsive factor (IFR3) in U937 macrophages in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor- (AhR) and RelB-dependent manner...
  73. Dieguez Gonzalez R, Akar S, Calaza M, Perez Pampin E, Costas J, Torres M, et al. Genetic variation in the nuclear factor kappaB pathway in relation to susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:579-83 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) uniformly spaced along the genomic sequences of 17 core genes of the NFkappaB pathway (REL, RELA, RELB, NFKB1, NFKB2, NFKBIA, NFKBIB, NFKBIE, IKBKA, IKBKB, IKBKE, IKBKAP, KBRAS1, KBRAS2, MAP3K1, MAP3K14, TAX1BP1) were ..
  74. Vallabhapurapu S, Noothi S, Pullum D, Lawrie C, Pallapati R, Potluri V, et al. Transcriptional repression by the HDAC4-RelB-p52 complex regulates multiple myeloma survival and growth. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8428 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that an HDAC4-RelB-p52 complex maintains repressive chromatin around proapoptotic genes Bim and BMF and regulates multiple myeloma (MM)..
  75. Marteau J, Rigaud O, Brugat T, Gault N, Vallat L, Kruhoffer M, et al. Concomitant heterochromatinisation and down-regulation of gene expression unveils epigenetic silencing of RELB in an aggressive subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in males. BMC Med Genomics. 2010;3:53 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, 17 genes were found to be commonly deregulated in resistant male and female cell samples. Among these, RELB was identified as a discriminatory candidate gene repressed in the male and upregulated in the female resistant ..
  76. de Jong S, Albrecht J, Schmidt M, Müller Fleckenstein I, Biesinger B. Activation of noncanonical NF-kappaB signaling by the oncoprotein Tio. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Dependent on TRAF6 and NEMO, Tio enhances the expression of the noncanonical NF-kappaB proteins, p100 and RelB. Independent of TRAF6 and NEMO, Tio mediates stabilization of the noncanonical kinase, NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (..
  77. Zhao M, Tang S, Xin J, Wei Y, Liu D. Reactive oxygen species induce injury of the intestinal epithelium during hyperoxia. Int J Mol Med. 2018;41:322-330 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein and gene levels of RelA, RelB, hypoxia?inducible factor-1?, tumor necrosis factor-? and apoptosis signal?regulating kinase 1 were significantly ..
  78. Labonté L, Bourbeau J, Daskalopoulou S, Zhang M, Coulombe P, Garland K, et al. Club Cell-16 and RelB as Novel Determinants of Arterial Stiffness in Exacerbating COPD Patients. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149974 pubmed publisher club cell protein-16 (CC-16) and surfactant protein D (SPD) and that of a novel marker of CV outcomes in COPD- RelB- in predicting adverse cardiovascular events during exacerbation is not known...
  79. Zago M, Sheridan J, Traboulsi H, Hecht E, Zhang Y, Guerrina N, et al. Low levels of the AhR in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-derived lung cells increases COX-2 protein by altering mRNA stability. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180881 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, we found that RelB, an NF-?B protein, was required for transcriptional induction of both Cox-2 and miR-146a...
  80. Jeang K, Chun R, Lin N, Gatignol A, Glabe C, Fan H. In vitro and in vivo binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein and Sp1 transcription factor. J Virol. 1993;67:6224-33 pubmed
    ..These experiments extend previous genetic experiments and suggest a direct interaction between Tat and Sp1 during transactivation...
  81. Li X, Josef J, Marasco W. Hiv-1 Tat can substantially enhance the capacity of NIK to induce IkappaB degradation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;286:587-94 pubmed
    ..We propose a model to explain these collective experimental findings. ..
  82. Matos P, Jordan P. Rac1, but not Rac1B, stimulates RelB-mediated gene transcription in colorectal cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:13724-32 pubmed
    ..However, we found that in colorectal cells Rac1, but not Rac1b, induces nuclear translocation of RelB and p52, activates transcription from a RelB-specific reporter, and can be isolated in a complex with endogenous ..
