Gene Symbol: Ras
Description: KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase
Alias: C-K-RAS, CFC2, K-RAS2A, K-RAS2B, K-RAS4A, K-RAS4B, K-Ras, KI-RAS, KRAS1, KRAS2, NS3, RALD, RASK2, c-Ki-ras2, GTPase KRas, K-Ras 2, K-ras p21 protein, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral proto-oncogene, PR310 c-K-ras oncogene, c-Ki-ras, c-Kirsten-ras protein, cellular c-Ki-ras2 proto-oncogene, cellular transforming proto-oncogene, oncogene KRAS2, transforming protein p21, v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homolog
Species: human
Products:     Ras

Top Publications

  1. Radojicic J, Zaravinos A, Spandidos D. HPV, KRAS mutations, alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking effects on esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma carcinogenesis. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..g., RAS mutations), inhibition of tumor-suppressor genes, and profound DNA damage...
  2. Smits K, Paranjape T, Nallur S, Wouters K, Weijenberg M, Schouten L, et al. A let-7 microRNA SNP in the KRAS 3'UTR is prognostic in early-stage colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:7723-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In advanced disease, the better outcome no longer exists. For early-stage patients, KRAS-LCS6 genotype combined with KRAS mutations merits validation as a prognostic biomarker and consideration in therapy decision-making. ..
  3. Han C, Zou H, Ma J, Zhou Y, Zhao J. [Comparison of EGFR and KRAS status between primary non-small cell lung cancer and corresponding metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi. 2010;13:882-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined detection of EGFR and KRAS mutation from primary NSCLC foci might serve as a better predictive biomarker for anti-EGFR targeted therapy. ..
  4. Pharoah P, Palmieri R, Ramus S, Gayther S, Andrulis I, Anton Culver H, et al. The role of KRAS rs61764370 in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer: implications for clinical testing. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:3742-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Use of this SNP for ovarian cancer clinical risk prediction, therefore, seems unwarranted. ..
  5. Gandhi J, Zhang J, Xie Y, Soh J, Shigematsu H, Zhang W, et al. Alterations in genes of the EGFR signaling pathway and their relationship to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor sensitivity in lung cancer cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4576 pubmed publisher
    ..Our in vitro studies confirm and extend clinical observations and demonstrate the relative importance of both EGFR mutations and CNGs and HER2 CNGs in the sensitivity to TKIs. ..
  6. Ebi H, Corcoran R, Singh A, Chen Z, Song Y, Lifshits E, et al. Receptor tyrosine kinases exert dominant control over PI3K signaling in human KRAS mutant colorectal cancers. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a framework for utilizing RTK inhibitors in the treatment of KRAS mutant colorectal cancers. ..
  7. Gremer L, Merbitz Zahradnik T, Dvorsky R, Cirstea I, Kratz C, Zenker M, et al. Germline KRAS mutations cause aberrant biochemical and physical properties leading to developmental disorders. Hum Mutat. 2011;32:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..structural alterations, the mutants can be grouped into five distinct classes, four of which markedly differ from RAS oncoproteins...
  8. Keller J, Franklin J, Graves Deal R, Friedman D, Whitwell C, Coffey R. Oncogenic KRAS provides a uniquely powerful and variable oncogenic contribution among RAS family members in the colonic epithelium. J Cell Physiol. 2007;210:740-9 pubmed
    Activating mutations of the RAS family of small GTPases are among the most common genetic events in human tumorigenesis...
  9. Bozzao C, Varvara D, Piglionica M, Bagnulo R, Forte G, Patruno M, et al. Survey of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutational status in 209 consecutive Italian colorectal cancer patients. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:e366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further correlations of specific clinical features with tumor mutational profile could be helpful to predict the response of CRC patients to monoclonal antibody therapy...

