Gene Symbol: raptor
Description: regulatory associated protein of MTOR complex 1
Alias: KOG1, Mip1, regulatory-associated protein of mTOR, p150 target of rapamycin (TOR)-scaffold protein containing WD-repeats, raptor
Species: human
Products:     raptor

Top Publications

  1. Loewith R, Jacinto E, Wullschleger S, Lorberg A, Crespo J, Bonenfant D, et al. Two TOR complexes, only one of which is rapamycin sensitive, have distinct roles in cell growth control. Mol Cell. 2002;10:457-68 pubmed
    ..We describe two functionally distinct TOR complexes. TOR Complex 1 (TORC1) contains TOR1 or TOR2, KOG1 (YHR186c), and LST8. TORC2 contains TOR2, AVO1 (YOL078w), AVO2 (YMR068w), AVO3 (YER093c), and LST8...
  2. Sancak Y, Bar Peled L, Zoncu R, Markhard A, Nada S, Sabatini D. Ragulator-Rag complex targets mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface and is necessary for its activation by amino acids. Cell. 2010;141:290-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Rag-Ragulator-mediated translocation of mTORC1 to lysosomal membranes is the key event in amino acid signaling to mTORC1. ..
  3. Schalm S, Fingar D, Sabatini D, Blenis J. TOS motif-mediated raptor binding regulates 4E-BP1 multisite phosphorylation and function. Curr Biol. 2003;13:797-806 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that a functional TOS motif is required for 4E-BP1 to bind to raptor (a recently identified mTOR-interacting protein), for 4E-BP1 to be efficiently phosphorylated in vitro by the mTOR/..
  4. Smith E, Proud C. cdc2-cyclin B regulates eEF2 kinase activity in a cell cycle- and amino acid-dependent manner. EMBO J. 2008;27:1005-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These data closely match the control of Ser359 phosphorylation and indicate that cdc2 may be regulated by mTORC1. ..
  5. Kaizuka T, Hara T, Oshiro N, Kikkawa U, Yonezawa K, Takehana K, et al. Tti1 and Tel2 are critical factors in mammalian target of rapamycin complex assembly. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Tti1 and Tel2 are important not only for mTOR stability but also for assembly of the mTOR complexes to maintain their activities. ..
  6. Vander Haar E, Lee S, Bandhakavi S, Griffin T, Kim D. Insulin signalling to mTOR mediated by the Akt/PKB substrate PRAS40. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:316-23 pubmed
    ..These findings identify PRAS40 as an important regulator of insulin sensitivity of the Akt-mTOR pathway and a potential target for the treatment of cancers, insulin resistance and hamartoma syndromes. ..
  7. Hara K, Maruki Y, Long X, Yoshino K, Oshiro N, Hidayat S, et al. Raptor, a binding partner of target of rapamycin (TOR), mediates TOR action. Cell. 2002;110:177-89 pubmed
    ..b>Raptor is a 150 kDa mTOR binding protein that also binds 4EBP1 and p70alpha...
  8. García Martínez J, Moran J, Clarke R, Gray A, Cosulich S, Chresta C, et al. Ku-0063794 is a specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Biochem J. 2009;421:29-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Ku-0063794 will be useful in delineating the physiological roles of mTOR and may have utility in treatment of cancers in which this pathway is inappropriately activated. ..
  9. Gong R, Li L, Liu Y, Wang P, Yang H, Wang L, et al. Crystal structure of the Gtr1p-Gtr2p complex reveals new insights into the amino acid-induced TORC1 activation. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1668-73 pubmed publisher
    ..GTPases play an essential role in relaying amino acid signals to TORC1 activation through direct interaction with raptor and recruitment of the TORC1 complex to lysosomes...

More Information


  1. Gwinn D, Shackelford D, Egan D, Mihaylova M, Mery A, Vasquez D, et al. AMPK phosphorylation of raptor mediates a metabolic checkpoint. Mol Cell. 2008;30:214-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that AMPK directly phosphorylates the mTOR binding partner raptor on two well-conserved serine residues, and this phosphorylation induces 14-3-3 binding to raptor...
  2. Sarbassov D, Sabatini D. Redox regulation of the nutrient-sensitive raptor-mTOR pathway and complex. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39505-9 pubmed
    The raptor-mTOR protein complex is a key component of a nutrient-sensitive signaling pathway that regulates cell size by controlling the accumulation of cellular mass...
