Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: RBP4
Description: retinol binding protein 4, plasma
Alias: RDCCAS, PRBP, RBP, plasma retinol-binding protein, retinol-binding protein 4, retinol-binding protein 4, interstitial
Publications170 found, 100 shown here
- The cAMP-HMGA1-RBP4 system: a novel biochemical pathway for modulating glucose homeostasisEusebio Chiefari
Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica G Salvatore, Catanzaro, Italy
BMC Biol 7:24. 2009..Also, the hypothesis that increased insulin sensitivity in Hmga1-deficient mice could be related to the deficit of an insulin resistance factor is discussed...
- Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetesQin Yang
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nature 436:356-62. 2005..Here we show, using DNA arrays, that expression of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) is elevated in adipose tissue of adipose-Glut4(-/-) mice...
- Phenotype in retinol deficiency due to a hereditary defect in retinol binding protein synthesisM W Seeliger
University Eye Hospital, Department II, Tubingen, Germany
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40:3-11. 1999To describe the phenotype caused by a retinol deficiency in a family with compound heterozygous missense mutations (Ile41Asn and Gly75Asp) in the gene for serum retinol binding protein (RBP).
- High plasma retinol binding protein-4 and low plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with severity of glucose intolerance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitusSung Hee Choi
Division of Endocrinology and Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Bundang Ku, Sungnam City, Gyeonggi do 463 707, South Korea
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:3142-8. 2008..Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in the future. The role of adipokines in women with pGDM has not been established...
- Circulating retinol-binding protein 4, cardiovascular risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease in elderlyErik Ingelsson
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Atherosclerosis 206:239-44. 2009Our aim was to examine relations of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) to cardiovascular risk factors, and prevalent metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large community-based sample of elderly.
- Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is primarily associated with adipose tissue mass in childrenD Friebe
University Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
Int J Pediatr Obes 6:e345-52. 2011b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a novel adipocytokine that may link obesity and insulin resistance. We aimed to discriminate between primary and secondary associations of RBP4 with obesity and related disease.
- Decreased concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 in sera of epithelial ovarian cancer patients: a potential biomarker identified by proteomicsLucie Lorkova
Institute of Pathological Physiology, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Oncol Rep 27:318-24. 2012..A-IV confirms previous studies but the identification of significantly decreased levels of RBP4 in ovarian cancer patients represents a novel observation...
- Retinol-binding protein 4: a new marker of virus-induced steatosis in patients infected with hepatitis c virus genotype 1Salvatore Petta
Cattedra ed Unità Operativa di Gastroenterologia, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Hepatology 48:28-37. 2008Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipocytokine associated with insulin resistance (IR)...
- Human RBP4 adipose tissue expression is gender specific and influenced by leptinKatarina Kos
Department of Diabetes and Vascular Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 74:197-205. 2011The role of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) in human insulin resistance remains controversial, which may in part be explained by a gender-specific secretion of RBP4 in adipose tissue (AT)...
- An RBP4 promoter polymorphism increases risk of type 2 diabetesM van Hoek
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, P O Box 2040, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Diabetologia 51:1423-8. 2008Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), originally known for retinol transport, was recently identified as an adipokine affecting insulin resistance...
- Serum retinol-binding protein 4 correlates with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in HIV-infected subjects receiving highly active antiretroviral therapySang Hoon Han
Department of Internal Medicine and AIDS Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Metabolism 58:1523-9. 2009..Recent studies reported that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is associated with IR, dyslipidemia, and obesity in non-HIV-infected populations...
- Association among retinol-binding protein 4, small dense LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL levels in dyslipidemia subjectsJia Wu
Department of Biochemistry, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 210002, Nanjing, PR China
Clin Biochem 45:619-22. 2012To investigate retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and their associations in dyslipidemia subjects.
- A new method for purification of human plasma retinol-binding protein and transthyretinPullakhandam Raghu
Department of Biophysics, National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Jamai Osmania, Hyderabad 500 007, India
Biotechnol Appl Biochem 38:19-24. 2003Retinol is transported in the blood bound to a specific carrier protein called retinol-binding protein (RBP), which in turn binds to another protein, transthyretin (TTR), a homotetrameric, thyroid-hormone-transporting protein...
- Macrophages are novel sites of expression and regulation of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4)M Broch
CIBER CB06 03 Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
Physiol Res 59:299-303. 2010..Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine associated with parameters of obesity including insulin resistance indices, body mass index, waist ..