  83. Xu J, Zhou P, Wang W, Sun A, Guo F. RelB, together with RelA, sustains cell survival and confers proteasome inhibitor sensitivity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from bone marrow. J Mol Med (Berl). 2014;92:77-92 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RelB, representing the alternative NF-?B activity, functions specifically in lymphoid organogenesis and B-cell ..
  84. Patel H, Zaghloul N, Lin K, Liu S, Miller E, Ahmed M. Hypoxia-induced activation of specific members of the NF-kB family and its relevance to pulmonary vascular remodeling. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2017;92:141-147 pubmed publisher
    ..The NF-κB family (NF-κB1 (p50/p105), NF-κB2 (p52/p100), RelA (p65), RelB, and C-Rel) regulates a wide array of genes involved in inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, and survival...
  85. Maine G, Mao X, Komarck C, Burstein E. COMMD1 promotes the ubiquitination of NF-kappaB subunits through a cullin-containing ubiquitin ligase. EMBO J. 2007;26:436-47 pubmed
    ..Our data uncover that ubiquitination and degradation of NF-kappaB subunits by this COMMD1-containing ubiquitin ligase is a novel and critical mechanism of regulation of NF-kappaB-mediated transcription. ..
  86. Gasparini C, Foxwell B, Feldmann M. RelB/p50 regulates CCL19 production, but fails to promote human DC maturation. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2215-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of the NF-kappaB subunits RelB and p50 in human DC activation using adenoviral vectors expressing RelB or p50...
  87. Giopanou I, Lilis I, Papaleonidopoulos V, Marazioti A, Spella M, Vreka M, et al. Comprehensive Evaluation of Nuclear Factor-κΒ Expression Patterns in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0132527 pubmed publisher
    ..NF)-κB signalling is required for lung adenocarcinoma development in mice, and both of its subunits RelA and RelB were independently reported to be highly expressed in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  88. Wang V, Li Y, Kim D, Zhong X, Du Q, Ghassemian M, et al. Bcl3 Phosphorylation by Akt, Erk2, and IKK Is Required for Its Transcriptional Activity. Mol Cell. 2017;67:484-497.e5 pubmed publisher
    Unlike prototypical IκB proteins, which are inhibitors of NF-κB RelA, cRel, and RelB dimers, the atypical IκB protein Bcl3 is primarily a transcriptional coregulator of p52 and p50 homodimers...
  89. Quach H, Kondo T, Watanabe M, Tamura R, Yajima Y, Sayama S, et al. Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpene Lactones Inhibit Nuclear Translocation of the Nuclear Factor ?B Subunit RelB in Response to a Lymphotoxin ? Stimulation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2017;40:1669-1677 pubmed publisher
    ..did not prevent the processing of the NF-?B subunit p100 induced by LT?, it inhibited the nuclear translocation of RelB and p52 in response to the LT? stimulation...
  90. Visentin S, Renzi M, Levi G. Altered outward-rectifying K(+) current reveals microglial activation induced by HIV-1 Tat protein. Glia. 2001;33:181-90 pubmed
    ..We propose that such effect of Tat could be part of the process of microglial activation known to take place in the brain of persons with neuro-AIDS. ..
  91. Blazquez M, Macho A, Ortiz C, Lucena C, Lopez Cabrera M, Sanchez Madrid F, et al. Extracellular HIV type 1 Tat protein induces CD69 expression through NF-kappaB activation: possible correlation with cell surface Tat-binding proteins. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999;15:1209-18 pubmed
  92. Mineva N, Rothstein T, Meyers J, Lerner A, Sonenshein G. CD40 ligand-mediated activation of the de novo RelB NF-kappaB synthesis pathway in transformed B cells promotes rescue from apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17475-85 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that CD40 signals B cell survival in part via transcriptional activation of the RelB NF-kappaB subunit. CD40L treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induced levels of relB mRNA...