  3. Nojima H, Tokunaga C, Eguchi S, Oshiro N, Hidayat S, Yoshino K, et al. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) partner, raptor, binds the mTOR substrates p70 S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 through their TOR signaling (TOS) motif. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15461-4 pubmed
    ..Raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR) is a recently identified mTOR binding partner that also binds p70S6k and 4E-BP1 and is essential ..
  4. Han J, Jeong S, Park M, Kim G, Kwon N, Kim H, et al. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase is an intracellular leucine sensor for the mTORC1-signaling pathway. Cell. 2012;149:410-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates that LRS is a key mediator for amino acid signaling to mTORC1. ..
  5. Frias M, Thoreen C, Jaffe J, Schroder W, Sculley T, Carr S, et al. mSin1 is necessary for Akt/PKB phosphorylation, and its isoforms define three distinct mTORC2s. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1865-70 pubmed
    ..Even though all mTORC2s can phosphorylate Akt/PKB in vitro, insulin regulates the activity of only two of them. Thus, we propose that cells contain several mTORC2 flavors that may phosphorylate Akt/PKB in response to different signals. ..
  6. Berndt S, Gustafsson S, Magi R, Ganna A, Wheeler E, Feitosa M, et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture. Nat Genet. 2013;45:501-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we find a large overlap in genetic structure and the distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiological heterogeneity between obesity subgroups. ..
  7. Sancak Y, Thoreen C, Peterson T, Lindquist R, Kang S, Spooner E, et al. PRAS40 is an insulin-regulated inhibitor of the mTORC1 protein kinase. Mol Cell. 2007;25:903-15 pubmed
    ..We identify PRAS40 as a raptor-interacting protein that binds to mTORC1 in insulin-deprived cells and whose in vitro interaction with mTORC1 is ..
  8. Carriere A, Cargnello M, Julien L, Gao H, Bonneil E, Thibault P, et al. Oncogenic MAPK signaling stimulates mTORC1 activity by promoting RSK-mediated raptor phosphorylation. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The scaffolding protein Raptor binds to mTOR and recruits substrates to the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)...
  9. Sun C, Southard C, Witonsky D, Kittler R, Di Rienzo A. Allele-specific down-regulation of RPTOR expression induced by retinoids contributes to climate adaptations. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001178 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulatory associated protein of MTOR encoded by the RPTOR gene is a key component of this pathway...
  10. Long X, Lin Y, Ortiz Vega S, Yonezawa K, Avruch J. Rheb binds and regulates the mTOR kinase. Curr Biol. 2005;15:702-13 pubmed
    The target of rapamycin (TOR), in complex with the proteins raptor and LST8 (TOR complex 1), phosphorylates the p70S6K and 4E-BP1 to promote mRNA translation...
  11. Sancak Y, Peterson T, Shaul Y, Lindquist R, Thoreen C, Bar Peled L, et al. The Rag GTPases bind raptor and mediate amino acid signaling to mTORC1. Science. 2008;320:1496-501 pubmed publisher
    ..The Rag proteins do not directly stimulate the kinase activity of mTORC1, but, like amino acids, promote the intracellular localization of mTOR to a compartment that also contains its activator Rheb. ..
  12. Sarbassov D, Ali S, Sengupta S, Sheen J, Hsu P, Bagley A, et al. Prolonged rapamycin treatment inhibits mTORC2 assembly and Akt/PKB. Mol Cell. 2006;22:159-68 pubmed
    ..rapamycin interacts with and inhibits the kinase activity of a multiprotein complex composed of mTOR, mLST8, and raptor (mTORC1)...
  13. Buerger C, DeVries B, Stambolic V. Localization of Rheb to the endomembrane is critical for its signaling function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;344:869-80 pubmed
    ..Consistent with the notion that the endomembrane may serve as a platform for the assembly of a functional Rheb/mTOR complex, treatment of cells with brefeldin A interferes with transmission of Rheb signals to p70S6K. ..
  14. Sun C, Southard C, Di Rienzo A. Characterization of a novel splicing variant in the RAPTOR gene. Mutat Res. 2009;662:88-92 pubmed
    ..Raptor, the regulatory associated protein of mTOR, is an important member in this signaling pathway...
  15. Yang Q, Inoki K, Ikenoue T, Guan K. Identification of Sin1 as an essential TORC2 component required for complex formation and kinase activity. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2820-32 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that Sin1 together with Rictor are key components of mTORC2 and play an essential role in Akt phosphorylation and signaling. ..