More Information

Publications222 found, 100 shown here

  1. de Vogel S, Weijenberg M, Herman J, Wouters K, de Goeij A, van den Brandt P, et al. MGMT and MLH1 promoter methylation versus APC, KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in colorectal cancer: indications for distinct pathways and sequence of events. Ann Oncol. 2009;20:1216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..MLH1-hypermethylated tumors harbor fewer APC and KRAS mutations and more BRAF mutations, suggesting that they develop distinctly from an MGMT methylator pathway. ..
  2. Zhao Y, Miyashita K, Ando T, Kakeji Y, Yamanaka T, Taguchi K, et al. Exclusive KRAS mutation in microsatellite-unstable human colorectal carcinomas with sequence alterations in the DNA mismatch repair gene, MLH1. Gene. 2008;423:188-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The tight connection between MMR gene mutation and KRAS mutation may suggest previously unrecognized complexities in the relationship between MSI and the mutator phenotype derived from defective MMR. ..
  3. Takahashi T, Sonobe M, Kobayashi M, Yoshizawa A, Menju T, Nakayama E, et al. Clinicopathologic features of non-small-cell lung cancer with EML4-ALK fusion gene. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:889-97 pubmed publisher
    ..EML4-ALK fusion genes were observed predominantly in adenocarcinomas, in female or nonsmoking populations. Additionally, the EML4-ALK fusions were mutually exclusive with mutations in the EGFR, KRAS, and ERBB2 genes. ..
  4. Vaughn C, Zobell S, Furtado L, Baker C, Samowitz W. Frequency of KRAS, BRAF, and NRAS mutations in colorectal cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011;50:307-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, 140/513 (27.3%) tumors wildtype for KRAS codons 12 and 13 harbored a mutation in another of the RAS pathway genes...
  5. Licar A, Cerkovnik P, Novakovic S. Distribution of some activating KRAS and BRAF mutations in Slovene patients with colorectal cancer. Med Oncol. 2011;28:1048-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Summing up the results about the KRAS and the BRAF mutation carriers from our study, the portion of potentially non-responsive patients for the anti-EGFR treatment is 51.3%. ..
  6. Wang X, Shankar S, Dhanasekaran S, Ateeq B, Sasaki A, Jing X, et al. Characterization of KRAS rearrangements in metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer Discov. 2011;1:35-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of a gene fusion involving the Ras family, suggesting that this aberration may drive metastatic progression in a rare subset of prostate cancers...
  7. Prior I, Lewis P, Mattos C. A comprehensive survey of Ras mutations in cancer. Cancer Res. 2012;72:2457-67 pubmed publisher
    All mammalian cells express 3 closely related Ras proteins, termed H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras, that promote oncogenesis when they are mutationally activated at codon 12, 13, or 61...
  8. Cortot A, Italiano A, Burel Vandenbos F, Martel Planche G, Hainaut P. KRAS mutation status in primary nonsmall cell lung cancer and matched metastases. Cancer. 2010;116:2682-7 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to determine whether the mutation status of the v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) differed between primary tumors and matched distant ..
  9. Kim S, Shim E, Yeo H, Baek J, Hong Y, Kim D, et al. KRAS mutation status and clinical outcome of preoperative chemoradiation with cetuximab in locally advanced rectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 2 phase II trials. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;85:201-7 pubmed publisher
  10. McGrath J, Capon D, Smith D, Chen E, Seeburg P, Goeddel D, et al. Structure and organization of the human Ki-ras proto-oncogene and a related processed pseudogene. Nature. 1983;304:501-6 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the functional gene may specify either of two related polypeptides depending on the pattern of RNA splicing...
  11. Bibeau F, Lopez Crapez E, Di Fiore F, Thezenas S, Ychou M, Blanchard F, et al. Impact of Fc{gamma}RIIa-Fc{gamma}RIIIa polymorphisms and KRAS mutations on the clinical outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab plus irinotecan. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1122-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As these polymorphisms are also clinically relevant in mutated-KRAS mCRC, an important role of ADCC in cetuximab efficacy is presumed. ..
