Gene Symbol: Ras
Description: KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase
Alias: C-K-RAS, CFC2, K-RAS2A, K-RAS2B, K-RAS4A, K-RAS4B, K-Ras, KI-RAS, KRAS1, KRAS2, NS3, RALD, RASK2, c-Ki-ras2, GTPase KRas, K-Ras 2, K-ras p21 protein, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral proto-oncogene, PR310 c-K-ras oncogene, c-Ki-ras, c-Kirsten-ras protein, cellular c-Ki-ras2 proto-oncogene, cellular transforming proto-oncogene, oncogene KRAS2, transforming protein p21, v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homolog
Species: human
Products:     Ras

Top Publications

  1. Rosenberg D, Yang S, Pleau D, Greenspan E, Stevens R, Rajan T, et al. Mutations in BRAF and KRAS differentially distinguish serrated versus non-serrated hyperplastic aberrant crypt foci in humans. Cancer Res. 2007;67:3551-4 pubmed
  2. Radojicic J, Zaravinos A, Spandidos D. HPV, KRAS mutations, alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking effects on esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma carcinogenesis. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..g., RAS mutations), inhibition of tumor-suppressor genes, and profound DNA damage...
  3. Pai R, Jayachandran P, Koong A, Chang D, Kwok S, Ma L, et al. BRAF-mutated, microsatellite-stable adenocarcinoma of the proximal colon: an aggressive adenocarcinoma with poor survival, mucinous differentiation, and adverse morphologic features. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:744-52 pubmed publisher
  4. Marotti J, Schwab M, McNulty N, Rigas J, Delong P, Memoli V, et al. Cytomorphologic features of advanced lung adenocarcinomas tested for EGFR and KRAS mutations: a retrospective review of 50 cases. Diagn Cytopathol. 2013;41:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..039) correlated with the presence of EGFR mutations. The presence of necrosis (P = 0.030), squamoid features (P = 0.048), and poorly differentiated tumors (P = 0.025) were more likely to be identified in the KRAS positive group. ..
  5. Kakegawa S, Shimizu K, Sugano M, Miyamae Y, Kaira K, Araki T, et al. Clinicopathological features of lung adenocarcinoma with KRAS mutations. Cancer. 2011;117:4257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..BAC/adenocarcinoma with bronchioloalveolar features adenocarcinoma, however, has a more favorable prognosis, and mucinous BAC/adenocarcinoma with bronchioloalveolar features has little relationship to smoking history. ..
  6. Smits K, Paranjape T, Nallur S, Wouters K, Weijenberg M, Schouten L, et al. A let-7 microRNA SNP in the KRAS 3'UTR is prognostic in early-stage colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:7723-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In advanced disease, the better outcome no longer exists. For early-stage patients, KRAS-LCS6 genotype combined with KRAS mutations merits validation as a prognostic biomarker and consideration in therapy decision-making. ..
  7. Han C, Zou H, Ma J, Zhou Y, Zhao J. [Comparison of EGFR and KRAS status between primary non-small cell lung cancer and corresponding metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi. 2010;13:882-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined detection of EGFR and KRAS mutation from primary NSCLC foci might serve as a better predictive biomarker for anti-EGFR targeted therapy. ..
  8. Pharoah P, Palmieri R, Ramus S, Gayther S, Andrulis I, Anton Culver H, et al. The role of KRAS rs61764370 in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer: implications for clinical testing. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:3742-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Use of this SNP for ovarian cancer clinical risk prediction, therefore, seems unwarranted. ..
  9. Watanabe T, Yoshino T, Uetake H, Yamazaki K, Ishiguro M, Kurokawa T, et al. KRAS mutational status in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer: results from a nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2013;43:706-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The KRAS mutation rate of Japanese colorectal cancer patients was 37.6%. Gender, age, the site of the primary lesion and the year that the sample was prepared were independent risk factors for KRAS mutations. ..

More Information

Publications409 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gandhi J, Zhang J, Xie Y, Soh J, Shigematsu H, Zhang W, et al. Alterations in genes of the EGFR signaling pathway and their relationship to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor sensitivity in lung cancer cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4576 pubmed publisher
    ..Our in vitro studies confirm and extend clinical observations and demonstrate the relative importance of both EGFR mutations and CNGs and HER2 CNGs in the sensitivity to TKIs. ..
  2. Cserepes M, Ostoros G, Lohinai Z, Raso E, Barbai T, Timar J, et al. Subtype-specific KRAS mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma: a retrospective study of patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2014;50:1819-1828 pubmed publisher
  3. Serra R, Fang M, Park S, Hutchinson L, Green M. A KRAS-directed transcriptional silencing pathway that mediates the CpG island methylator phenotype. elife. 2014;3:e02313 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that ZNF304 also directs transcriptional silencing of INK4-ARF in human embryonic stem cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02313.001. ..