  16. Sarbassov D, Ali S, Kim D, Guertin D, Latek R, Erdjument Bromage H, et al. Rictor, a novel binding partner of mTOR, defines a rapamycin-insensitive and raptor-independent pathway that regulates the cytoskeleton. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1296-302 pubmed
    ..mTOR interacts with the raptor and GbetaL proteins to form a complex that is the target of rapamycin...
  17. Pearce L, Huang X, Boudeau J, Pawłowski R, Wullschleger S, Deak M, et al. Identification of Protor as a novel Rictor-binding component of mTOR complex-2. Biochem J. 2007;405:513-22 pubmed
    ..Two complexes of mTOR have been identified: complex 1, consisting of mTOR-Raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR)-mLST8 (termed mTORC1), and complex 2, comprising mTOR-Rictor (rapamycininsensitive companion of ..
  18. Schieke S, Phillips D, McCoy J, Aponte A, Shen R, Balaban R, et al. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates mitochondrial oxygen consumption and oxidative capacity. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:27643-52 pubmed
    ..particular, we demonstrate that the level of complex formation between mTOR and one of its known protein partners, raptor, correlated with overall mitochondrial activity...
  19. Peterson T, Laplante M, Thoreen C, Sancak Y, Kang S, Kuehl W, et al. DEPTOR is an mTOR inhibitor frequently overexpressed in multiple myeloma cells and required for their survival. Cell. 2009;137:873-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we identify a novel mTOR-interacting protein whose deregulated overexpression in multiple myeloma cells represents a mechanism for activating PI3K/Akt signaling and promoting cell survival. ..
  20. Choo A, Yoon S, Kim S, Roux P, Blenis J. Rapamycin differentially inhibits S6Ks and 4E-BP1 to mediate cell-type-specific repression of mRNA translation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This reemerged 4E-BP1 phosphorylation is rapamycin-resistant but still requires mTOR, Raptor, and mTORC1's activity...
  21. Sarbassov D, Guertin D, Ali S, Sabatini D. Phosphorylation and regulation of Akt/PKB by the rictor-mTOR complex. Science. 2005;307:1098-101 pubmed
    ..Rictor-mTOR may serve as a drug target in tumors that have lost the expression of PTEN, a tumor suppressor that opposes Akt/PKB activation. ..
  22. Choi K, McMahon L, Lawrence J. Two motifs in the translational repressor PHAS-I required for efficient phosphorylation by mammalian target of rapamycin and for recognition by raptor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:19667-73 pubmed
    ..Wild-type PHAS-I, but none of the mutant proteins, was coimmunoprecipitated with hemagglutinin-tagged raptor, an mTOR-associated protein, after extracts of cells overexpressing raptor had been supplemented with recombinant ..
  23. Kim D, Sarbassov D, Ali S, King J, Latek R, Erdjument Bromage H, et al. mTOR interacts with raptor to form a nutrient-sensitive complex that signals to the cell growth machinery. Cell. 2002;110:163-75 pubmed
    ..We report that mTOR forms a stoichiometric complex with raptor, an evolutionarily conserved protein with at least two roles in the mTOR pathway...
  24. Carriere A, Romeo Y, Acosta Jaquez H, Moreau J, Bonneil E, Thibault P, et al. ERK1/2 phosphorylate Raptor to promote Ras-dependent activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:567-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Raptor, an essential scaffolding protein of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), becomes phosphorylated on proline-directed sites ..
  25. Jacinto E, Loewith R, Schmidt A, Lin S, Ruegg M, Hall A, et al. Mammalian TOR complex 2 controls the actin cytoskeleton and is rapamycin insensitive. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:1122-8 pubmed
    ..mTORC2 contains mTOR, mLST8 and mAVO3, but not raptor. Like yeast TORC2, mTORC2 is rapamycin insensitive and seems to function upstream of Rho GTPases to regulate the ..
  26. Jacinto E, Facchinetti V, Liu D, Soto N, Wei S, Jung S, et al. SIN1/MIP1 maintains rictor-mTOR complex integrity and regulates Akt phosphorylation and substrate specificity. Cell. 2006;127:125-37 pubmed
    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cell growth and proliferation via the raptor-mTOR (TORC1) and rictor-mTOR (TORC2) protein complexes...
