RAD51

Summary

Gene Symbol: RAD51
Description: RAD51 recombinase
Alias: BRCC5, FANCR, HRAD51, HsRad51, HsT16930, MRMV2, RAD51A, RECA, DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 1, BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex, subunit 5, RAD51 homolog A, RecA, E. coli, homolog of, RecA-like protein, recombination protein A
Species: human
Products:     RAD51

Top Publications

  1. Martin R, Orelli B, Yamazoe M, Minn A, Takeda S, Bishop D. RAD51 up-regulation bypasses BRCA1 function and is a common feature of BRCA1-deficient breast tumors. Cancer Res. 2007;67:9658-65 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that overexpression of the homologous recombinase RAD51 in a DT40 BRCA1Delta/Delta mutant rescues defects in proliferation, DNA damage survival, and homologous ..
  2. Maacke H, Jost K, Opitz S, Miska S, Yuan Y, Hasselbach L, et al. DNA repair and recombination factor Rad51 is over-expressed in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Oncogene. 2000;19:2791-5 pubmed
    ..In mammalian cells, the product of the rad51 gene mediates DNA repair via homologous recombination...
  3. Blasiak J, Przybyłowska K, Czechowska A, Zadrozny M, Pertynski T, Rykała J, et al. Analysis of the G/C polymorphism in the 5'-untranslated region of the RAD51 gene in breast cancer. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50:249-53 pubmed
    The breast cancer suppressor proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2 interact with RAD51, a protein essential for maintaining genomic stability by playing a central role in homology-dependent recombinational repair of the DNA double-strand breaks...
  4. Krupa R, Synowiec E, Pawlowska E, Morawiec Z, Sobczuk A, Zadrozny M, et al. Polymorphism of the homologous recombination repair genes RAD51 and XRCC3 in breast cancer. Exp Mol Pathol. 2009;87:32-5 pubmed publisher
    The RAD51 protein and its paralog, XRCC3, play an important role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination...
  5. Carreira A, Kowalczykowski S. Two classes of BRC repeats in BRCA2 promote RAD51 nucleoprotein filament function by distinct mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10448-53 pubmed publisher
    The human tumor suppressor protein BRCA2 plays a key role in recombinational DNA repair. BRCA2 recruits RAD51 to sites of DNA damage through interaction with eight conserved motifs of approximately 35 amino acids, the BRC repeats; ..
  6. Figueroa J, Malats N, Rothman N, Real F, Silverman D, Kogevinas M, et al. Evaluation of genetic variation in the double-strand break repair pathway and bladder cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:1788-93 pubmed
    ..BRIP1 and ZNF350), non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair (XRCC4) and homologous recombination (HR) repair (RAD51, XRCC2 and XRCC3). SNPs for RAD51 and XRCC2 covered most of the common variation...
  7. Bugreev D, Mazin A. Ca2+ activates human homologous recombination protein Rad51 by modulating its ATPase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9988-93 pubmed
    Human Rad51 (hRad51) protein plays a key role in homologous recombination and DNA repair...
  8. Aloyz R, Xu Z, Bello V, Bergeron J, Han F, Yan Y, et al. Regulation of cisplatin resistance and homologous recombinational repair by the TFIIH subunit XPD. Cancer Res. 2002;62:5457-62 pubmed
    ..In contrast, in SK-MG-4 cells treated with cisplatin, XPD overexpression leads to increased Rad51-related homologous recombinational repair, increased sister chromatid exchanges, and accelerated interstrand cross-..
  9. Sliwinski T, Krupa R, Majsterek I, Rykala J, Kolacinska A, Morawiec Z, et al. Polymorphisms of the BRCA2 and RAD51 genes in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005;94:105-9 pubmed
    ..a case-control study (150 cases and 150 controls) to test the association between three polymorphisms in BRCA2 and RAD51 genes and breast cancer risk. Genotypes were determined in DNA from blood cells by PCR-RFLP...

