Ran

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ran
Description: RAN, member RAS oncogene family
Alias: ARA24, Gsp1, TC4, GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran, GTPase Ran, OK/SW-cl.81, RanGTPase, androgen receptor-associated protein 24, guanosine triphosphatase Ran, member RAS oncogene family, ras-like protein TC4, ras-related nuclear protein
Species: human
Products:     Ran

Top Publications

  1. Rebollo E, Llamazares S, Reina J, Gonzalez C. Contribution of noncentrosomal microtubules to spindle assembly in Drosophila spermatocytes. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E8 pubmed
    ..These observations are consistent with a model in which centrosomal and noncentrosomal microtubules contribute to the assembly and are required for the robustness of the cell division spindle in cells that contain centrosomes. ..
  2. Mingot J, Kostka S, Kraft R, Hartmann E, Gorlich D. Importin 13: a novel mediator of nuclear import and export. EMBO J. 2001;20:3685-94 pubmed
    Importin beta-related receptors mediate translocation through nuclear pore complexes. Co-operation with the RanGTPase system allows them to bind and subsequently release their substrates on opposite sides of the nuclear envelope, which ..
  3. Bischoff F, Gorlich D. RanBP1 is crucial for the release of RanGTP from importin beta-related nuclear transport factors. FEBS Lett. 1997;419:249-54 pubmed
    ..The transiently released RanGTP x RanBP1 complex is then induced by RanGAP to hydrolyse GTP, preventing the receptor to rebind RanGTP. The efficient release of importin beta from RanGTP requires importin alpha, in addition to RanBP1. ..
  4. Dölker N, Blanchet C, Voß B, Haselbach D, Kappel C, Monecke T, et al. Structural determinants and mechanism of mammalian CRM1 allostery. Structure. 2013;21:1350-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Cooperative CRM1 export complex assembly thus constitutes a highly dynamic process, encompassing an intricate interplay of global and local structural changes. ..
  5. Kalab P, Pralle A, Isacoff E, Heald R, Weis K. Analysis of a RanGTP-regulated gradient in mitotic somatic cells. Nature. 2006;440:697-701 pubmed
    The RanGTPase cycle provides directionality to nucleocytoplasmic transport, regulating interactions between cargoes and nuclear transport receptors of the importin-beta family...
  6. Palacios I, Weis K, Klebe C, Mattaj I, Dingwall C. RAN/TC4 mutants identify a common requirement for snRNP and protein import into the nucleus. J Cell Biol. 1996;133:485-94 pubmed
    ..in the case of protein import, the energy requirement is known to be at least partly met by GTP hydrolysis by the Ran GTPase...
  7. Kim J, Choi Y, Jin G, Kang H, Choi J, Jeon H, et al. Association of a common AGO1 variant with lung cancer risk: a two-stage case-control study. Mol Carcinog. 2010;49:913-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In stage 1 of the study, 24 SNPs in the 11 miRNA biosynthesis genes (DROSHA, DGCR8, RAN, XPO5, DICER, AGO1, AGO2, HIWI, GEMIN3, GEMIN4, and TRBP) were genotyped in 100 lung cancer patients and 100 ..
  8. Fornerod M, Ohno M, Yoshida M, Mattaj I. CRM1 is an export receptor for leucine-rich nuclear export signals. Cell. 1997;90:1051-60 pubmed
    ..We conclude that CRM1 is an export receptor for leucine-rich nuclear export signals and discuss a model for the role of RanGTP in CRM1 function and in nuclear export in general. ..
  9. Chi N, Adam E, Adam S. Sequence and characterization of cytoplasmic nuclear protein import factor p97. J Cell Biol. 1995;130:265-74 pubmed
    ..cDNA cloning of p97 shows that it is a unique protein containing 23 cysteine residues. Recombinant p97 binds zinc and a bound metal ion is required for the nuclear envelope binding activity of the protein. ..

More Information

Publications81

  1. Becker J, Melchior F, Gerke V, Bischoff F, Ponstingl H, Wittinghofer A. RNA1 encodes a GTPase-activating protein specific for Gsp1p, the Ran/TC4 homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:11860-5 pubmed
    ..In Saccharomyces cerevisiae a gene highly homologous to Ran/TC4 has been identified and named GSP1. Like all ras-related GTP-binding proteins, Gsp1p undergoes cycles of GTP hydrolysis and GDP/GTP exchange...