  27. Wang Y, Bai Y, Qin L, Zhang P, Yi T, Teesdale S, et al. Interferon-gamma induces human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal expansion by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent mammalian target of rapamycin raptor complex 1 activation. Circ Res. 2007;101:560-9 pubmed
    ..Signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin raptor complex, known as mTORC1, is associated with cell growth and is active within arteriosclerotic lesions but is not ..
  28. Linares J, Duran A, Reina Campos M, Aza Blanc P, Campos A, Moscat J, et al. Amino Acid Activation of mTORC1 by a PB1-Domain-Driven Kinase Complex Cascade. Cell Rep. 2015;12:1339-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of human prostate cancer samples showed upregulation of these three components of the pathway, which correlated with enhanced mTORC1 activation. ..
  29. Kantidakis T, Ramsbottom B, Birch J, Dowding S, White R. mTOR associates with TFIIIC, is found at tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, and targets their repressor Maf1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11823-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that mTOR associates with TFIIIC, is recruited to pol III-transcribed genes, and relieves their repression by Maf1. ..
  30. Land S, Tee A. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha is regulated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) via an mTOR signaling motif. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:20534-43 pubmed
    ..We show that regulatory associated protein of mTOR (Raptor) interacts with HIF1alpha and requires an mTOR signaling (TOS) motif located in the N ..
  31. Kawai S, Enzan H, Hayashi Y, Jin Y, Guo L, Miyazaki E, et al. Vinculin: a novel marker for quiescent and activated hepatic stellate cells in human and rat livers. Virchows Arch. 2003;443:78-86 pubmed
    ..It could allow us to evaluate the development and distribution of quiescent HSCs and to examine the relationship between quiescent and activated HSCs. ..
  32. Oh W, Wu C, Kim S, Facchinetti V, Julien L, Finlan M, et al. mTORC2 can associate with ribosomes to promote cotranslational phosphorylation and stability of nascent Akt polypeptide. EMBO J. 2010;29:3939-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mTORC2 can function cotranslationally by phosphorylating residues in nascent chains that are critical to attain proper conformation. Our findings reveal that mTOR links protein production with quality control. ..
  33. Li H, Li H, Hao Y, Jiao Y, Li Z, Yue H, et al. Differential long non?coding RNA and mRNA expression in differentiated human glioblastoma stem cells. Mol Med Rep. 2016;14:2067-76 pubmed publisher
    ..1?regulatory associated protein of MTOR complex 1, ENSG00000235427...
  34. Rui Y, Xu Z, Patel B, Chen Z, Chen D, Tito A, et al. Huntingtin functions as a scaffold for selective macroautophagy. Nat Cell Biol. 2015;17:262-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data uncover an important physiological function of Huntingtin and provide a missing link in the activation of selective macroautophagy in metazoans. ..
  35. Jain A, Liu R, Ramani B, Arauz E, Ishitsuka Y, Ragunathan K, et al. Probing cellular protein complexes using single-molecule pull-down. Nature. 2011;473:484-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SiMPull should provide a rapid, sensitive and robust platform for analysing protein assemblies in biological pathways. ..
  36. Back J, Rezvani H, Zhu Y, Guyonnet Duperat V, Athar M, Ratner D, et al. Cancer cell survival following DNA damage-mediated premature senescence is regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent Inhibition of sirtuin 1. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19100-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SIRT1 physically interacts with the mTOR-Raptor complex, and a single amino acid substitution in the TOS (TOR signaling) motif in the SIRT1 prevented Ser-47 ..
  37. Beugnet A, Wang X, Proud C. Target of rapamycin (TOR)-signaling and RAIP motifs play distinct roles in the mammalian TOR-dependent phosphorylation of initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:40717-22 pubmed
    ..Other recent work has shown that the protein raptor binds to mTOR and 4E-BP1...
  38. Inoki K, Ouyang H, Li Y, Guan K. Signaling by target of rapamycin proteins in cell growth control. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005;69:79-100 pubmed
    ..Here we review the current understanding of the regulation of TOR signaling and discuss its function as a signaling nexus to control cell growth during normal development and tumorigenesis. ..
  39. He J, Wang M, Qiu L, Zhu M, Shi T, Zhou X, et al. Genetic variations of mTORC1 genes and risk of gastric cancer in an Eastern Chinese population. Mol Carcinog. 2013;52 Suppl 1:E70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and rs26865A>G for mLST8, rs3751934C>A, rs1062935T>C, rs3751932T>C, and rs12602885G>A for Raptor, not included in published gastric cancer genome-wide association studies) and gastric cancer risk in 1125 gastric ..