- Circulating retinol binding protein 4 in critically ill patients before specific treatment: prognostic impact and correlation with organ function, metabolism and inflammationAlexander Koch
Department of Medicine III, RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Crit Care 14:R179. 2010..b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) promotes insulin resistance in mice and is systemically elevated in patients with obesity and ..
- Serum adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, retinol-binding protein 4, and adiponectin concentrations in relation to the development of the metabolic syndrome in Korean boys: a 3-y prospective cohort studyKyung M Choi
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
Am J Clin Nutr 93:19-26. 2011Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and adiponectin have been associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in adults.
- Serum retinol-binding protein is more highly expressed in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue and is a marker of intra-abdominal fat massNora Kloting
Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Leipzig, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Cell Metab 6:79-87. 2007..Levels of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4), secreted by fat and liver cells, are increased in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 and its relation to insulin resistance in obese children before and after weight lossThomas Reinehr
Department of Pediatric Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents Datteln, University of Witten Herdecke, Dr F Steiner Strasse 5, Datteln, Germany
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2287-93. 2008There are limited and controversial data concerning the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), weight status, and insulin resistance in obese humans and especially in children.
- Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with impaired glucose regulation and microalbuminuria in a Chinese populationM Xu
Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Diabetologia 52:1511-9. 2009Increased retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been reported in association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes...
- Plasma levels and adipose tissue messenger ribonucleic acid expression of retinol-binding protein 4 are reduced during calorie restriction in obese subjects but are not related to diet-induced changes in insulin sensitivityMichaela Vitkova
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Université Paul Sabatier U858, IFR31, BP 84225, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:2330-5. 2007Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) may play a role in the development of insulin resistance.
- Insulin resistance in liver cirrhosis is not associated with circulating retinol-binding protein 4Eray Yagmur
Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, RWTH University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Diabetes Care 30:1168-72. 2007Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been identified as a novel adipokine mediating systemic insulin resistance, and elevated serum RBP4 indicates overt or impending insulin resistance in lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects...
- Clinical implications of serum retinol-binding protein 4 in asthmatic childrenYeo Hoon Park
Department of Pediatrics and Institute of Allergy, BK 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Research Center for Human Natural Defense System, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
J Korean Med Sci 24:1010-4. 2009..Total eosinophil count, serum total IgE, serum eosinophil cationic protein, and serum RBP4 were measured in all subjects...
- Evidence that kidney function but not type 2 diabetes determines retinol-binding protein 4 serum levelsAndrea Henze
Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology of Nutrition, Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
Diabetes 57:3323-6. 2008It has been suggested that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) links adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, circulating RBP4 levels are also affected by kidney function...
- Biochemical but not clinical vitamin A deficiency results from mutations in the gene for retinol binding proteinH K Biesalski
Department of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany
Am J Clin Nutr 69:931-6. 1999..In both siblings, plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations were below the limit of detection (<0...
- Characterization of two post-translationally processed forms of human serum retinol-binding protein: altered ratios in chronic renal failureS Jaconi
Clinique de Dermatologie, Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Geneve, Switzerland
J Lipid Res 36:1247-53. 1995Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is the specific blood carrier for the transport of retinol (vitamin A) to target tissues...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with impaired glucose tolerance but not with whole body or hepatic insulin resistance in Mexican AmericansAlberto O Chavez
Diabetes Division, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 296:E758-64. 2009Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), a novel protein secreted mainly by adipose tissue, has been associated with insulin resistance in obese subjects and in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
- Circulating retinol-binding protein 4 and subclinical cardiovascular disease in the elderlyErik Ingelsson
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Diabetes Care 32:733-5. 2009We evaluated associations of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD).
- Retinol-binding protein 4 in twins: regulatory mechanisms and impact of circulating and tissue expression levels on insulin secretion and actionRasmus Ribel-Madsen
Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark
Diabetes 58:54-60. 2009..The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate the ..
- Serum retinol-binding protein 4 is elevated and positively associated with insulin resistance in postmenopausal womenChiying An
Department of Endocrinology, First Clinical Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, PR China, 150001
Endocr J 56:987-96. 2009Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a newly discovered adipokine, which is reported to be correlated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
- The structure of human retinol-binding protein (RBP) with its carrier protein transthyretin reveals an interaction with the carboxy terminus of RBPH M Naylor
Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0146, USA
Biochemistry 38:2647-53. 1999..or retinol, vitamin A is transported to the target cells as all-trans-retinol bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP)...