  4. Dogan S, Shen R, Ang D, Johnson M, D Angelo S, Paik P, et al. Molecular epidemiology of EGFR and KRAS mutations in 3,026 lung adenocarcinomas: higher susceptibility of women to smoking-related KRAS-mutant cancers. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:6169-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The higher frequency of KRAS G12C in women, their younger age, and lesser smoking history together support a heightened susceptibility to tobacco carcinogens. ..
  5. Ebi H, Corcoran R, Singh A, Chen Z, Song Y, Lifshits E, et al. Receptor tyrosine kinases exert dominant control over PI3K signaling in human KRAS mutant colorectal cancers. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a framework for utilizing RTK inhibitors in the treatment of KRAS mutant colorectal cancers. ..
  6. Vauthey J, Zimmitti G, Kopetz S, Shindoh J, Chen S, Andreou A, et al. RAS mutation status predicts survival and patterns of recurrence in patients undergoing hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases. Ann Surg. 2013;258:619-26; discussion 626-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine the impact of RAS mutation status on survival and patterns of recurrence in patients undergoing curative resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) after preoperative modern chemotherapy...
  7. Gremer L, Merbitz Zahradnik T, Dvorsky R, Cirstea I, Kratz C, Zenker M, et al. Germline KRAS mutations cause aberrant biochemical and physical properties leading to developmental disorders. Hum Mutat. 2011;32:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..structural alterations, the mutants can be grouped into five distinct classes, four of which markedly differ from RAS oncoproteins...
  8. Keller J, Franklin J, Graves Deal R, Friedman D, Whitwell C, Coffey R. Oncogenic KRAS provides a uniquely powerful and variable oncogenic contribution among RAS family members in the colonic epithelium. J Cell Physiol. 2007;210:740-9 pubmed
    Activating mutations of the RAS family of small GTPases are among the most common genetic events in human tumorigenesis...
  9. Bozzao C, Varvara D, Piglionica M, Bagnulo R, Forte G, Patruno M, et al. Survey of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutational status in 209 consecutive Italian colorectal cancer patients. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:e366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further correlations of specific clinical features with tumor mutational profile could be helpful to predict the response of CRC patients to monoclonal antibody therapy...
  10. Ogasawara N, Bando H, Kawamoto Y, Yoshino T, Tsuchihara K, Ohtsu A, et al. Feasibility and robustness of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-based KRAS testing using clinically available formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of colorectal cancers. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2011;41:52-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The amplification refractory mutation-Scorpion system with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimen-derived DNA samples exhibited an acceptable feasibility and robustness suitable for routine clinical practice. ..
  11. Tatsumi K, Mitani Y, Watanabe J, Takakura H, Hoshi K, Kawai Y, et al. Rapid screening assay for KRAS mutations by the modified smart amplification process. J Mol Diagn. 2008;10:520-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The PNA-clamp SMAP-2 method is a rapid, simple, and highly sensitive detection assay for cancer mutations. ..
  12. Ling J, Kang Y, Zhao R, Xia Q, Lee D, Chang Z, et al. KrasG12D-induced IKK2/?/NF-?B activation by IL-1? and p62 feedforward loops is required for development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Cell. 2012;21:105-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings demonstrate the mechanism by which IKK2/?/NF-?B is activated by Kras(G12D) through dual feedforward loops of IL-1?/p62. ..
  13. Einspahr J, Martinez M, Jiang R, Hsu C, Rashid A, Bhattacharrya A, et al. Associations of Ki-ras proto-oncogene mutation and p53 gene overexpression in sporadic colorectal adenomas with demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1443-50 pubmed
    In colorectal tumorigenesis, Ki-ras proto-oncogene mutation often occurs early in the adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence, whereas mutation of the p53 gene is associated with late progression to carcinoma...
  14. Loupakis F, Ruzzo A, Cremolini C, Vincenzi B, Salvatore L, Santini D, et al. KRAS codon 61, 146 and BRAF mutations predict resistance to cetuximab plus irinotecan in KRAS codon 12 and 13 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:715-21 pubmed publisher
    ..0005) and PFS (HR: 0.51, P=0.006) compared with KRAS and BRAF wild-type patients. Assessing KRAS codons 61/146 and BRAF V600E mutations might help optimising the selection of the candidate patients to receive anti-EGFR moAbs. ..
  15. Wang S, An T, Wang J, Zhao J, Wang Z, Zhuo M, et al. Potential clinical significance of a plasma-based KRAS mutation analysis in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:1324-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma KRAS mutation status is associated with a poor tumor response to EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC patients and may be used as a predictive marker in selecting patients for such treatment. ..