  12. Van Damme N, Deron P, Van Roy N, Demetter P, Bols A, Van Dorpe J, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor and K-RAS status in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:189 pubmed publisher
    ..small lung cancer, colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, the knowledge of EGFR and K-RAS status becomes clinically important...
  13. Han Z, Yang Q, Liu B, Wu J, Li Y, Yang C, et al. MicroRNA-622 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting K-Ras and enhancing the anticarcinogenic effect of resveratrol. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..According to bioinformatics analysis, K-Ras messenger RNA was predicted as a putative miR-622 target; this was confirmed by western blot and luciferase ..
  14. Vartanian S, BENTLEY C, Brauer M, Li L, Shirasawa S, Sasazuki T, et al. Identification of mutant K-Ras-dependent phenotypes using a panel of isogenic cell lines. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:2403-13 pubmed publisher
    To assess the consequences of endogenous mutant K-Ras, we analyzed the signaling and biological properties of a small panel of isogenic cell lines...
  15. Capon D, Seeburg P, McGrath J, Hayflick J, Edman U, Levinson A, et al. Activation of Ki-ras2 gene in human colon and lung carcinomas by two different point mutations. Nature. 1983;304:507-13 pubmed
    Kirsten (Ki)-ras cDNA clones were prepared from human lung and colon carcinoma cell lines expressing an activated c-Ki-ras2 gene...
  16. Lee K, Lee J, Suh C, Kim S, Kim S, Lee J, et al. Clinicopathologic significance of the K-ras gene codon 12 point mutation in stomach cancer. An analysis of 140 cases. Cancer. 1995;75:2794-801 pubmed
    The frequency and clinicopathologic significance of the K-ras gene point mutation in stomach cancer remain to be defined...
  17. Karapetis C, Khambata Ford S, Jonker D, O Callaghan C, Tu D, Tebbutt N, et al. K-ras mutations and benefit from cetuximab in advanced colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1757-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutation status of the K-ras gene in the tumor may affect the response to cetuximab and have treatment-independent prognostic value...
  18. Kalikaki A, Koutsopoulos A, Trypaki M, Souglakos J, Stathopoulos E, Georgoulias V, et al. Comparison of EGFR and K-RAS gene status between primary tumours and corresponding metastases in NSCLC. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:923-9 pubmed publisher
    In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and K-RAS mutations of the primary tumour are associated with responsiveness and resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), respectively...
  19. Perrone F, Lampis A, Orsenigo M, Di Bartolomeo M, Gevorgyan A, Losa M, et al. PI3KCA/PTEN deregulation contributes to impaired responses to cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2009;20:84-90 pubmed publisher
  20. Di Nicolantonio F, Martini M, Molinari F, Sartore Bianchi A, Arena S, Saletti P, et al. Wild-type BRAF is required for response to panitumumab or cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:5705-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Double-hit therapies aimed at simultaneous inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and BRAF warrant exploration in CRC patients carrying the V600E oncogenic mutation. ..
  21. He Y, van T Veer L, Mikolajewska Hanclich I, van Velthuysen M, Zeestraten E, Nagtegaal I, et al. PIK3CA mutations predict local recurrences in rectal cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:6956-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently, our findings suggest that prospective evaluation of PIK3CA mutation status could reduce overtreatment by preoperative radiotherapy for the low-risk patients who might otherwise only experience the side effects. ..
  22. Hsieh L, Er T, Chen C, Hsieh J, Chang J, Liu T. Characteristics and prevalence of KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations in colorectal cancer by high-resolution melting analysis in Taiwanese population. Clin Chim Acta. 2012;413:1605-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, our results indicated the prevalence of KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutational status in the Taiwanese population. ..
  23. Pijnenborg J, Dam de Veen G, Kisters N, Delvoux B, van Engeland M, Herman J, et al. RASSF1A methylation and K-ras and B-raf mutations and recurrent endometrial cancer. Ann Oncol. 2007;18:491-7 pubmed
    Aberrations in mediators of Ras signaling may increase the risk of developing recurrent endometrial carcinoma...