- Effect of RBP4 gene variants on circulating RBP4 concentration and type 2 diabetes in a Chinese populationC Hu
Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People s Hospital, Shanghai, China
Diabet Med 25:11-8. 2008b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a newly discovered adipokine, which plays a role in insulin resistance and obesity...
- Circulating retinol-binding protein-4 concentration might reflect insulin resistance-associated iron overloadJose Manuel Fernandez-Real
Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Nutrition Unit, Dr Josep Trueta Hospital, Girona Institute for Biomedical Research, Girona, Spain
Diabetes 57:1918-25. 2008The mechanisms behind the association between retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) and insulin resistance are not well understood. An interaction between iron and vitamin A status, of which RBP4 is a surrogate, has long been recognized...
- Variations of retinol binding protein 4 levels are not associated with changes in insulin resistance during pubertyN Santoro
Department of Pediatrics F Fede Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
J Endocrinol Invest 32:411-4. 2009b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obese adults and children...
- Association of serum retinol-binding protein 4 and visceral adiposity in Chinese subjects with and without type 2 diabetesWeiping Jia
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai JiaoTong University Affiliated Sixth People s Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, China
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:3224-9. 2007Previous studies have shown that adipose-derived serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are increased in insulin-resistant mouse models and in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes...
- Microalbuminuria is a major determinant of elevated plasma retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patientsJ Raila
Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
Kidney Int 72:505-11. 2007Plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) may be a new adipokine linked to obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The impact of diabetic nephropathy on plasma RBP4 levels, however, is not known...
- Retinol-binding protein-4 attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of IRS1 and ERK1/2 in primary human adipocytesAnita Ost
Department of Cell Biology and Diabetes Research Centre, Linkoping University, SE58185 Linköping, Sweden
FASEB J 21:3696-704. 2007..Animal models and patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit elevated levels of circulating retinol-binding protein (RBP4), and RBP4 can induce insulin resistance in mice. However, little is known about how RBP4 affects insulin signaling...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with insulin resistance and body fat distribution in nonobese subjects without type 2 diabetesShai Gavi
Department of Medicine, Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, School of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 8154, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1886-90. 2007..Adipose tissue is responsible for releasing various adipokines that have been related to insulin resistance. Understanding the relationship of these adipokines to insulin resistance may foster the development of new treatments for diabetes...
- Visceral adiposity is associated with serum retinol binding protein-4 levels in healthy womenJi Won Lee
Department of Family Medicine, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Yong Dong Severance Hospital, Kangnam P O Box 1217, Seoul, Korea
Obesity (Silver Spring) 15:2225-32. 2007Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) has been reported to impair insulin sensitivity throughout the body. We investigated the relationship between serum RBP4 levels and adiposity indices as well as metabolic risk variables.
- Retinol-binding protein 4 and prediction of incident coronary events in healthy men and womenZiad Mallat
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unit 689, Hopital Lariboisiere, 75010 Paris, France
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:255-60. 2009Recent studies reported that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has a causal role in insulin resistance and suggested that its circulating levels may predict cardiovascular disease. However, the latter assumption has not yet been tested.
- Adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4, and leptin in protracted critical illness of pulmonary originLies Langouche
Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Crit Care 13:R112. 2009..Recently, several hormones secreted by adipose tissue have been identified to be involved in overall insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome-related conditions. However, little is known about these adipokines in critical illness...
- Decreased hepatic RBP4 secretion is correlated with reduced hepatic glucose production but is not associated with insulin resistance in patients with liver cirrhosisMatthias J Bahr
Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 70:60-5. 2009..This study was designed to determine circulating levels and hepatic production of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in relation to parameters of hepatic and systemic metabolism in patients with liver cirrhosis.
- Plasma retinol-binding protein-4 concentrations are elevated in human subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetesYoung Min Cho
Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon Dong, Chongno Gu, Seoul, 110 744, Korea
Diabetes Care 29:2457-61. 2006..Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), a new adipokine, was recently reported to provide a link between obesity and insulin resistance...
- Serum retinol-binding protein 4 is reduced after weight loss in morbidly obese subjectsDominik G Haider
Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Allgemeines Krankenhaus Wien, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1168-71. 2007Administration of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) impairs insulin sensitivity in animals, and elevated serum concentrations have been associated with insulin resistance in humans.