  16. Phipps A, Buchanan D, Makar K, Win A, Baron J, Lindor N, et al. KRAS-mutation status in relation to colorectal cancer survival: the joint impact of correlated tumour markers. Br J Cancer. 2013;108:1757-64 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the Kirsten Ras (KRAS) oncogene are common in colorectal cancer (CRC). The role of KRAS-mutation status as a prognostic factor, however, is unclear...
  17. Soung Y, Lee J, Kim S, Seo S, Park W, Nam S, et al. Mutational analysis of EGFR and K-RAS genes in lung adenocarcinomas. Virchows Arch. 2005;446:483-8 pubmed
    Both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and RAS gene mutations contribute to the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  18. Basu Roy U, Henkhaus R, Loupakis F, Cremolini C, Gerner E, Ignatenko N. Caveolin-1 is a novel regulator of K-RAS-dependent migration in colon carcinogenesis. Int J Cancer. 2013;133:43-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here, for the first time, that caveolin-1 is a target of the K-RAS oncogene in colon carcinogenesis...
  19. Russo A, Bazan V, Agnese V, Rodolico V, Gebbia N. Prognostic and predictive factors in colorectal cancer: Kirsten Ras in CRC (RASCAL) and TP53CRC collaborative studies. Ann Oncol. 2005;16 Suppl 4:iv44-49 pubmed
    Mutations in the Ki-ras and TP53 genes are the most frequently observed genetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC). Ki-ras mutations are mostly found in codons 12 and 13, and less in codon 61...
  20. Smakman N, Veenendaal L, van Diest P, Bos R, Offringa R, Borel Rinkes I, et al. Dual effect of Kras(D12) knockdown on tumorigenesis: increased immune-mediated tumor clearance and abrogation of tumor malignancy. Oncogene. 2005;24:8338-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, mutant Kras(D12) suppresses Il-18 production in colorectal tumor cells, which may contribute to evasion of the local immune system during tumor development. ..
  21. Shen H, Yuan Y, Hu H, Zhong X, Ye X, Li M, et al. Clinical significance of K-ras and BRAF mutations in Chinese colorectal cancer patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:809-16 pubmed publisher
    To identify and assess mutations in the K-ras and BRAF genes in a cohort of Chinese patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) for their association with various clinicopathological parameters and prognosis...
  22. Herreros Villanueva M, Rodrigo M, Claver M, Muñiz P, Lastra E, Garcia Giron C, et al. KRAS, BRAF, EGFR and HER2 gene status in a Spanish population of colorectal cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:1315-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that HER2 amplification could be one of the genes to be considered in the therapeutic management of colorectal cancer. ..
  23. Roth A, Tejpar S, Delorenzi M, Yan P, Fiocca R, Klingbiel D, et al. Prognostic role of KRAS and BRAF in stage II and III resected colon cancer: results of the translational study on the PETACC-3, EORTC 40993, SAKK 60-00 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:466-74 pubmed publisher
    ..2; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.4; P = .0003). In stage II-III colon cancer, the KRAS mutation status does not have major prognostic value. BRAF is prognostic for OS in MS-L/S tumors. ..
  24. Marks J, Broderick S, Zhou Q, Chitale D, Li A, Zakowski M, et al. Prognostic and therapeutic implications of EGFR and KRAS mutations in resected lung adenocarcinoma. J Thorac Oncol. 2008;3:111-6 pubmed publisher
  25. Pinto P, Rocha P, Veiga I, Guedes J, Pinheiro M, Peixoto A, et al. Comparison of methodologies for KRAS mutation detection in metastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer Genet. 2011;204:439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..0139), high resolution melting (P=0.0004), and SNaPshot (P=0.00001), but no statistically significant differences were found among the three methodologies with higher sensitivity. ..
  26. De Roock W, Claes B, Bernasconi D, De Schutter J, Biesmans B, Fountzilas G, et al. Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:753-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Objective response rates could be improved by additional genotyping of BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA exon 20 mutations in a KRAS wild-type population. Belgian Federation against Cancer (Stichting tegen Kanker). ..
  27. Pander J, Gelderblom H, Antonini N, Tol J, van Krieken J, van der Straaten T, et al. Correlation of FCGR3A and EGFR germline polymorphisms with the efficacy of cetuximab in KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46:1829-34 pubmed publisher
    ..EGFR and FCGR3A germline polymorphisms are associated with PFS in KRAS wild-type mCRC patients treated with cetuximab, bevacizumab and chemotherapy. ..
  28. Cerne J, Stegel V, Gersak K, Novakovic S. KRAS rs61764370 is associated with HER2-overexpressed and poorly-differentiated breast cancer in hormone replacement therapy users: a case control study. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:105 pubmed publisher
    ..In postmenopausal women using HRT, the KRAS variant might lead to HER2 overexpressed and poorly-differentiated breast tumors, both indicators of a worse prognosis. ..