  24. Zhu C, da Cunha Santos G, Ding K, Sakurada A, Cutz J, Liu N, et al. Role of KRAS and EGFR as biomarkers of response to erlotinib in National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group Study BR.21. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:4268-75 pubmed publisher
    ..005). EGFR mutations and high copy number are predictive of response to erlotinib. EGFR FISH is the strongest prognostic marker and a significant predictive marker of differential survival benefit from erlotinib. ..
  25. Lurkin I, Stoehr R, Hurst C, van Tilborg A, Knowles M, Hartmann A, et al. Two multiplex assays that simultaneously identify 22 possible mutation sites in the KRAS, BRAF, NRAS and PIK3CA genes. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8802 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, these assays are cheaper and easier to interpret. The assays may also be of use for selection of patients with other tumor types. ..
  26. Tejpar S, Celik I, Schlichting M, Sartorius U, Bokemeyer C, Van Cutsem E. Association of KRAS G13D tumor mutations with outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy with or without cetuximab. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:3570-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The addition of cetuximab to first-line chemotherapy seems to benefit patients with KRAS G13D-mutant tumors. Relative treatment effects were similar to those in patients with KRAS wild-type tumors but with lower absolute values. ..
  27. Badalian G, Barbai T, Raso E, Derecskei K, Szendroi M, Timar J. Phenotype of bone metastases of non-small cell lung cancer: epidermal growth factor receptor expression and K-RAS mutational status. Pathol Oncol Res. 2007;13:99-104 pubmed
    ..We have tested two molecular markers: EGFR protein expression and K-RAS mutation at codon 12 using immunohistochemistry and RFLPPCR, respectively...
  28. Italiano A, Cortot A, Ilie M, Martel Planche G, Fabas T, Pop D, et al. EGFR and KRAS status of primary sarcomatoid carcinomas of the lung: implications for anti-EGFR treatment of a rare lung malignancy. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:2479-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The rare incidence of increased EGFR gene copy number, the lack of EGFR mutation and the high rate of KRAS mutation observed in our series also suggest that most patients with lung SC are not likely to benefit from anti-EGFR therapies...
  29. Italiano A, Hostein I, Soubeyran I, Fabas T, Benchimol D, Evrard S, et al. KRAS and BRAF mutational status in primary colorectal tumors and related metastatic sites: biological and clinical implications. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:1429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The acquisition by metastases of a KRAS or a BRAF mutation that was not present in the PT is a rare event, occurring in 5% of cases of mCRC. This is not a frequent mechanism of primary resistance to anti-EGFR treatments in mCRC. ..
  30. Son J, Lyssiotis C, Ying H, Wang X, Hua S, Ligorio M, et al. Glutamine supports pancreatic cancer growth through a KRAS-regulated metabolic pathway. Nature. 2013;496:101-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The essentiality of this pathway in PDAC and the fact that it is dispensable in normal cells may provide novel therapeutic approaches to treat these refractory tumours. ..
  31. Schubbert S, Zenker M, Rowe S, Böll S, Klein C, Bollag G, et al. Germline KRAS mutations cause Noonan syndrome. Nat Genet. 2006;38:331-6 pubmed
    ..The SHP-2 phosphatase relays signals from activated receptor complexes to downstream effectors, including Ras. We discovered de novo germline KRAS mutations that introduce V14I, T58I or D153V amino acid substitutions in five ..