More Information

Publications184 found, 100 shown here

  1. Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P. Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and Rad54. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42790-4 pubmed
    Human Rad51 (hRad51) and Rad54 proteins are key members of the RAD52 group required for homologous recombination...
  2. Dray E, Etchin J, Wiese C, Saro D, Williams G, Hammel M, et al. Enhancement of RAD51 recombinase activity by the tumor suppressor PALB2. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1255-9 pubmed publisher
    Homologous recombination mediated by RAD51 recombinase helps eliminate chromosomal lesions, such as DNA double-strand breaks induced by radiation or arising from injured DNA replication forks...
  3. Hamdy M, El Haddad A, Bahaa El Din N, Makhlouf M, Abdel Hamid S. RAD51 and XRCC3 gene polymorphisms and the risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. J Investig Med. 2011;59:1124-30 pubmed publisher
    b>RAD51 (Rec A homolog of E. coli) is a polymorphic gene and one of the central proteins in homologous recombination-DNA-double-stand breaks (HR-DNA-DSB) repair pathway, which is vital in maintaining genetic stability within a cell...
  4. Romanowicz Makowska H, Smolarz B, Samulak D, Michalska M, Lewy J, Burzynski M, et al. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' untranslated region of RAD51 and ovarian cancer risk in Polish women. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2012;33:406-10 pubmed
    DNA repair gene polymorphisms are known to influence cancer risk. The RAD51 gene encodes proteins essential for maintaining genomic stability by playing a central role in holmology-dependent recombinational repair of the DNA double-..
  5. Maacke H, Hundertmark C, Miska S, Voss M, Kalthoff H, Sturzbecher H. Autoantibodies in sera of pancreatic cancer patients identify recombination factor Rad51 as a tumour-associated antigen. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2002;128:219-22 pubmed
    The recombination factor Rad51 is highly expressed in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma...
  6. Yu D, Sonoda E, Takeda S, Huang C, Pellegrini L, Blundell T, et al. Dynamic control of Rad51 recombinase by self-association and interaction with BRCA2. Mol Cell. 2003;12:1029-41 pubmed
    Here, we visualize GFP-Rad51 fusion proteins in the nucleus of living cells to demonstrate the dynamic compartmentalization of Rad51 by self-association or by binding to BRCA2...
  7. Nogueira A, Catarino R, Faustino I, Nogueira Silva C, Figueiredo T, Lombo L, et al. Role of the RAD51 G172T polymorphism in the clinical outcome of cervical cancer patients under concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Gene. 2012;504:279-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The RAD51 protein is required for meiotic and mitotic recombination and plays a central role in homology-dependent ..
  8. Liu Y, Maizels N. Coordinated response of mammalian Rad51 and Rad52 to DNA damage. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:85-90 pubmed
    Biochemical analysis has shown that mammalian Rad51 and Rad52 interact and synergize in DNA recombination reactions in vitro, but these proteins have not been shown to function together in response to DNA damage in vivo...
  9. Graneli A, Yeykal C, Robertson R, Greene E. Long-distance lateral diffusion of human Rad51 on double-stranded DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1221-6 pubmed
    b>Rad51 is the primary eukaryotic recombinase responsible for initiating DNA strand exchange during homologous recombination...
  10. Desfarges S, San Filippo J, Fournier M, Calmels C, Caumont Sarcos A, Litvak S, et al. Chromosomal integration of LTR-flanked DNA in yeast expressing HIV-1 integrase: down regulation by RAD51. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:6215-24 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated physical interactions between HIV-1 IN and RAD51 protein and showed that HIV-1 integrase activity could be inhibited both in the cell and in vitro by RAD51 protein...
  11. Romanowicz Makowska H, Smolarz B, Kulig A. [The G/C polymorphism of RAD51 gene in breast cancer]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2006;21:55-8 pubmed
    ..The aim. In this study the distribution of G/G, G/C and C/C genotype and frequencies of the G and C allele of RAD51 G/C polymorphism in women with breast cancer was examined. 85 breast cancer samples were included in this study...