  2. Kutay U, Lipowsky G, Izaurralde E, Bischoff F, Schwarzmaier P, Hartmann E, et al. Identification of a tRNA-specific nuclear export receptor. Mol Cell. 1998;1:359-69 pubmed
    ..RanGTP regulates the substrate-exportin-t interaction such that tRNA can be preferentially bound in the nucleus and released in the cytoplasm. ..
  3. Kutay U, Hartmann E, Treichel N, Calado A, Carmo Fonseca M, Prehn S, et al. Identification of two novel RanGTP-binding proteins belonging to the importin beta superfamily. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:40163-8 pubmed
    ..new members of the importin beta family, we used affinity chromatography on immobilized RanGTP and isolated Ran-binding protein (RanBP) 16 from HeLa cell extracts...
  4. Katahira J, Strasser K, Podtelejnikov A, Mann M, Jung J, Hurt E. The Mex67p-mediated nuclear mRNA export pathway is conserved from yeast to human. EMBO J. 1999;18:2593-609 pubmed
    ..Thus, the human TAP-p15 complex can functionally replace the Mex67p-Mtr2p complex in yeast and thus performs a conserved role in nuclear mRNA export...
  5. Kuhlmann J, Macara I, Wittinghofer A. Dynamic and equilibrium studies on the interaction of Ran with its effector, RanBP1. Biochemistry. 1997;36:12027-35 pubmed
    b>Ran, a small nuclear GTP-binding protein, is one of the most abundant Ras-related proteins in eucaryotic cells. Ran is essential for nucleo-cytoplasmatic transport and is primarily localized in the nucleus and at the nuclear pore complex...
  6. Bischoff F, Ponstingl H. Mitotic regulator protein RCC1 is complexed with a nuclear ras-related polypeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:10830-4 pubmed
    ..We designate this polypeptide Ran, for ras-related nuclear protein.
  7. Yang J, Bogerd H, Peng S, Wiegand H, Truant R, Cullen B. An ancient family of human endogenous retroviruses encodes a functional homolog of the HIV-1 Rev protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:13404-8 pubmed
    ..These data provide surprising evidence for an evolutionary link between HIV-1 and a group of endogenous retroviruses that first entered the human genome approximately 30 million years ago. ..
  8. Monecke T, Guttler T, Neumann P, Dickmanns A, Gorlich D, Ficner R. Crystal structure of the nuclear export receptor CRM1 in complex with Snurportin1 and RanGTP. Science. 2009;324:1087-91 pubmed publisher
    ..5 angstrom resolution (where SPN1 is snurportin1 and RanGTP is guanosine 5' triphosphate-bound Ran)...
  9. Yokoyama N, Hayashi N, Seki T, Pante N, Ohba T, Nishii K, et al. A giant nucleopore protein that binds Ran/TC4. Nature. 1995;376:184-8 pubmed
    Ran/TC4 is a small nuclear G protein that forms a complex with the chromatin-bound guanine nucleotide release factor RCC1 (ref. 2). Loss of RCC1 causes defects in cell cycle progression, RNA export and nuclear protein import...
  10. Karn J, Stoltzfus C. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of HIV-1 gene expression. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a006916 pubmed publisher
    ..In cells that are not fully activated, limiting levels of Tat and Rev act as potent blocks to premature virus production. ..
  11. Kutay U, Izaurralde E, Bischoff F, Mattaj I, Gorlich D. Dominant-negative mutants of importin-beta block multiple pathways of import and export through the nuclear pore complex. EMBO J. 1997;16:1153-63 pubmed
    ..Here, we analyse the sites of interaction on importin-beta for its multiple partners. Ran and importin-alpha respectively require residues 1-364 and 331-876 of importin-beta for binding...
  12. Askjaer P, Jensen T, Nilsson J, Englmeier L, Kjems J. The specificity of the CRM1-Rev nuclear export signal interaction is mediated by RanGTP. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:33414-22 pubmed
    ..export receptor for proteins carrying a Rev-like NES in a process that also requires the GTP bound form of the Ran GTPase...