  29. Chen X, Guo X, Zhang H, Xiang Y, Chen J, Yin Y, et al. Role of miR-143 targeting KRAS in colorectal tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 2009;28:1385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the present study provides the first evidences that miR-143 is significant in suppressing colorectal cancer cell growth through inhibition of KRAS translation. ..
  30. Winder T, Mündlein A, Rhomberg S, Dirschmid K, Hartmann B, Knauer M, et al. Different types of K-Ras mutations are conversely associated with overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2009;21:1283-7 pubmed
    A glycine to valine substitution at codon 12 (G12V) in Kirsten-Ras (K-Ras) gene has been associated with reduced overall survival in colorectal cancer patients; however, the effect of other K-Ras mutations than G12V still remains unclear...
  31. Babij C, Zhang Y, Kurzeja R, Munzli A, Shehabeldin A, Fernando M, et al. STK33 kinase activity is nonessential in KRAS-dependent cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2011;71:5818-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings refute earlier proposals that STK33 inhibition may be a useful therapeutic approach to target human KRAS mutant tumors. ..
  32. Fariña Sarasqueta A, van Lijnschoten G, Moerland E, Creemers G, Lemmens V, Rutten H, et al. The BRAF V600E mutation is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II and stage III colon cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:2396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..22-0.99]. KRAS mutation conferred a poorer disease-free survival (HR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.38-0.97). The V600E BRAF mutation confers a worse prognosis to stage II and stage III colon cancer patients independently of disease stage and therapy. ..
  33. Gilsing A, Fransen F, de Kok T, Goldbohm A, Schouten L, De Bruine A, et al. Dietary heme iron and the risk of colorectal cancer with specific mutations in KRAS and APC. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:2757-66 pubmed publisher
    ..dietary heme iron intake and risk of CRC with mutations in APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) and KRAS (Kirsten ras) and P53 overexpression in the Netherlands Cohort Study. After 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2...
  34. Modest D, Stintzing S, Laubender R, Neumann J, Jung A, Giessen C, et al. Clinical characterization of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer depending on the KRAS status. Anticancer Drugs. 2011;22:913-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with KRAS codon 12 mutations, codon 13-mutated mCRC presents as a more aggressive disease frequently associated with local and distant metastases at first diagnosis. ..
  35. Gautschi O, Huegli B, Ziegler A, Gugger M, Heighway J, Ratschiller D, et al. Origin and prognostic value of circulating KRAS mutations in lung cancer patients. Cancer Lett. 2007;254:265-73 pubmed
    ..These results support the notion that circulating KRAS mutations originate from tumors and are prognostically relevant in lung cancer. ..
  36. Riely G, Kris M, ROSENBAUM D, Marks J, Li A, Chitale D, et al. Frequency and distinctive spectrum of KRAS mutations in never smokers with lung adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:5731-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The etiologic and biological heterogeneity of KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinomas is worthy of further study. ..
  37. Steckel M, Molina Arcas M, Weigelt B, Marani M, Warne P, Kuznetsov H, et al. Determination of synthetic lethal interactions in KRAS oncogene-dependent cancer cells reveals novel therapeutic targeting strategies. Cell Res. 2012;22:1227-45 pubmed publisher
    Oncogenic mutations in RAS genes are very common in human cancer, resulting in cells with well-characterized selective advantages, but also less well-understood vulnerabilities...
  38. Mao C, Qiu L, Liao R, Du F, Ding H, Yang W, et al. KRAS mutations and resistance to EGFR-TKIs treatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of 22 studies. Lung Cancer. 2010;69:272-8 pubmed publisher
  39. Cavallini A, Valentini A, Lippolis C, Campanella D, Guerra V, Caruso M. KRAS genotyping as biomarker in colorectal cancer: a comparison of three commercial kits on histologic material. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:5251-6 pubmed
    ..previously evaluated by real-time PCR (TheraScreen kit), used as reference method, were analysed by Ampli-set-K-RAS and K-RAS StripAssay kit (herein called kit A and B, respectively) based on two different technologies...
  40. Teng H, Huang Y, Lin J, Chen W, Lin T, Jiang J, et al. BRAF mutation is a prognostic biomarker for colorectal liver metastasectomy. J Surg Oncol. 2012;106:123-9 pubmed publisher
    In metastatic colorectal cancer, v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) is a predictive biomarker for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) treatment and V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) is ..
  41. Chen J, Ye Y, Sun H, Shi G. Association between KRAS codon 13 mutations and clinical response to anti-EGFR treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: results from a meta-analysis. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013;71:265-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Metastatic colorectal cancer patients with KRAS codon 13 mutations demonstrate a greater clinical response to anti-EGFR treatment than patients with other KRAS mutations. ..
  42. Bollag G, Adler F, elMasry N, McCabe P, Conner E, Thompson P, et al. Biochemical characterization of a novel KRAS insertion mutation from a human leukemia. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:32491-4 pubmed
    ..of the mutant protein in NIH 3T3 cells caused cellular transformation, and expression in COS cells activated the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Surprisingly, Ras...