  32. Mounawar M, Mukeria A, Le Calvez F, Hung R, Renard H, Cortot A, et al. Patterns of EGFR, HER2, TP53, and KRAS mutations of p14arf expression in non-small cell lung cancers in relation to smoking history. Cancer Res. 2007;67:5667-72 pubmed
  33. Pai R, Jayachandran P, Koong A, Chang D, Kwok S, Ma L, et al. BRAF-mutated, microsatellite-stable adenocarcinoma of the proximal colon: an aggressive adenocarcinoma with poor survival, mucinous differentiation, and adverse morphologic features. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:744-52 pubmed publisher
  34. Seymour M, Brown S, Middleton G, Maughan T, Richman S, Gwyther S, et al. Panitumumab and irinotecan versus irinotecan alone for patients with KRAS wild-type, fluorouracil-resistant advanced colorectal cancer (PICCOLO): a prospectively stratified randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14:749-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Further refinement of molecular selection is needed for substantial benefits to be derived from EGFR targeting agents. Cancer Research UK, Amgen Inc. ..
  35. McCoy M, Toole J, Cunningham J, Chang E, Lowy D, Weinberg R. Characterization of a human colon/lung carcinoma oncogene. Nature. 1983;302:79-81 pubmed
    ..We identify this tumour oncogene with c-Ki-ras2, one of two known members of the Kirsten ras family of human proto-oncogenes, extending a series of recent reports which have demonstrated homologies between ..
  36. Jancík S, Drabek J, Radzioch D, Hajduch M. Clinical relevance of KRAS in human cancers. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:150960 pubmed publisher
    The KRAS gene (Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) is an oncogene that encodes a small GTPase transductor protein called KRAS...
  37. Zenker M, Lehmann K, Schulz A, Barth H, Hansmann D, Koenig R, et al. Expansion of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum in patients with KRAS germline mutations. J Med Genet. 2007;44:131-5 pubmed
    ..Each of these conditions can be caused by germline mutations in key components of the highly conserved Ras-MAPK pathway, possibly reflecting a similar pathogenesis underlying the three disorders...
  38. Velho S, Moutinho C, Cirnes L, Albuquerque C, Hamelin R, Schmitt F, et al. BRAF, KRAS and PIK3CA mutations in colorectal serrated polyps and cancer: primary or secondary genetic events in colorectal carcinogenesis?. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:255 pubmed publisher
  39. Nakayama N, Nakayama K, Yeasmin S, Ishibashi M, Katagiri A, Iida K, et al. KRAS or BRAF mutation status is a useful predictor of sensitivity to MEK inhibition in ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:2020-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they suggest that the CI-1040-induced phenotypes depend on the mutational status of KRAS and BRAF in ovarian cancers. Therefore, ovarian cancer patients with KRAS or BRAF mutations may benefit from CI-1040 treatment. ..
  40. Woo T, Okudela K, Yazawa T, Wada N, Ogawa N, Ishiwa N, et al. Prognostic value of KRAS mutations and Ki-67 expression in stage I lung adenocarcinomas. Lung Cancer. 2009;65:355-62 pubmed publisher
    ..5% vs. 37.2% for stage II NSCLC, p=0.577). The combined use of KRAS status and Ki-67 expression level could be an excellent prognostic marker to predict the post-operative recurrence of stage I ADC. ..
  41. Xu D, Allsop S, Witherspoon S, Snider J, Yeh J, Fiordalisi J, et al. The oncogenic kinase Pim-1 is modulated by K-Ras signaling and mediates transformed growth and radioresistance in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:488-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Pim-1 is also transcriptionally induced upon oncogenic K-Ras-mediated transformation of the human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE) cell model of PDAC...
  42. Tabusa H, Brooks T, Massey A. Knockdown of PAK4 or PAK1 inhibits the proliferation of mutant KRAS colon cancer cells independently of RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling. Mol Cancer Res. 2013;11:109-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a role for the PAKs in the proliferation of mutant KRAS-driven colorectal carcinoma cells via pathways not involving RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling. ..