  13. Mueller L, Cordes V, Bischoff F, Ponstingl H. Human RanBP3, a group of nuclear RanGTP binding proteins. FEBS Lett. 1998;427:330-6 pubmed
    A group of novel human Ran-binding proteins, RanBP3, was identified using the yeast two-hybrid system via Ran-mediated interaction with the nucleotide exchange factor RCC1...
  14. Ouellet V, Guyot M, Le Page C, Filali Mouhim A, Lussier C, Tonin P, et al. Tissue array analysis of expression microarray candidates identifies markers associated with tumor grade and outcome in serous epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:599-607 pubmed
    ..this study, we used immunohistochemistry to monitor a subset of differently expressed candidates (Ahr, Paep, Madh3, Ran, Met, Mek1, Ccne1, Ccd20, Cks1 and Cas)...
  15. Vetter I, Arndt A, Kutay U, Gorlich D, Wittinghofer A. Structural view of the Ran-Importin beta interaction at 2.3 A resolution. Cell. 1999;97:635-46 pubmed
    ..They interact specifically with the GTP-binding protein Ran, which in turn regulates their interaction with cargo...
  16. Azuma Y, Renault L, Garcia Ranea J, Valencia A, Nishimoto T, Wittinghofer A. Model of the ran-RCC1 interaction using biochemical and docking experiments. J Mol Biol. 1999;289:1119-30 pubmed
    ..condensation, is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the nuclear Ras-like GTP-binding protein Ran. Its structure was solved by X-ray crystallography and revealed a seven-bladed beta-propeller, one side of which ..
  17. Ly T, Wang J, Pereira R, Rojas K, Peng X, Feng Q, et al. Activation of the Ran GTPase is subject to growth factor regulation and can give rise to cellular transformation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5815-26 pubmed publisher
    Although the small GTPase Ran is best known for its roles in nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly, and nuclear envelope formation, recent studies have demonstrated the overexpression of Ran in multiple tumor types and ..
  18. Lipowsky G, Bischoff F, Schwarzmaier P, Kraft R, Kostka S, Hartmann E, et al. Exportin 4: a mediator of a novel nuclear export pathway in higher eukaryotes. EMBO J. 2000;19:4362-71 pubmed
    ..translocation through nuclear pore complexes, shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm and co-operate with the RanGTPase system to regulate their interactions with cargo molecules in a compartment-specific manner...
  19. Nemergut M, Lindsay M, Brownawell A, Macara I. Ran-binding protein 3 links Crm1 to the Ran guanine nucleotide exchange factor. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17385-8 pubmed
    b>Ran-binding protein 3 (RanBP3) is an approximately 55-kDa protein that functions as a cofactor for Crm1-mediated nuclear export. RanBP3 stimulates export by enhancing the affinity of Crm1 for Ran.GTP and cargo...
  20. Gorlich D, Kostka S, Kraft R, Dingwall C, Laskey R, Hartmann E, et al. Two different subunits of importin cooperate to recognize nuclear localization signals and bind them to the nuclear envelope. Curr Biol. 1995;5:383-92 pubmed
    ..A 60 kD protein, importin, is essential for the first nuclear import step, and the small G protein Ran/TC4 is essential for the second...
  21. Hakata Y, Yamada M, Mabuchi N, Shida H. The carboxy-terminal region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein Rev has multiple roles in mediating CRM1-related Rev functions. J Virol. 2002;76:8079-89 pubmed
    ..are a basis of complex formation, can be initiated without cellular factors and are subsequently enhanced by hCRM1-Ran-GTP...
  22. Chi N, Adam E, Adam S. Different binding domains for Ran-GTP and Ran-GDP/RanBP1 on nuclear import factor p97. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:6818-22 pubmed
    ..to the nucleus, including the nuclear location sequence receptor (NLS receptor), p97, the small nuclear GTPase Ran/TC4, and several nucleoporins...
  23. Woo I, Jang H, Eun S, Kim H, Ham S, Kim H, et al. Ran suppresses paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. Apoptosis. 2008;13:1223-31 pubmed publisher
    Yeast-based functional screening of a human glioblastoma cDNA library identified ras-related nuclear protein (Ran) as a novel suppressor of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins...