  43. Li J, Zhang Z, Dai Z, Plass C, Morrison C, Wang Y, et al. LOH of chromosome 12p correlates with Kras2 mutation in non-small cell lung cancer. Oncogene. 2003;22:1243-6 pubmed
    Previous observation has shown that the wild-type Kras2 allele is a suppressor of lung cancer in mice...
  44. Cagnol S, Rivard N. Oncogenic KRAS and BRAF activation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway promotes expression of dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (DUSP4/MKP2) resulting in nuclear ERK1/2 inhibition. Oncogene. 2013;32:564-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that DUSP4 functions as part of a negative feedback mechanism in the control of the duration and magnitude of nuclear ERK activation during intestinal tumorigenesis. ..
  45. Mao C, Huang Y, Yang Z, Zheng D, Chen J, Tang J. KRAS p.G13D mutation and codon 12 mutations are not created equal in predicting clinical outcomes of cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer. 2013;119:714-21 pubmed publisher
    ..to examine whether patients who had metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with the v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) p...
  46. Bando H, Yoshino T, Shinozaki E, Nishina T, Yamazaki K, Yamaguchi K, et al. Simultaneous identification of 36 mutations in KRAS codons 61 and 146, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA in a single reaction by multiplex assay kit. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:405 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, mutations in KRAS codon 61, KRAS codon 146, BRAF, NRAS, or PIK3CA detected in Asian patients were not predictive of clinical benefits from cetuximab treatment, similar to the result obtained in European studies. ..
  47. Barault L, Veyrie N, Jooste V, Lecorre D, Chapusot C, Ferraz J, et al. Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI(3)K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:2255-9 pubmed publisher
    The RAS-MAPK, PI (3)K signaling pathways form a network that play a central role in tumorigenesis...
  48. Porta M, Crous Bou M, Wark P, Vineis P, Real F, Malats N, et al. Cigarette smoking and K-ras mutations in pancreas, lung and colorectal adenocarcinomas: etiopathogenic similarities, differences and paradoxes. Mutat Res. 2009;682:83-93 pubmed publisher
    Surprisingly different frequencies and patterns of K-ras mutations are observed in human adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, colorectum and lung. Their respective relationships with smoking are apparently paradoxical...
  49. Finberg K, Sequist L, Joshi V, Muzikansky A, Miller J, Han M, et al. Mucinous differentiation correlates with absence of EGFR mutation and presence of KRAS mutation in lung adenocarcinomas with bronchioloalveolar features. J Mol Diagn. 2007;9:320-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our data suggest that EGFR sequence analysis could be avoided in BAC/AWBF when true mucinous morphology is identified, avoiding the associated testing costs. ..
  50. Monaco S, Nikiforova M, Cieply K, Teot L, Khalbuss W, Dacic S. A comparison of EGFR and KRAS status in primary lung carcinoma and matched metastases. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:94-102 pubmed publisher
    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and v-Ki-ras 2 (KRAS; viral Kirsten rat sacoma 2 oncogene homolog) oncogenes are predictors of response to EGFR-targeted therapy in lung carcinomas...
  51. Ikonomou G, Kostourou V, Shirasawa S, Sasazuki T, Samiotaki M, Panayotou G. Interplay between oncogenic K-Ras and wild-type H-Ras in Caco2 cell transformation. J Proteomics. 2012;75:5356-69 pubmed publisher
    Mutation of RAS genes is one of the most common oncogenic alterations in cancer and acquisition of activating RAS mutations has been demonstrated to cause progression of colorectal adenoma to cancer...
  52. Bazan V, Agnese V, Corsale S, Calò V, Valerio M, Latteri M, et al. Specific TP53 and/or Ki-ras mutations as independent predictors of clinical outcome in sporadic colorectal adenocarcinomas: results of a 5-year Gruppo Oncologico dell'Italia Meridionale (GOIM) prospective study. Ann Oncol. 2005;16 Suppl 4:iv50-55 pubmed
    Although Ki-ras and TP53 mutations have probably been the genetic abnormalities most exhaustively implicated and studied in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, their significance in terms of disease relapse and overall survival has not ..
  53. Niihori T, Aoki Y, Narumi Y, Neri G, Cave H, Verloes A, et al. Germline KRAS and BRAF mutations in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. Nat Genet. 2006;38:294-6 pubmed
    ..CFC, we identified two heterozygous KRAS mutations in three individuals and eight BRAF mutations in 16 individuals, suggesting that dysregulation of the RAS-RAF-ERK pathway is a common molecular basis for the three related disorders.