  40. Stretton C, Hoffmann T, Munson M, Prescott A, Taylor P, Ganley I, et al. GSK3-mediated raptor phosphorylation supports amino-acid-dependent mTORC1-directed signalling. Biochem J. 2015;470:207-21 pubmed publisher
    ..show that GSK3 regulates mTORC1 activity through its ability to phosphorylate the mTOR-associated scaffold protein raptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTOR) on Ser(859)...
  41. Su W, Liu W, Cheng C, Chou Y, Hung K, Huang W, et al. Ribavirin enhances interferon signaling via stimulation of mTOR and p53 activities. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:2793-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that ribavirin enhances activities of mTOR and p53, which may account for its antiviral and antitumor effects. ..
  42. Holz M, Ballif B, Gygi S, Blenis J. mTOR and S6K1 mediate assembly of the translation preinitiation complex through dynamic protein interchange and ordered phosphorylation events. Cell. 2005;123:569-80 pubmed
    ..When inactive, S6K1 associates with the eIF3 complex, while the S6K1 activator mTOR/raptor does not...
  43. Hussain S, Feldman A, Das C, Ziesmer S, Ansell S, Galardy P. Ubiquitin hydrolase UCH-L1 destabilizes mTOR complex 1 by antagonizing DDB1-CUL4-mediated ubiquitination of raptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1188-97 pubmed publisher
    ..By assembling with different cofactors, mTOR forms two complexes with distinct biological functions. Raptor-bound mTOR (mTORC1) governs cap-dependent mRNA translation, whereas mTOR, rictor, and mSin1 (mTORC2) activate the ..
  44. Tekletsadik Y, Sonn R, Osman M. A conserved role of IQGAP1 in regulating TOR complex 1. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:2041-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results could have implications for the development of the next generation of anticancer therapeutics. ..
  45. Rosario F, Dimasuay K, Kanai Y, Powell T, Jansson T. Regulation of amino acid transporter trafficking by mTORC1 in primary human trophoblast cells is mediated by the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016;130:499-512 pubmed publisher
    ..mTORC1 inhibition by silencing of raptor failed to decrease amino acid transport following Nedd4-2 silencing...
  46. De Vleesschauwer D, Filipe O, Hoffman G, Seifi H, Haeck A, Canlas P, et al. Target of rapamycin signaling orchestrates growth-defense trade-offs in plants. New Phytol. 2018;217:305-319 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that ectopic expression of TOR and Raptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTOR), a protein previously demonstrated to interact with TOR in Arabidopsis, ..
  47. Jia W, Sanders A, Jia G, Liu X, Lu R, Jiang W. Expression of the mTOR pathway regulators in human pituitary adenomas indicates the clinical course. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:3123-31 pubmed
    ..stage, invasion characteristic and endocrine status were analysed against the gene transcript expression of mTOR, RAPTOR and RICTOR...
  48. Earwaker P, Anderson C, Willenbrock F, Harris A, Protheroe A, Macaulay V. RAPTOR up-regulation contributes to resistance of renal cancer cells to PI3K-mTOR inhibition. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0191890 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this, resistant cells over-expressed mTORC1 component RAPTOR at the mRNA and protein level...
  49. Hodson N, McGlory C, Oikawa S, Jeromson S, Song Z, Rüegg M, et al. Differential localization and anabolic responsiveness of mTOR complexes in human skeletal muscle in response to feeding and exercise. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017;313:C604-C611 pubmed publisher
    ..mTOR complex 1 [mTORC1-regulatory associated protein of mTOR (Raptor) positive] regulates skeletal muscle growth, whereas mTORC2 [rapamycin-insensitive ..
  50. Dey N, Das F, Mariappan M, Mandal C, Ghosh Choudhury N, Kasinath B, et al. MicroRNA-21 orchestrates high glucose-induced signals to TOR complex 1, resulting in renal cell pathology in diabetes. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:25586-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results identify a previously unrecognized function of miR-21 that is the reciprocal regulation of PTEN levels and Akt/TORC1 activity that mediate critical pathologic features of diabetic kidney disease. ..