  43. Cserepes M, Ostoros G, Lohinai Z, Raso E, Barbai T, Timar J, et al. Subtype-specific KRAS mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma: a retrospective study of patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2014;50:1819-28 pubmed publisher
  44. Yen L, Yeh Y, Chen C, Wang H, Tsai H, Lu C, et al. Detection of KRAS oncogene in peripheral blood as a predictor of the response to cetuximab plus chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:4508-13 pubmed publisher
  45. Souglakos J, Philips J, Wang R, Marwah S, Silver M, Tzardi M, et al. Prognostic and predictive value of common mutations for treatment response and survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:465-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The adverse significance of BRAF mutation should inform patient selection and stratification in clinical trials. ..
  46. Chun S, Johnson C, Washburn J, CRUZ CORREA M, Dang D, Dang L. Oncogenic KRAS modulates mitochondrial metabolism in human colon cancer cells by inducing HIF-1? and HIF-2? target genes. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:293 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypoxia-inducible factors-1? and -2? (HIF-1? and HIF-2?) are activated in cancer due to dysregulated ras signaling...
  47. Guedes J, Veiga I, Rocha P, Pinto P, Pinto C, Pinheiro M, et al. High resolution melting analysis of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA in KRAS exon 2 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:169 pubmed publisher
    KRAS is an EGFR effector in the RAS/RAF/ERK cascade that is mutated in about 40% of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)...
  48. Castagnola P, Giaretti W. Mutant KRAS, chromosomal instability and prognosis in colorectal cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1756:115-25 pubmed
    The RAS gene family provides a global effect on gene expression by encoding small GTP-binding proteins which act as molecular switches connecting extracellular signals with nuclear transcription factors...
  49. Edkins S, O Meara S, Parker A, Stevens C, Reis M, Jones S, et al. Recurrent KRAS codon 146 mutations in human colorectal cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2006;5:928-32 pubmed
    ..Since then, there have been over 11,000 mutations in the three RAS (HRAS, KRAS and NRAS) genes in codons 12, 13 and 61 reported in the literature...
  50. Garm Spindler K, Pallisgaard N, Rasmussen A, Lindebjerg J, Andersen R, Cruger D, et al. The importance of KRAS mutations and EGF61A>G polymorphism to the effect of cetuximab and irinotecan in metastatic colorectal cancer. Ann Oncol. 2009;20:879-84 pubmed publisher
    ..006) and a significant increase in overall survival (17.1 versus 5.9 months, log-rank, P = 0.002). The combined biomarker analysis maybe an attractive approach to selection of patients for third-line treatment including anti-EGFR mAbs. ..
  51. Yu S, Lu Z, Liu C, Meng Y, Ma Y, Zhao W, et al. miRNA-96 suppresses KRAS and functions as a tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70:6015-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify miR-96 as a potent regulator of KRAS, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer and other KRAS-driven cancers. ..
  52. Bruckman K, Schönleben F, Qiu W, Woo V, Su G. Mutational analyses of the BRAF, KRAS, and PIK3CA genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110:632-7 pubmed publisher
  53. Douillard J, Oliner K, Siena S, Tabernero J, Burkes R, Barugel M, et al. Panitumumab-FOLFOX4 treatment and RAS mutations in colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1023-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Other activating RAS mutations may also be negative predictive biomarkers for anti-EGFR therapy.
  54. Yamada M, Sekine S, Ogawa R, Taniguchi H, Kushima R, Tsuda H, et al. Frequent activating GNAS mutations in villous adenoma of the colorectum. J Pathol. 2012;228:113-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study showed that the presence of activating GNAS mutations, in association with KRAS or BRAF mutations, is a characteristic genetic feature of colorectal villous adenoma. ..
  55. Tol J, Koopman M, Cats A, Rodenburg C, Creemers G, Schrama J, et al. Chemotherapy, bevacizumab, and cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:563-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation status of the KRAS gene was a predictor of outcome in the cetuximab group. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00208546.) ..
  56. Qiu L, Mao C, Zhang J, Zhu X, Liao R, Xue K, et al. Predictive and prognostic value of KRAS mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with cetuximab: a meta-analysis of 22 studies. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46:2781-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with tumours that harbour mutant-type KRAS are more likely to have a worse response, PFS, and OS when treated with cetuximab. ..