  54. Scholtka B, Schneider M, Melcher R, Katzenberger T, Friedrich D, Berghof Jäger K, et al. A gene marker panel covering the Wnt and the Ras-Raf-MEK-MAPK signalling pathways allows to detect gene mutations in 80% of early (UICC I) colon cancer stages in humans. Cancer Epidemiol. 2009;33:123-9 pubmed publisher
    Very recently a gene marker panel that allows the mutational analysis of APC, CTNNB1, B-RAF and K-RAS was conceived...
  55. Saito N, Tomita S, Ichikawa K, Mitomi H, Imura J, Fujimori T. Analysis of KRAS mutations in cases of metastatic colorectal cancer at a single institution in Tochigi, Japan. Pathobiology. 2014;81:133-7 pubmed publisher
    ..KRAS codon 13 mutations might be associated with younger female patients with mCRC, but further investigation is necessary to clarify the association between this type of mutation and metastatic potential in female CRC patients. ..
  56. Zhang W, Winder T, Ning Y, Pohl A, Yang D, Kahn M, et al. A let-7 microRNA-binding site polymorphism in 3'-untranslated region of KRAS gene predicts response in wild-type KRAS patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab monotherapy. Ann Oncol. 2011;22:104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4 months) compared to those with TT genotypes. these results are the first to indicate that the KRAS 3'UTR polymorphism may predict for cetuximab responsiveness in KRASwt mCRC patients, which warrants validation in other clinical trials. ..
  57. Okudela K, Woo T, Kitamura H. KRAS gene mutations in lung cancer: particulars established and issues unresolved. Pathol Int. 2010;60:651-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The KRAS gene, belonging to the RAS gene family, encodes a membrane-bound 21-kd guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein...
  58. Weijenberg M, Lüchtenborg M, de Goeij A, Brink M, Van Muijen G, De Bruine A, et al. Dietary fat and risk of colon and rectal cancer with aberrant MLH1 expression, APC or KRAS genes. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18:865-79 pubmed
    ..in the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) tumor suppressor gene and in the KRAS (v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) oncogene. After 7...
  59. Ahlquist T, Bottillo I, Danielsen S, Meling G, Rognum T, Lind G, et al. RAS signaling in colorectal carcinomas through alteration of RAS, RAF, NF1, and/or RASSF1A. Neoplasia. 2008;10:680-6, 2 p following 686 pubmed
    ..RASSF1A was hypermethylated in 31% of the samples. We show that the RAS signaling network is extensively dysregulated in colorectal carcinomas, because more than 70% of the tumors had an ..
  60. Kumar K, Brim H, Giardiello F, Smoot D, Nouraie M, Lee E, et al. Distinct BRAF (V600E) and KRAS mutations in high microsatellite instability sporadic colorectal cancer in African Americans. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:1155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The prominent role of DNA mismatch repair gene suppression in MSI-H and a distinctive role of BRAF and KRAS mutations with respect to MSI status are supported by this study. ..
  61. Yen L, Uen Y, Wu D, Lu C, Yu F, Wu I, et al. Activating KRAS mutations and overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor as independent predictors in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with cetuximab. Ann Surg. 2010;251:254-60 pubmed publisher
  62. Riely G, Marks J, Pao W. KRAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2009;6:201-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize the initial discovery of RAS mutations in NSCLC, describe work exploring associations with clinical factors and outcomes, and provide an ..
  63. Almoguera C, Shibata D, Forrester K, Martin J, Arnheim N, Perucho M. Most human carcinomas of the exocrine pancreas contain mutant c-K-ras genes. Cell. 1988;53:549-54 pubmed
    ..chain reaction (PCR) and mutation detection by the RNAase A mismatch cleavage method, we have examined c-K-ras genes in human pancreatic carcinomas...
  64. De Roock W, Piessevaux H, De Schutter J, Janssens M, De Hertogh G, Personeni N, et al. KRAS wild-type state predicts survival and is associated to early radiological response in metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:508-15 pubmed
    ..00000012)]. KRAS WT status is associated to survival benefit in CTX treated mCRC. This benefit is even more pronounced in those patients with early radiological response. These characteristics may be exploited for response prediction. ..
  65. Artale S, Sartore Bianchi A, Veronese S, Gambi V, Sarnataro C, Gambacorta M, et al. Mutations of KRAS and BRAF in primary and matched metastatic sites of colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:4217-9 pubmed publisher
  66. Tsang W, Kwok T. The miR-18a* microRNA functions as a potential tumor suppressor by targeting on K-Ras. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:953-9 pubmed publisher
    The Ras proto-oncogene mediates a wide variety of cellular events and is frequently mutated in cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may regulate the development of cancer through their effect on the target genes...
  67. Schimanski C, Zimmermann T, Schmidtmann I, Gockel I, Lang H, Galle P, et al. K-ras mutation status correlates with the expression of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and PDGFRalpha in colorectal cancer. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010;25:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..order to analyze whether the expression level of targeted receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) is associated with the K-ras mutation status...