  51. Shor B, Wu J, Shakey Q, Toral Barza L, Shi C, Follettie M, et al. Requirement of the mTOR kinase for the regulation of Maf1 phosphorylation and control of RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription in cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:15380-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight a new and unique mode of regulation of Pol III transcription by mTOR and suggest that normalization of Pol III activity may contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of mTOR inhibitors. ..
  52. Bidinosti M, Ran I, Sanchez Carbente M, Martineau Y, Gingras A, Gkogkas C, et al. Postnatal deamidation of 4E-BP2 in brain enhances its association with raptor and alters kinetics of excitatory synaptic transmission. Mol Cell. 2010;37:797-808 pubmed publisher
    ..Deamidated 4E-BP2 exhibits increased binding to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-binding protein raptor, which effects its reduced association with eIF4E...
  53. Ramírez Valle F, Badura M, Braunstein S, Narasimhan M, Schneider R. Mitotic raptor promotes mTORC1 activity, G(2)/M cell cycle progression, and internal ribosome entry site-mediated mRNA translation. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3151-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe previously unknown G(2)/M-specific phosphorylation of a component of mTORC1, the protein raptor, and demonstrate that mitotic raptor phosphorylation alters mTORC1 function during mitosis...
  54. Ghosh P, Wu M, Zhang H, Sun H. mTORC1 signaling requires proteasomal function and the involvement of CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin E3 ligase. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:373-81 pubmed
    ..both of which contain the catalytic subunit mTOR, the invariable subunit mLST8, and a complex specific subunit Raptor or Rictor, forming either the rapamycin-sensitive mTORC1 or rapamycin-insensitive mTORC2, respectively...
  55. Foster H, Davies J, Pink R, Turkcigdem S, Goumenou A, CARTER D, et al. The human myometrium differentially expresses mTOR signalling components before and during pregnancy: evidence for regulation by progesterone. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;139:166-72 pubmed publisher
    ..quantitative RT-PCR we demonstrate for first time that there is a significant downregulation of mTOR, DEPTOR, and Raptor in preterm labouring myometria when compared to non-pregnant tissues taken from the same area (lower segment)...
  56. Debniak T, Soczawa E, Boer M, Różewicka Czabańska M, Wisniewska J, Serrano Fernandez P, et al. Common variants of ZNF750, RPTOR and TRAF3IP2 genes and psoriasis risk. Arch Dermatol Res. 2014;306:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found new associations with clinically relevant subphenotypes such as pustular psoriasis or moderate-to-severe cases. We ascertain no connection of RPTOR and ZNF750 variants with psoriasis or its subphenotypes. ..
  57. Shah O, Hunter T. Turnover of the active fraction of IRS1 involves raptor-mTOR- and S6K1-dependent serine phosphorylation in cell culture models of tuberous sclerosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:6425-34 pubmed
    The TSC1-TSC2/Rheb/Raptor-mTOR/S6K1 cell growth cassette has recently been shown to regulate cell autonomous insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) sensitivity by transducing a negative feedback signal that targets insulin ..
  58. Robles Molina E, Dionisio Vicuña M, Guzmán Hernández M, Reyes Cruz G, Vazquez Prado J. G?? interacts with mTOR and promotes its activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;444:218-23 pubmed publisher
  59. Lin J, Wang J, Greisinger A, Grossman H, Forman M, Dinney C, et al. Energy balance, the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway genes, and the risk of bladder cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010;3:505-17 pubmed publisher
  60. Thedieck K, Holzwarth B, Prentzell M, Boehlke C, Kläsener K, Ruf S, et al. Inhibition of mTORC1 by astrin and stress granules prevents apoptosis in cancer cells. Cell. 2013;154:859-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon stress, astrin inhibits mTORC1 association and recruits the mTORC1 component raptor to stress granules (SGs), thereby preventing mTORC1-hyperactivation-induced apoptosis...
  61. Dan H, Cooper M, Cogswell P, Duncan J, Ting J, Baldwin A. Akt-dependent regulation of NF-{kappa}B is controlled by mTOR and Raptor in association with IKK. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1490-500 pubmed publisher
    ..The mTOR-associated protein Raptor is required for the ability of Akt to induce NF-kappaB activity...
  62. Rosner M, Siegel N, Valli A, Fuchs C, Hengstschlager M. mTOR phosphorylated at S2448 binds to raptor and rictor. Amino Acids. 2010;38:223-8 pubmed publisher
    In mammalian cells, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) forms an enzyme complex with raptor (together with other proteins) named mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), of which a major target is the p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K)...