  24. Gorlich D, Pante N, Kutay U, Aebi U, Bischoff F. Identification of different roles for RanGDP and RanGTP in nuclear protein import. EMBO J. 1996;15:5584-94 pubmed
    The importin-alpha/beta heterodimer and the GTPase Ran play key roles in nuclear protein import. Importin binds the nuclear localization signal (NLS)...
  25. Hutchins J, Moore W, Clarke P. Dynamic localisation of Ran GTPase during the cell cycle. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:66 pubmed publisher
    b>Ran GTPase has multiple functions during the cell division cycle, including nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope formation...
  26. Dasso M, Seki T, Azuma Y, Ohba T, Nishimoto T. A mutant form of the Ran/TC4 protein disrupts nuclear function in Xenopus laevis egg extracts by inhibiting the RCC1 protein, a regulator of chromosome condensation. EMBO J. 1994;13:5732-44 pubmed
    The Ran protein is a small GTPase that has been implicated in a large number of nuclear processes including transport. RNA processing and cell cycle checkpoint control...
  27. Guttler T, Madl T, Neumann P, Deichsel D, Corsini L, Monecke T, et al. NES consensus redefined by structures of PKI-type and Rev-type nuclear export signals bound to CRM1. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data lead to a new structure-based NES consensus, and explain why NESs differ in their affinities for CRM1 and why supraphysiological NESs bind the exportin so tightly. ..
  28. Seewald M, Körner C, Wittinghofer A, Vetter I. RanGAP mediates GTP hydrolysis without an arginine finger. Nature. 2002;415:662-6 pubmed
    ..This has been proposed as a universal mechanism for GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Ran is a nuclear Ras-related protein that regulates both transport between the nucleus and cytoplasm during interphase, ..
  29. Zhang C, Clarke P. Chromatin-independent nuclear envelope assembly induced by Ran GTPase in Xenopus egg extracts. Science. 2000;288:1429-32 pubmed
    ..NEs incorporating nuclear pores were assembled around beads coated with the guanosine triphosphatase Ran, forming pseudo-nuclei that actively imported nuclear proteins...
  30. Lindsay M, Holaska J, Welch K, Paschal B, Macara I. Ran-binding protein 3 is a cofactor for Crm1-mediated nuclear protein export. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:1391-402 pubmed
    ..receptors and mediates the export of proteins from the nucleus by forming a ternary complex with cargo and Ran:GTP. This complex translocates through the nuclear pores and dissociates in the cytosol...
  31. Renault L, Kuhlmann J, Henkel A, Wittinghofer A. Structural basis for guanine nucleotide exchange on Ran by the regulator of chromosome condensation (RCC1). Cell. 2001;105:245-55 pubmed
    ..chromatin-bound protein, is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the nuclear GTP binding protein Ran. We report here the 1...
  32. Kelley J, Datta S, Snow C, Chatterjee M, Ni L, Spencer A, et al. The defective nuclear lamina in Hutchinson-gilford progeria syndrome disrupts the nucleocytoplasmic Ran gradient and inhibits nuclear localization of Ubc9. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3378-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that progerin reduces the nuclear/cytoplasmic concentration of the Ran GTPase and inhibits the nuclear localization of Ubc9, the sole E2 for SUMOylation, and of TPR, the nucleoporin that ..
  33. Matunis M, Coutavas E, Blobel G. A novel ubiquitin-like modification modulates the partitioning of the Ran-GTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 between the cytosol and the nuclear pore complex. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1457-70 pubmed
    b>Ran is a nuclear Ras-like GTPase that is required for the bidirectional transport of proteins and ribnucleoproteins across the nuclear pore complex (NPC)...
  34. Gorlich D, Dabrowski M, Bischoff F, Kutay U, Bork P, Hartmann E, et al. A novel class of RanGTP binding proteins. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:65-80 pubmed
    The importin-alpha/beta complex and the GTPase Ran mediate nuclear import of proteins with a classical nuclear localization signal...
  35. Clague J, Lippman S, Yang H, Hildebrandt M, Ye Y, Lee J, et al. Genetic variation in MicroRNA genes and risk of oral premalignant lesions. Mol Carcinog. 2010;49:183-9 pubmed publisher
  36. Schulze H, Dose M, Korpal M, Meyer I, Italiano J, Shivdasani R. RanBP10 is a cytoplasmic guanine nucleotide exchange factor that modulates noncentrosomal microtubules. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14109-19 pubmed publisher
    Microtubule spindle assembly in mitosis is stimulated by Ran.GTP, which is generated along condensed chromosomes by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) RCC1...