  68. Peterson L, Kipp B, Halling K, Kerr S, Smith D, Distad T, et al. Molecular characterization of endometrial cancer: a correlative study assessing microsatellite instability, MLH1 hypermethylation, DNA mismatch repair protein expression, and PTEN, PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutation analysis. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2012;31:195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..No BRAF V600E mutations were indentified. This study provides a comprehensive molecular genetic analysis of commonly analyzed targets in a large cohort of endometrial cancers...
  69. Plesec T, Hunt J. KRAS mutation testing in colorectal cancer. Adv Anat Pathol. 2009;16:196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, the authors present an up-to-date review of the biologic, clinical, and laboratory aspects of KRAS mutation testing in colorectal cancer. ..
  70. Lo Ré A, Fernández Barrena M, Almada L, Mills L, Elsawa S, Lund G, et al. Novel AKT1-GLI3-VMP1 pathway mediates KRAS oncogene-induced autophagy in cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide evidence of a new regulatory mechanism involved in autophagy that integrates this cellular process into the molecular network of events regulating oncogene-induced autophagy. ..
  71. Bera A, Zhao S, Cao L, Chiao P, Freeman J. Oncogenic K-Ras and loss of Smad4 mediate invasion by activating an EGFR/NF-?B Axis that induces expression of MMP9 and uPA in human pancreas progenitor cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82282 pubmed publisher
    Activating K-Ras mutations and inactivating mutations of Smad4 are two common genetic alterations that occur in the development and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC)...
  72. Tochigi N, Dacic S, Nikiforova M, Cieply K, Yousem S. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung: a microdissection study of KRAS and EGFR mutational and amplification status in a western patient population. Am J Clin Pathol. 2011;135:783-9 pubmed publisher
    ..EGFR mutations occur in adenosquamous carcinoma in the same percentages as in conventional adenocarcinoma in the Western population. KRAS mutations are less common. ..
  73. Velho S, Oliveira C, Ferreira A, Ferreira A, Suriano G, Schwartz S, et al. The prevalence of PIK3CA mutations in gastric and colon cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:1649-54 pubmed
    ..016). In colorectal carcinoma, PIK3CA mutations occur preferentially together with activating KRAS-BRAF mutations (MSI and MSS) while in gastric carcinomas PIK3CA mutations tend to occur as isolated events (MSI). ..
  74. Ozen F, Ozdemir S, Zemheri E, Hacimuto G, Silan F, Ozdemir O. The proto-oncogene KRAS and BRAF profiles and some clinical characteristics in colorectal cancer in the Turkish population. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2013;17:135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05% of the samples, and the most frequent mutation was in the G12D codon. Results also showed that codons 12 and 13 of KRAS are relatively frequently without BRAF mutation in a CRC cohort from the Turkish population. ..
  75. Santini D, Loupakis F, Vincenzi B, Floriani I, Stasi I, Canestrari E, et al. High concordance of KRAS status between primary colorectal tumors and related metastatic sites: implications for clinical practice. Oncologist. 2008;13:1270-5 pubmed publisher
  76. Rachagani S, Senapati S, Chakraborty S, Ponnusamy M, Kumar S, Smith L, et al. Activated KrasG¹²D is associated with invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells through inhibition of E-cadherin. Br J Cancer. 2011;104:1038-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study suggest that the Kras(G12D) allele promotes metastasis in PC cells partly through the downregulation of E-cadherin. ..
  77. Pentheroudakis G, Kotoula V, De Roock W, Kouvatseas G, Papakostas P, Makatsoris T, et al. Biomarkers of benefit from cetuximab-based therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: interaction of EGFR ligand expression with RAS/RAF, PIK3CA genotypes. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:49 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied EGFR-axis messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and RAS, RAF, PIK3CA mutations in order to identify additional biomarkers of cetuximab efficacy...
  78. Al Mulla F, Milner White E, Going J, Birnie G. Structural differences between valine-12 and aspartate-12 Ras proteins may modify carcinoma aggression. J Pathol. 1999;187:433-8 pubmed
    Recent evidence associates the codon 12 valine-for-glycine (G12V) mutant Ki-Ras protein with higher stage and increased lethality of colorectal carcinomas, while the codon 12 aspartate-for-glycine (G12D) Ras mutation shows no such ..
  79. Rosty C, Young J, Walsh M, Clendenning M, Walters R, Pearson S, et al. Colorectal carcinomas with KRAS mutation are associated with distinctive morphological and molecular features. Mod Pathol. 2013;26:825-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, KRAS-mutated carcinomas frequently develop in contiguity with a residual polyp and show molecular features distinct from other colorectal carcinomas, in particular from tumors with neither BRAF nor KRAS mutation. ..