- Comparative phenotypic analyses of human plasma and urinary retinol binding protein using mass spectrometric immunoassayUrban A Kiernan
Intrinsic Bioprobes, Inc, Tempe, AZ 85282, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 297:401-5. 2002..In this work, MSIA is used in the comparative analyses of retinol binding protein (RBP) from the plasma and urine of a small study population...
- High circulating retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with elevated liver fat but not with total, subcutaneous, visceral, or intramyocellular fat in humansNorbert Stefan
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Nephrology, Vascular Disease, and Clinical Chemistry, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tubingen, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Diabetes Care 30:1173-8. 2007Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine that induced insulin resistance in mice, and high plasma RBP4 levels were associated with insulin-resistant states in humans...
- Retinol binding protein 4 as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes and prediabetic intermediate traitsRebekah L Craig
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine, 4701 West, Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 7199, USA
Mol Genet Metab 90:338-44. 2007Serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) was recently described as a new adipokine that reduced peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis...
- Raised serum, adipocyte, and adipose tissue retinol-binding protein 4 in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome: effects of gonadal and adrenal steroidsBee K Tan
Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Clinical Sciences Research Institute, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:2764-72. 2007..Recent studies have shown that serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels increase with obesity...
- Serum retinol-binding protein 4 levels in patients with diabetic retinopathyZ Z Li
Department of Endocrinology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, China
J Int Med Res 38:95-9. 2010Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been reported to be involved in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 in human obesityJurgen Janke
Franz Volhard Clinical Research Center Haus 129, Charite Campus Buch, Wiltbergstr 50, 13125 Berlin, Germany
Diabetes 55:2805-10. 2006..as glucose sensors and regulate systemic glucose metabolism through release of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4). This model has not been validated in humans...
- Regulation of retinol binding protein 4 production in primary human adipocytes by adiponectin, troglitazone and TNF-alphaH Sell
Diabetologia 50:2221-3. 2007
- Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome, but not with insulin resistance, in men with type 2 diabetes or coronary artery diseaseM von Eynatten
Department of Nephrology, Technical University Munich, Ismaningerstr 22, 81675, Munich, Germany
Diabetologia 50:1930-7. 2007Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has recently been reported to be associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome...
- Retinol binding protein 4 expression in humans: relationship to insulin resistance, inflammation, and response to pioglitazoneAiwei Yao-Borengasser
The Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:2590-7. 2007b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) was recently found to be expressed and secreted by adipose tissue, and was strongly associated with insulin resistance.
- Regulatory SNP in the RBP4 gene modified the expression in adipocytes and associated with BMILkhagvasuren Munkhtulga
Division of Human Genetics, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan
Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:1006-14. 2010Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a recently identified adipokine that was involved in insulin resistance...
- Identification of a regulatory SNP in the retinol binding protein 4 gene associated with type 2 diabetes in MongoliaLkhagvasuren Munkhtulga
Division of Human Genetics, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, 3311 1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan
Hum Genet 120:879-88. 2007Increased levels of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) in serum is associated with insulin resistance...
- Effects of genetic variation in the human retinol binding protein-4 gene (RBP4) on insulin resistance and fat depot-specific mRNA expressionPeter Kovacs
Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
Diabetes 56:3095-100. 2007Serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a new liver- and adipocyte-derived signal that may contribute to insulin resistance. Therefore, the RBP4 gene represents a plausible candidate gene involved in susceptibility to type 2 diabetes.
- Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesityOuliana Ziouzenkova
Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nat Med 13:695-702. 2007..Here we show that Rald is present in rodent fat, binds retinol-binding proteins (CRBP1, RBP4), inhibits adipogenesis and suppresses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and RXR responses...
- Expression of genes associated with retinoid metabolism in the trout ovarian follicleLiraz Levi
Department of Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa, Israel
Biol Reprod 79:570-7. 2008..Therefore, we investigated the expression of six genes (bcmo1, bcdo2, rbp1, lrat, rbp4, and stra6) associated with retinoids and carotenoids in juvenile and adult trout ovaries...
- Increased serum retinol-binding protein 4 concentrations in women with gestational diabetes mellitusTe Fu Chan
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital
Reprod Sci 14:169-74. 2007The authors hypothesized that serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) concentrations will be higher in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) subjects...
- Unravelling the molecular control of calvarial suture fusion in children with craniosynostosisAnna K Coussens
Cooperative Research Centre for Diagnostics, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4001, Australia
BMC Genomics 8:458. 2007..Expression differences were also analysed between each unfused suture type, between sutures from syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostosis patients, and between unfused sutures from individuals with and without craniosynostosis...
- Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels relate to inflammation and fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseaseKerry Lee Milner
Garvan Institute of Medical Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Hepatology 49:1926-34. 2009..in inflammation, namely adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP), lipocalin-2, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4)...
- Characterization of a line of pigs previously selected for increased litter size for RBP4 and follistatinC D Blowe
Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 7621, USA
J Anim Breed Genet 123:389-95. 2006..1 marker loci coding for genes known to affect litter size: oestrogen receptor (ESR), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and follistatin (FS)...
- Candidate gene markers for litter size in different German pig linesC Drogemuller
Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany
J Anim Sci 79:2565-70. 2001..size, the estrogen receptor (ESR) gene, the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene, and the retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) gene, were evaluated for their association with the number of piglets born alive in different German pig lines...
- Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and surface plasmon resonance-based assays for retinoid and transthyretin binding to retinol-binding protein 4Orzala Sharif
Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation GNF, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
Anal Biochem 392:162-8. 2009Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) is an emerging candidate drug target for type 2 diabetes and lipofuscin-mediated macular degeneration...
- Elevated retinol-binding protein 4 levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in Chinese peopleQibin Qi
Key Laboratory of Systems Biology, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:4827-34. 2007High retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is thought to be associated with insulin resistance in humans. However, evidence from large-scale populations about the relationship between RBP4 and metabolic diseases is scarce.
- Retinol binding protein 4--a novel association with early-onset preeclampsiaEdi Vaisbuch
Intramural Division, Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD NIH DHHS, Hutzel Women s Hospital, Bethesda, MD, USA
J Perinat Med 38:129-39. 2010..b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), a novel adipokine, plays a role in obesity-related disorders, as well as in the regulation of ..
- Thiazolidinedione addition reduces the serum retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin and sulfonylureaKun Der Lin
Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan
Transl Res 151:309-14. 2008Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been found to induce insulin resistance and to be increased in type 2 diabetes...
- Structural modifications of serum transthyretin in rats during protein-energy malnutritionAndrea Henze
University of Potsdam, Institute of Nutritional Science, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Arthur Scheunert Allee 114 116, D 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 22:3270-4. 2008..as well as other markers of nutritional status as body weight, food consumption, total serum protein and serum RBP4 levels as well as antioxidative capacity were determined...
- Current status of liver disease in Korea: nonalcoholic fatty liver diseaseSang Hoon Park
Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Korea
Korean J Hepatol 15:S34-9. 2009..the regulation of adipokines, such as downregulation of adiponectin and upregulation of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and ghrelin...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 levels in obese children and adolescents with glucose intoleranceD Yeste
Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Hospital Maternoinfantil Vall d Hebron, Autonomous University, and CIBER Rare Diseases CIBER ER, Barcelona, Spain
Horm Res Paediatr 73:335-40. 2010Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is known to be involved in obesity-associated insulin resistance...
- Retinoid receptors, transporters, and metabolizers as therapeutic targets in late onset Alzheimer diseaseAnn B Goodman
The Massachusetts Mental Health Center Academic Division of Public Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
J Cell Physiol 209:598-603. 2006..This is the first report to suggest that RBP4 is an amenable treatment target in LOAD...
- Vitamin A facilitates enteric nervous system precursor migration by reducing Pten accumulationMing Fu
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Development 137:631-40. 2010..and that vitamin A depletion causes distal bowel aganglionosis in serum retinol-binding-protein-deficient (Rbp4(-/-)) mice...
- Mechanistic studies of the immunochemical termination of self-tolerance with unnatural amino acidsJan Grünewald
Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:4337-42. 2009..Immunization of mice with a pNO(2)Phe(43) mutant of murine retinol-binding protein (RBP4) also elicited a high titer IgG antibody response, which was cross-reactive with wild-type mRBP4...
- Retinoic acid enhances osteogenesis in cranial suture-derived mesenchymal cells: potential mechanisms of retinoid-induced craniosynostosisAaron W James
Hagey Pediatric Regenerative Research Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
Plast Reconstr Surg 125:1352-61. 2010..The authors used the culture of mouse cranial suture-derived mesenchymal cells to probe the potential cellular mechanisms of this teratogen to better elucidate mechanisms of retinoid-induced suture fusion...