  37. Paraskeva E, Izaurralde E, Bischoff F, Huber J, Kutay U, Hartmann E, et al. CRM1-mediated recycling of snurportin 1 to the cytoplasm. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:255-64 pubmed
    ..This mechanism appears crucial for productive import cycles as it can ensure that CRM1 only exports snurportin 1 that has already released its import substrate in the nucleus. ..
  38. Vetter I, Nowak C, Nishimoto T, Kuhlmann J, Wittinghofer A. Structure of a Ran-binding domain complexed with Ran bound to a GTP analogue: implications for nuclear transport. Nature. 1999;398:39-46 pubmed
    The protein Ran is a small GTP-binding protein that binds to two types of effector inside the cell: Ran-binding proteins, which have a role in terminating export processes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and importin-beta-like ..
  39. Yasuda Y, Miyamoto Y, Saiwaki T, Yoneda Y. Mechanism of the stress-induced collapse of the Ran distribution. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:512-20 pubmed
    The small GTPase Ran plays a central role in several key nuclear functions, including nucleocytoplasmic transport, cell cycle progression, and assembly of the nuclear envelope...
  40. Kutay U, Bischoff F, Kostka S, Kraft R, Gorlich D. Export of importin alpha from the nucleus is mediated by a specific nuclear transport factor. Cell. 1997;90:1061-71 pubmed
    ..Importin alpha is released from this complex in the cytoplasm by the combined action of RanBP1 and RanGAP1. CAS binds preferentially to NLS-free importin alpha, explaining why import substrates stay in the nucleus. ..
  41. Hakata Y, Yamada M, Shida H. A multifunctional domain in human CRM1 (exportin 1) mediates RanBP3 binding and multimerization of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Rex protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8751-61 pubmed
    ..Our results provide the molecular basis underlying the species-specific ability of HTLV-1 to propagate in human cells. ..
  42. Drivas G, Shih A, Coutavas E, Rush M, D EUSTACHIO P. Characterization of four novel ras-like genes expressed in a human teratocarcinoma cell line. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:1793-8 pubmed
    ..Homologs of the four genes were found in genomic DNA from a variety of mammals and from chicken. The genes were transcriptionally active in a range of human cell types. ..
  43. Moroianu J, Blobel G, Radu A. Nuclear protein import: Ran-GTP dissociates the karyopherin alphabeta heterodimer by displacing alpha from an overlapping binding site on beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:7059-62 pubmed
    ..The small GTPase Ran and the Ran interactive protein, p10, function in the release of the docked complex...
  44. Torosantucci L, De Luca M, Guarguaglini G, Lavia P, Degrassi F. Localized RanGTP accumulation promotes microtubule nucleation at kinetochores in somatic mammalian cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:1873-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The complex of RanGTP, the export receptor Crm1, and nuclear export signal-bearing proteins regulates microtubule nucleation at kinetochores. ..
  45. Petosa C, Schoehn G, Askjaer P, Bauer U, Moulin M, Steuerwald U, et al. Architecture of CRM1/Exportin1 suggests how cooperativity is achieved during formation of a nuclear export complex. Mol Cell. 2004;16:761-75 pubmed
    ..export signal (NES) by forming a cooperative ternary complex with the NES-bearing substrate and the small GTPase Ran. We present a structural model of human CRM1 based on a combination of X-ray crystallography, homology modeling, ..
  46. Li H, Zheng Y. Phosphorylation of RCC1 in mitosis is essential for producing a high RanGTP concentration on chromosomes and for spindle assembly in mammalian cells. Genes Dev. 2004;18:512-27 pubmed
    Spindle assembly is subject to the regulatory controls of both the cell-cycle machinery and the Ran-signaling pathway...
  47. Trieselmann N, Armstrong S, Rauw J, Wilde A. Ran modulates spindle assembly by regulating a subset of TPX2 and Kid activities including Aurora A activation. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4791-8 pubmed
    b>Ran, a GTPase in the Ras superfamily, is proposed to be a spatial regulator of microtubule spindle assembly by maintaining key spindle assembly factors in an active state close to chromatin...