  63. Liu W, Hashikata H, Inoue K, Matsuura N, Mineharu Y, Kobayashi H, et al. A rare Asian founder polymorphism of Raptor may explain the high prevalence of Moyamoya disease among East Asians and its low prevalence among Caucasians. Environ Health Prev Med. 2010;15:94-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Three genes, CARD14, Raptor, and AATK, were selected based on key words, namely, "inflammation", "apoptosis", "..
  64. Ramírez Rangel I, Bracho Valdés I, Vázquez Macías A, Carretero Ortega J, Reyes Cruz G, Vazquez Prado J. Regulation of mTORC1 complex assembly and signaling by GRp58/ERp57. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1657-71 pubmed publisher
    ..known as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident, we demonstrate its presence at the cytosol, together with mTOR, Raptor, and Rictor as well as a pool of these proteins associated to the ER...
  65. Kudchodkar S, Yu Y, Maguire T, Alwine J. Human cytomegalovirus infection alters the substrate specificities and rapamycin sensitivities of raptor- and rictor-containing complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14182-7 pubmed
    ..mTOR is found in two complexes differing by the binding partner, rictor or raptor. Activated mTOR-raptor promotes cap-dependent translation through the hyperphosphorylation of the eIF4E-binding ..
  66. Yan X, Sun Q, Ji J, Zhu Y, Liu Z, Zhong Q. Reconstitution of leucine-mediated autophagy via the mTORC1-Barkor pathway in vitro. Autophagy. 2012;8:213-21 pubmed publisher
  67. Tzatsos A, Kandror K. Nutrients suppress phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling via raptor-dependent mTOR-mediated insulin receptor substrate 1 phosphorylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:63-76 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that nutrients suppress phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt signaling via Raptor-dependent mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1)...
  68. Huang L, Xu W, Yan D, Dai L, Shi X. Identification of expression quantitative trait loci of RPTOR for susceptibility to glioma. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:2305-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate for the first time that the eQTL of RPTOR, rs7502563, is susceptible to glioma. ..
  69. Tang Q, Holland Letz T, Slynko A, Cuk K, Marme F, Schott S, et al. DNA methylation array analysis identifies breast cancer associated RPTOR, MGRN1 and RAPSN hypomethylation in peripheral blood DNA. Oncotarget. 2016;7:64191-64202 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that hypomethylation of CpG sites in RPTOR, MGRN1 and RAPSN in blood is associated with BC and might serve as blood-based marker supplements for BC if these could be verified in prospective studies. ..
  70. Kim E, Yun S, Ha J, Kim Y, Jin I, Yun J, et al. Selective activation of Akt1 by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 regulates cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Oncogene. 2011;30:2954-63 pubmed publisher
    ..However, inactivation of mTORC1 by silencing of Raptor had no effect. Silencing of Akt1 but not Akt2 attenuated IGF-1-induced SKOV-3 cell migration...
  71. Choi S, Maeng Y, Kim K, Kim T, Kim E. Autophagy is induced by raptor degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome system in granular corneal dystrophy type 2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;450:1505-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We also observed reduced levels of raptor (regulatory-associated protein of the mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR]) in GCD2 corneal fibroblasts and WT ..
  72. Rogers Broadway K, Chudasama D, Pados G, Tsolakidis D, Goumenou A, Hall M, et al. Differential effects of rapalogues, dual kinase inhibitors on human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro. Int J Oncol. 2016;49:133-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we began by validating the expression of four main mTOR pathway components, mTOR, DEPTOR, rictor and raptor, at gene and protein level in in vitro models of endometrioid (MDAH?2774) and clear cell (SKOV3) ovarian cancer ..
  73. Wang X, Beugnet A, Murakami M, Yamanaka S, Proud C. Distinct signaling events downstream of mTOR cooperate to mediate the effects of amino acids and insulin on initiation factor 4E-binding proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:2558-72 pubmed
    ..Although 4E-BP1 and S6K1 bind the mTOR partner, raptor, our data indicate that the outputs from mTOR to 4E-BP1 and S6K1 are distinct...
  74. Gwinn D, Asara J, Shaw R. Raptor is phosphorylated by cdc2 during mitosis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9197 pubmed publisher
    ..AMPK directly phosphorylates the critical mTOR binding partner raptor inhibiting mTORC1 (mTOR-raptor rapamycin sensitive mTOR kinase complex 1)...