  80. Shepherd F, Domerg C, Hainaut P, Janne P, Pignon J, Graziano S, et al. Pooled analysis of the prognostic and predictive effects of KRAS mutation status and KRAS mutation subtype in early-stage resected non-small-cell lung cancer in four trials of adjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:2173-81 pubmed publisher
    ..02). KRAS mutation status is not significantly prognostic. The potential interaction in patients with codon-13 mutations requires validation. At this time, KRAS status cannot be recommended to select patients with NSCLC for ACT. ..
  81. Kozma S, Bogaard M, Buser K, Saurer S, Bos J, Groner B, et al. The human c-Kirsten ras gene is activated by a novel mutation in codon 13 in the breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB231. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:5963-71 pubmed
    We have detected amplified human Ki-ras sequences in tumorigenic NIH 3T3 cells transfected with genomic DNA from the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB231...
  82. Sweet Cordero A, Mukherjee S, Subramanian A, You H, Roix J, Ladd Acosta C, et al. An oncogenic KRAS2 expression signature identified by cross-species gene-expression analysis. Nat Genet. 2005;37:48-55 pubmed
    ..We applied this method to the analysis of a model of Kras2-mediated lung cancer and found a good relationship to human lung adenocarcinoma, thereby validating the model...
  83. Loupakis F, Pollina L, Stasi I, Ruzzo A, Scartozzi M, Santini D, et al. PTEN expression and KRAS mutations on primary tumors and metastases in the prediction of benefit from cetuximab plus irinotecan for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:2622-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of PTEN IHC and KRAS mutational analyses could help to identify a subgroup of patients with mCRC who have higher chances of benefiting from EGFR inhibition. ..
  84. Liu Z, Liu L, Li M, Zhang Q, Cheng S, Lu S. Mutation detection of KRAS by high-resolution melting analysis in Chinese with gastric cancer. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:515-20 pubmed
    ..The resistance of partial gastric cancer patients to EGFR inhibitors may be induced by KRAS mutation. ..
  85. Zhang J, Koenig A, Harrison A, Ugolkov A, Fernandez Zapico M, Couch F, et al. Mutant K-Ras increases GSK-3? gene expression via an ETS-p300 transcriptional complex in pancreatic cancer. Oncogene. 2011;30:3705-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Using pancreatic cancer as a model, we find that constitutively active Ras signaling increases GSK-3? gene expression via the canonical mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway...
  86. Kundu S, Nallur S, Paranjape T, Boeke M, Weidhaas J, Slack F. KRAS alleles: the LCS6 3'UTR variant and KRAS coding sequence mutations in the NCI-60 panel. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:361-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a step forward towards understanding the molecular and pathological significance of the KRAS-variant. ..
  87. Sánchez Muñoz A, Gallego E, de Luque V, Pérez Rivas L, Vicioso L, Ribelles N, et al. Lack of evidence for KRAS oncogenic mutations in triple-negative breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:136 pubmed publisher
  88. Kiessling M, Oberholzer P, Mondal C, Karpova M, Zipser M, Lin W, et al. High-throughput mutation profiling of CTCL samples reveals KRAS and NRAS mutations sensitizing tumors toward inhibition of the RAS/RAF/MEK signaling cascade. Blood. 2011;117:2433-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We detected oncogenic mutations for the RAS pathway in 4 of 90 samples...
  89. Gonzalez De Castro D, Angulo B, Gomez B, Mair D, Martinez R, Suarez Gauthier A, et al. A comparison of three methods for detecting KRAS mutations in formalin-fixed colorectal cancer specimens. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The cobas test was reproducible between sites, and detected several mutations that were not detected by the therascreen test or Sanger. Sanger sequencing had poor sensitivity for low levels of mutation. ..
  90. Taback B, Bilchik A, Saha S, Nakayama T, Wiese D, Turner R, et al. Peptide nucleic acid clamp PCR: a novel K-ras mutation detection assay for colorectal cancer micrometastases in lymph nodes. Int J Cancer. 2004;111:409-14 pubmed
    ..Mutation of K-ras allele at codons 12 or 13 occurs frequently in early stages of CRC development...
  91. Seth R, Crook S, Ibrahem S, Fadhil W, Jackson D, Ilyas M. Concomitant mutations and splice variants in KRAS and BRAF demonstrate complex perturbation of the Ras/Raf signalling pathway in advanced colorectal cancer. Gut. 2009;58:1234-41 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF mutations occur in colorectal cancers (CRCs) and are considered mutually exclusive methods of activating the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway. This pathway is a therapeutic target and KRAS mutation may predict tumour responsiveness...
  92. Sun L, Zhang Q, Luan H, Zhan Z, Wang C, Sun B. Comparison of KRAS and EGFR gene status between primary non-small cell lung cancer and local lymph node metastases: implications for clinical practice. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011;30:30 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation may have important implication for the use of targeted TKI therapy in the treatment of NSCLC patients. ..