  48. Budhu A, Wang X. Loading and unloading: orchestrating centrosome duplication and spindle assembly by Ran/Crm1. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:1510-4 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that the Ran/Crm1 complex not only regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport but is also independently involved in mitotic spindle ..
  49. Lin J, Horikawa Y, Tamboli P, Clague J, Wood C, Wu X. Genetic variations in microRNA-related genes are associated with survival and recurrence in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1805-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Future investigation in larger populations and functional characterizations are necessary to validate these results. ..
  50. Chook Y, Blobel G. Structure of the nuclear transport complex karyopherin-beta2-Ran x GppNHp. Nature. 1999;399:230-7 pubmed
    ..In the nucleus, Ran x GTP binds karyopherin-beta2 and dissociates the substrate. Here we present the 3...
  51. Lounsbury K, Richards S, Perlungher R, Macara I. Ran binding domains promote the interaction of Ran with p97/beta-karyopherin, linking the docking and translocation steps of nuclear import. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:2357-60 pubmed
    ..Components necessary for translocation include the Ran/TC4 GTPase and NTF2/B-2. The functions of these factors at a molecular level remain unclear...
  52. Black B, Levesque L, Holaska J, Wood T, Paschal B. Identification of an NTF2-related factor that binds Ran-GTP and regulates nuclear protein export. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:8616-24 pubmed
    ..Assembly and disassembly reactions of receptor-substrate complexes are coordinated by Ran, a GTP-binding protein whose nucleotide state is regulated catalytically by effector proteins...
  53. Hinkle B, Slepchenko B, Rolls M, Walther T, Stein P, Mehlmann L, et al. Chromosomal association of Ran during meiotic and mitotic divisions. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4685-93 pubmed
    Recent studies in Xenopus egg extracts indicate that the small G protein Ran has a central role in spindle assembly and nuclear envelope reformation. We determined Ran localization and dynamics in cells during M phase...
  54. Plafker K, Macara I. Facilitated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the Ran binding protein RanBP1. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:3510-21 pubmed
    The Ran binding protein RanBP1 is localized to the cytosol of interphase cells. A leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) near the C terminus of RanBP1 is essential to maintain this distribution...
  55. Bischoff F, Krebber H, Smirnova E, Dong W, Ponstingl H. Co-activation of RanGTPase and inhibition of GTP dissociation by Ran-GTP binding protein RanBP1. EMBO J. 1995;14:705-15 pubmed
    ..The purified soluble 23 kDa Ran binding protein RanBP1 does not activate RanGTPase, but increases GTP hydrolysis induced by the RanGTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 by an order of magnitude...
  56. Barrès V, Ouellet V, Lafontaine J, Tonin P, Provencher D, Mes Masson A. An essential role for Ran GTPase in epithelial ovarian cancer cell survival. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:272 pubmed publisher
    We previously identified that Ran protein, a member of the Ras GTPase family, is highly expressed in high grade and high stage serous epithelial ovarian cancers, and that its overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis...
  57. Feng Y, Yuan J, Maloid S, Fisher R, Copeland T, Longo D, et al. Polo-like kinase 1-mediated phosphorylation of the GTP-binding protein Ran is important for bipolar spindle formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:144-52 pubmed
    ..In this study, we report that the small GTP/GDP-binding protein Ran is associated with Plk1...
  58. Kelley J, Paschal B. Hyperosmotic stress signaling to the nucleus disrupts the Ran gradient and the production of RanGTP. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4365-76 pubmed
    The RanGTP gradient depends on nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Ran and its nucleotide exchange in the nucleus...
  59. Zou Y, Lim S, Lee K, Deng X, Friedman E. Serine/threonine kinase Mirk/Dyrk1B is an inhibitor of epithelial cell migration and is negatively regulated by the Met adaptor Ran-binding protein M. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:49573-81 pubmed
    ..In the current study, the Met adaptor protein Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) was identified as a Mirk-binding protein by yeast two-hybrid analysis...
  60. Ren M, Villamarin A, Shih A, Coutavas E, Moore M, LoCurcio M, et al. Separate domains of the Ran GTPase interact with different factors to regulate nuclear protein import and RNA processing. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:2117-24 pubmed
    The small Ras-related GTP binding and hydrolyzing protein Ran has been implicated in a variety of processes, including cell cycle progression, DNA synthesis, RNA processing, and nuclear-cytosolic trafficking of both RNA and proteins...