  57. Wong K, Tsang Y, Deavers M, Mok S, Zu Z, Sun C, et al. BRAF mutation is rare in advanced-stage low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:1611-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, advanced-stage, low-grade carcinoma patients with BRAF or KRAS mutation have a better apparent clinical outcome. However, further investigation is needed. ..
  58. Lee S, Cho N, Choi M, Yoo E, Kim J, Kang G. Clinicopathological features of CpG island methylator phenotype-positive colorectal cancer and its adverse prognosis in relation to KRAS/BRAF mutation. Pathol Int. 2008;58:104-13 pubmed publisher
  59. McKinzie P, Parsons B. Detection of rare K-ras codon 12 mutations using allele-specific competitive blocker PCR. Mutat Res. 2002;517:209-20 pubmed
    ..In an earlier study, an H-ras codon 61 CAA-->AAA mutation had been detected by ACB-PCR at a sensitivity of 10(-5)...
  60. Auner V, Kriegshäuser G, Tong D, Horvat R, Reinthaller A, Mustea A, et al. KRAS mutation analysis in ovarian samples using a high sensitivity biochip assay. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:111 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in line with experience from colorectal cancer and non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC), it may be important for prediction of response to EGFR-targeted therapies. ..
  61. Gaedcke J, Grade M, Jung K, Schirmer M, Jo P, Obermeyer C, et al. KRAS and BRAF mutations in patients with rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Radiother Oncol. 2010;94:76-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the KRAS mutation status was not correlated with response, the subtle difference between G12V and G13D mutations warrants analysis of a larger patient population. ..
  62. Janakiraman M, Vakiani E, Zeng Z, Pratilas C, Taylor B, Chitale D, et al. Genomic and biological characterization of exon 4 KRAS mutations in human cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70:5901-11 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in RAS proteins occur widely in human cancer...
  63. Grechukhina O, Petracco R, Popkhadze S, Massasa E, Paranjape T, Chan E, et al. A polymorphism in a let-7 microRNA binding site of KRAS in women with endometriosis. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4:206-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that an inherited polymorphism of a let-7 miRNA binding site in KRAS leads to abnormal endometrial growth and endometriosis. The LCS6 polymorphism is the first described genetic marker of endometriosis risk. ..
  64. Pan X, Sun R, Li Z, Guo X, Zhang Z, Qin H, et al. A let-7 KRAS rs712 polymorphism increases colorectal cancer risk. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:831-5 pubmed publisher
    ..29, 95% CI, 1.32-8.20) and distant metastasis (OR = 4.70, 95% CI, 1.81-12.25). These findings provide evidence that the let-7 KRAS rs712 polymorphism may play crucial roles in the etiology of CRC. ..
  65. Rajalingam K, Wunder C, Brinkmann V, Churin Y, Hekman M, Sievers C, et al. Prohibitin is required for Ras-induced Raf-MEK-ERK activation and epithelial cell migration. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:837-43 pubmed
    b>Ras proteins control the signalling pathways that are responsible for normal growth and malignant transformation...
  66. Kim M, Lee H, Kim J, Kim Y, Kwon J, Lee J, et al. Different metastatic pattern according to the KRAS mutational status and site-specific discordance of KRAS status in patients with colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:347 pubmed publisher
    ..The concordance rate (87.7%) of the KRAS mutation status at metastatic sites other than the lung was generally high compared with primary tumor sites; however, lung metastasis had a high rate of KRAS discordance (32.4%). ..
  67. Long I, Han K, Li M, Shirasawa S, Sasazuki T, Johnston M, et al. Met receptor overexpression and oncogenic Ki-ras mutation cooperate to enhance tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells in vivo. Mol Cancer Res. 2003;1:393-401 pubmed
    We have investigated the influence of Ki-ras oncogene on Met/hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor signaling in human carcinoma cells...