- Retinol-binding protein levels are increased in association with gonadotropin levels in healthy womenHideo Makimura
Program in Nutritional Metabolism and Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Metabolism 58:479-87. 2009Recent studies have demonstrated an association between retinol-binding protein (RBP4) and insulin resistance. Retinol-binding protein is decreased in women and elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome...
- Reduction of elevated serum retinol binding protein in obese children by lifestyle intervention: association with subclinical inflammationPrabhakaran Balagopal
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, and Nemours Children s Clinic, 807 Children s Way, Jacksonville, FL 32207, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1971-4. 2007Retinol binding protein (RBP4), secreted primarily from the liver and adipose tissues, was recently proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance...
- Elevated level of serum retinol-binding protein 4 in pregnancy-induced hypertensionSeiji Inoue
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, Japan
J Obstet Gynaecol Res 35:293-300. 2009..Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a protein expressed and secreted by adipocytes, has been identified as a novel regulator of insulin resistance...
- Retinol binding protein 4: an adipokine associated with intra-amniotic infection/inflammationEdi Vaisbuch
Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD NIH DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 23:111-9. 2010b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), a specific carrier for retinol in the blood, is a novel adipokine that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance, and its gene expression has been associated with adipose tissue ..
- Anti-diabetic effects of cinnamaldehyde and berberine and their impacts on retinol-binding protein 4 expression in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitusWei Zhang
Department of Endocrinology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, China
Chin Med J (Engl) 121:2124-8. 2008b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), as an adipocyte secreted cytokine, was recently found to be inversely correlated with expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in insulin resistance (IR) state and to have an intimate relationship ..
- Elevation of plasma retinol-binding protein 4 and reduction of plasma adiponectin in subjects with cerebral infarctionMasami Sasaki
Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama 357 0111, Japan Hannou Municipal Naguri Clinic, Saitama, Japan
Metabolism 59:527-32. 2010The present study was undertaken to determine plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and adiponectin levels in subjects with cerebral infarction...
- Application of an allosteric model to describe the interactions among retinol binding protein 4, transthyretin, and small molecule retinol binding protein 4 ligandsPeter Coward
Department of Metabolic Disorders, Amgen, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
Anal Biochem 384:312-20. 2009b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a serum protein that serves as the major transport protein for retinol (vitamin A)...
- Role of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in cell viability, lipogenesis, and retinol-binding protein 4 expression in adipocytesHye Young Sung
Department of Physiology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dalseo Gu, Daegu, South Korea
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 382:303-10. 2010..and adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as the protein level and secretion of plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP4) in human adipocytes, were measured by western blot...
- Elevated serum gamma-glutamyltransferase levels are independently associated with insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjectsJang Yel Shin
Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 84:152-7. 2009..We investigated the associations of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) with visceral obesity, adiponectin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), and insulin resistance (IR) and compared these associations with other liver enzymes in non-..
- Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with insulin resistance, but appears unsuited for metabolic screening in women with polycystic ovary syndromeMatthias Mohlig
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, 12200 Berlin, Germany
Eur J Endocrinol 158:517-23. 2008..Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) secreted from adipose and liver tissues has been linked to IR...
- Serum retinol-binding protein 4 levels are elevated in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseaseJ A Seo
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 68:555-60. 2008Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a recently identified adipokine that is elevated in the serum in several insulin-resistant states...
- [Relationship of genetic polymorphism of PRLR and RBP4 genes with litter size traits in pig]Yan Xiao Sun
College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai an 271018, China
Yi Chuan 31:63-8. 2009The polymorphism of prolactin receptor (PRLR) and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) genes was detected by PCR-RFLP method, and the effects of PRLR and RBP4 genes on litter size traits in pig were analyzed by the least square analysis...
- Long-term Fenretinide treatment prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosisFrederic Preitner
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E1420-9. 2009..Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) knockout mice were also fed the HFD with or without FEN in a preventive study...
- Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement on C-reactive protein, IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patientsAn Pan
Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 294 Tai Yuan Road, Shanghai 200031, China
Br J Nutr 101:1145-9. 2009Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus...
- Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 gene expression increases after pioglitazone treatment and is associated with peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma responsivenessAiwei Yao-Borengasser
Research, 598 151, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Department of Medicine, 4300 West 7th Street, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:4431-9. 2008..SCD-deficient mice are protected from obesity, and the ob/ob mouse has high levels of SCD. This study was designed to better characterize SCD1 gene and protein expression in humans with varying insulin sensitivity...