  61. Noguchi E, Hayashi N, Azuma Y, Seki T, Nakamura M, Nakashima N, et al. Dis3, implicated in mitotic control, binds directly to Ran and enhances the GEF activity of RCC1. EMBO J. 1996;15:5595-605 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae cDNA encoding a protein homologous to Schizosaccharomyces pombe protein Dis3sp, using as bait, human GTPase Ran. The DIS3 gene is essential for viability and complements S.pombe mutant dis3-54 which is defective in mitosis...
  62. Abe H, Kamai T, Shirataki H, Oyama T, Arai K, Yoshida K. High expression of Ran GTPase is associated with local invasion and metastasis of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:2391-7 pubmed publisher
    The Ran small GTPase (Ran) is involved in the regulation of nuclear transport, microtubule nucleation and dynamics, and spindle assembly...
  63. Englmeier L, Fornerod M, Bischoff F, Petosa C, Mattaj I, Kutay U. RanBP3 influences interactions between CRM1 and its nuclear protein export substrates. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:926-32 pubmed
    We investigated the role of RanBP3, a nuclear member of the Ran-binding protein 1 family, in CRM1-mediated protein export in higher eukaryotes. RanBP3 interacts directly with CRM1 and also forms a trimeric complex with CRM1 and RanGTP...
  64. Ribbeck K, Lipowsky G, Kent H, Stewart M, Gorlich D. NTF2 mediates nuclear import of Ran. EMBO J. 1998;17:6587-98 pubmed
    ..We describe here the development of an in vitro system to study how nuclear Ran is replenished...
  65. Plafker S, Macara I. Importin-11, a nuclear import receptor for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UbcM2. EMBO J. 2000;19:5502-13 pubmed
    ..Importin-11 interacts with the Ran GTPase, and constitutively shuttles between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments...
  66. Chi N, Adam E, Visser G, Adam S. RanBP1 stabilizes the interaction of Ran with p97 nuclear protein import. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:559-69 pubmed
    ..identified that reconstitute nuclear protein import in a permeabilized cell assay: the NLS receptor, p97, and Ran/TC4. Ran/TC4, in turn, interacts with a number of proteins that are involved in the regulation of GTP hydrolysis or are ..
  67. Carazo Salas R, Guarguaglini G, Gruss O, Segref A, Karsenti E, Mattaj I. Generation of GTP-bound Ran by RCC1 is required for chromatin-induced mitotic spindle formation. Nature. 1999;400:178-81 pubmed
    ..RCC1, the guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase protein Ran, is a component of chromatin...
  68. Bischoff F, Klebe C, Kretschmer J, Wittinghofer A, Ponstingl H. RanGAP1 induces GTPase activity of nuclear Ras-related Ran. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:2587-91 pubmed
    The nuclear Ras-related protein Ran binds guanine nucleotide and is involved in cell cycle regulation. Models of the signal pathway predict Ran to be active as Ran...
  69. Hieda M, Tachibana T, Yokoya F, Kose S, Imamoto N, Yoneda Y. A monoclonal antibody to the COOH-terminal acidic portion of Ran inhibits both the recycling of Ran and nuclear protein import in living cells. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:645-55 pubmed
    A small GTPase Ran is a key regulator for active nuclear transport. In immunoblotting analysis, a monoclonal antibody against recombinant human Ran, designated ARAN1, was found to recognize an epitope in the COOH-terminal domain of Ran...
  70. Bischoff F, Krebber H, Kempf T, Hermes I, Ponstingl H. Human RanGTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 is a homologue of yeast Rna1p involved in mRNA processing and transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:1749-53 pubmed
    ..pombe. Both this protein and recombinant Rna1p were found to stimulate RanGTPase activity to an extent almost identical to that of human RanGAP1, indicating the functional significance of the ..
  71. Nagai M, Yoneda Y. Downregulation of the small GTPase ras-related nuclear protein accelerates cellular ageing. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:2813-9 pubmed
    The small GTPase Ran, Ras-related nuclear protein, plays important roles in multiple fundamental cellular functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly, and nuclear envelope formation, by binding to either GTP or ..
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