- Low-dose pioglitazone and low-dose flutamide added to metformin and oestro-progestagens for hyperinsulinaemic women with androgen excess: add-on benefits disclosed by a randomized double-placebo study over 24 monthsLourdes Ibanez
Endocrinology Unit, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 71:351-7. 2009..We explored whether low-dose pioglitazone (Pio) and flutamide (Flu) has readily detectable add-on effects...
- Effect of high dose thiamine on the levels of urinary protein biomarkers in diabetes mellitus type 2Samreen Riaz
School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
J Pharm Biomed Anal 54:817-25. 2011..levels of transthyretin, AMBP, haptoglobin precursor were found to decrease while albumin, zinc α 2 glycoprotein, RBP4 and E cadherin were found to increase in the diabetic patients as compared to the controls...
- Retinol-binding protein 4: a novel adipokine implicated in the genesis of LGA in the absence of gestational diabetes mellitusShali Mazaki-Tovi
Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD NIH DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA
J Perinat Med 38:147-55. 2010..Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), only recently recognized as an adipokine, has been proposed to modulate systemic insulin sensitivity...
- [Effects of multi-genes for reproductive traits in Tibet pig]Xuan Liu
College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Bejing 100193, China
Yi Chuan 32:480-5. 2010..of estrogen receptor (ESR), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSHb), prolactin receptor (PRLR), and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) in Tibet pig and to analyze the effects of these variants and their combination genotypes on ..
- Reduction of JNK1 expression with antisense oligonucleotide improves adiposity in obese miceXing Xian Yu
Department of Antisense Drug Discovery, Isis Pharmaceuticals, 1896 Rutherford Rd, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E436-45. 2008..levels of AR-beta(3) and UCP1 by >60% in BAT, 2) reduced mRNA levels of ACC1, ACC2, FAS, SCD1, DGAT1, DGAT2, and RBP4 by 30-60% in WAT, and 3) reduced mRNA levels of ACC1, FAS, G-6-Pase, and PKCepsilon by 40-70% and increased levels ..
- Vitamin A deficiency in an infant with PAGOD syndromeRalitza Gavrilova
Department of Medical Genetics, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
Am J Med Genet A 149:2241-7. 2009..During pregnancy maternal vitamin A is taken up by retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) which is expressed in the embryonic visceral endoderm from pregastrulational stages...
- Fatty acid synthase gene expression in human adipose tissue: association with obesity and type 2 diabetesJ Berndt
Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Leipzig, Ph Rosenthal Str 27, 04103, Leipzig, Germany
Diabetologia 50:1472-80. 2007..In the present study we tested the hypothesis that increased FASN expression links metabolic alterations of excess energy intake, including hyperinsulinaemia, dyslipidaemia and altered adipokine profile to increased body fat mass...
- Control of metabolic homeostasis by stress signaling is mediated by the lipocalin NLazJulie Hull-Thompson
Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of America
PLoS Genet 5:e1000460. 2009..Lipocalin family member Neural Lazarillo (NLaz), a homologue of vertebrate Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) and Retinol Binding Protein 4 (RBP4)...
- Effects of rosuvastatin and colestimide on metabolic parameters and urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperlipidemiaKohzo Takebayashi
Department of Internal Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, Saitama, Japan
South Med J 102:361-8. 2009....
- Genetic structure of candidate genes for litter size in Italian Large White pigsS Dall'Olio
Dipartimento di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Sezione di Allevamenti Zootecnici, Reggio Emilia, Italy
Vet Res Commun 34:S203-6. 2010..The remaining seven markers were polymorphic with minor allele frequencies ranging from 0.10 (AFP) to 0.48 (RBP4)...
- Early postnatal oestradiol exposure causes insulin resistance and signs of inflammation in circulation and skeletal muscleCamilla Alexanderson
Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
J Endocrinol 201:49-58. 2009..increased the expression of genes encoding complement component 3 (C3), Mcp-1, retinol binding protein-4 (Rbp4) and transforming growth factor beta1 (Tgfbeta1)...
- Ethnicity, insulin resistance, and inflammatory adipokines in women at high and low risk for vascular diseaseJosef V Silha
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, 715 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, R3E 3P4 Canada
Diabetes Care 30:286-91. 2007..We sought to compare the relationship between body composition, insulin resistance, and inflammatory adipokines in Aboriginal Canadian women, who are at high risk of vascular disease, with white women...
- A 2.4-megabase physical map spanning the CYP2C gene cluster on chromosome 10q24I C Gray
Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Clare Hall Laboratories, South Mimms, Herts, England
Genomics 28:328-32. 1995..The map also includes an adjacent gene, the serum retinol binding protein gene (RBP4)...
- RETINOL BINDING PROTEIN-4 AND INSULIN RESISTANCETimothy Graham; Fiscal Year: 2007..We used Affymetrix global gene analysis to identify retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) as a candidate molecule for mediating systemic insulin resistance in this model...
- Molecular Components Affecting Ocular Retinoid HomeostasisJOHANNES FRIEDERICH VONLINTIG; Fiscal Year: 2010..We also will generate compound knockouts lacking both STRA6 and the serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) to test for the hypothesis that RBP4 triggers the pathological alterations seen in STRA6-..
- GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER REGULATION IN OBESITY AND DIABETESBarbara Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2007..mice, we identified such a protein that is elevated in serum of insulin-resistant rodents and humans, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4). We demonstrated that RBP4 causes insulin resistance in normal mice...
- RISK FACTORS FOR CVD IN WOMENJoAnn Manson; Fiscal Year: 2009..Adipose tissue may play a key role in vascular disease, through secretion of adipocytokines, including retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin, and resistin, which are involved in inflammation and insulin resistance...
- RISK FACTORS FOR CVD IN WOMENJOANN ELISABETH MANSON; Fiscal Year: 2010..Adipose tissue may play a key role in vascular disease, through secretion of adipocytokines, including retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin, and resistin, which are involved in inflammation and insulin resistance...
- Prevention of Post-Prandial Hypoglycemia Using n-3/n-6 PUFA in PCOSSidika Kasim Karakas; Fiscal Year: 2007..Our aim is to identify the best supplement that can prevent hypoglycemia and its unwanted consequences in these young women-an under-studied patient population. ..
- Dietary Polyphenols, Urinary Biomarkers & Risk of Type 2 DiabetesQi Sun; Fiscal Year: 2010..Findings of the proposed application can be used to develop more effective dietary advice and to make changes in food composition to contribute to the prevention of type 2 diabetes. ..
- Walnuts vs. Walnut-Oil, Glucose Homeostasis, PCOSSidika Kasim Karakas; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- Role of PTP1B in Body Mass RegulationBarbara B Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2010..These studies will advance our understanding of the mechanisms for resistance to leptin action. The results will have important implications for understanding normal body mass control and its dysregulation in obesity. ..
- GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER REGULATION IN OBESITY AND DIABETESBarbara Kahn; Fiscal Year: 1993..These studies will increase our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the insulin resistance of obesity and diabetes and the link between obesity and Type II diabetes...
- Role of PTP1B in Body Mass RegulationBarbara Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2009..These studies will advance our understanding of the mechanisms for resistance to leptin action. The results will have important implications for understanding normal body mass control and its dysregulation in obesity. ..
- Role of PTP1B in Body Mass RegulationBarbara Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies will advance our understanding of the mechanisms for resistance to leptin action. The results will have important implications for understanding normal body mass control and its dysregulation in obesity. ..
- GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER REGULATION IN OBESITY AND DIABETESBarbara Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2000....
- FASEB Research Conf: Glucose Transporter BiologyBarbara Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER REGULATION IN OBESITY AND DIABETESBarbara Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2005..Our goal is to find new therapeutic targets to prevent or ameliorate type 2 diabetes. ..
- INTEGRATED ENDOCRINE AND METABOLIC RESEARCH TRAININGBarbara Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2007..The program has further formalized its curriculum in the responsible and ethical conduct of research. The success of the trainees reflects the outstanding quality of this Endocrine Training Program ..
- Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B and Insulin ActionBarbara Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2005..Our goal is to find new therapeutic targets to reduce insulin resistance and prevent or ameliorate type 2 diabetes. ..
- Discovery of Alcohol Exposure Biomarkers via Affinity Mass SpectrometryURBAN KIERNAN; Fiscal Year: 2006..The ultimate result of this research will be a validated protein biomarker assay(s) that can be used to screen for alcohol exposure. ..
- MS based approaches for diabetes biomarker discoveryURBAN KIERNAN; Fiscal Year: 2007..The ultimate result of this research will be validated protein biomarkers for pre-and type 2 diabetes and technology that are ready for clinical screening and diagnosis of the disease. ..