  12. Kudoh A, Iwahori S, Sato Y, Nakayama S, Isomura H, Murata T, et al. Homologous recombinational repair factors are recruited and loaded onto the viral DNA genome in Epstein-Barr virus replication compartments. J Virol. 2009;83:6641-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that homologous recombinational repair (HRR) factors such as replication protein A (RPA), Rad51, and Rad52 as well as MRN complexes are recruited and loaded onto the newly synthesized viral genome in ..
  13. Zhou G, Hu J, Peng X, Li Q. RAD51 135G>C polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;125:529-35 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in RAD51 gene are believed to be associated with elevated breast cancer risk. However, several case-control studies focusing on the association between RAD51 135G>C and breast cancer risk failed to achieve consensus...
  14. Tombline G, Fishel R. Biochemical characterization of the human RAD51 protein. I. ATP hydrolysis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:14417-25 pubmed
    ..A human RecA homolog, human RAD51 protein (hRAD51), facilitates eukaryotic recombination/repair, although its ability to hydrolyze ATP and/or promote strand ..
  15. Sheridan S, Yu X, Roth R, Heuser J, Sehorn M, Sung P, et al. A comparative analysis of Dmc1 and Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:4057-66 pubmed publisher
    The eukaryotic RecA homologs Rad51 and Dmc1 are essential for strand exchange between homologous chromosomes during meiosis...
  16. Bugreev D, Mazina O, Mazin A. Bloom syndrome helicase stimulates RAD51 DNA strand exchange activity through a novel mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we demonstrated that BLM can disrupt the RAD51-single-stranded DNA filament that promotes the initial steps of homologous recombination...
  17. Jensen R, Carreira A, Kowalczykowski S. Purified human BRCA2 stimulates RAD51-mediated recombination. Nature. 2010;467:678-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the purification of full-length BRCA2 and show that it both binds RAD51 and potentiates recombinational DNA repair by promoting assembly of RAD51 onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)...
  18. Liu J, Doty T, Gibson B, Heyer W. Human BRCA2 protein promotes RAD51 filament formation on RPA-covered single-stranded DNA. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1260-2 pubmed publisher
    ..BRCA2 interacts with RAD51, the central protein of recombination, which forms filaments on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to perform homology ..
  19. Shim K, Schmutte C, Yoder K, Fishel R. Defining the salt effect on human RAD51 activities. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:718-30 pubmed
    Previous work by Sung and colleagues identified unusual salt requirements for hRAD51 strand exchange compared to RecA [S. Sigurdsson, K. Trujillo, B. Song, S. Stratton, P...
  20. Shivji M, Mukund S, Rajendra E, Chen S, Short J, Savill J, et al. The BRC repeats of human BRCA2 differentially regulate RAD51 binding on single- versus double-stranded DNA to stimulate strand exchange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13254-9 pubmed publisher
    The breast and ovarian cancer suppressor BRCA2 controls the enzyme RAD51 during homologous DNA recombination (HDR) to preserve genome stability...
  21. Esashi F, Christ N, Gannon J, Liu Y, Hunt T, Jasin M, et al. CDK-dependent phosphorylation of BRCA2 as a regulatory mechanism for recombinational repair. Nature. 2005;434:598-604 pubmed
    ..show that the carboxy-terminal region of BRCA2, which interacts directly with the essential recombination protein RAD51, contains a site (serine 3291; S3291) that is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinases...
  22. Lee K, Choi J, Kang C, Kang C, Park S, Cho H, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of selected DNA repair genes, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:4620-6 pubmed
    ..time-of-flight mass spectrometry (XRCC2 Arg188His, XRCC4 921G > T, XRCC6 1796G > T, LIG4 1977T/C, RAD51 135G > C, 172G > T, RAD52 2259C > T, LIG1 551A > C, ERCC1 8092A > C, 354C > T, hMLH1 -93G > A,..
  23. Edwards S, Brough R, Lord C, Natrajan R, Vatcheva R, Levine D, et al. Resistance to therapy caused by intragenic deletion in BRCA2. Nature. 2008;451:1111-5 pubmed publisher
    ..6174delT frameshift mutation. PIR clones could form DNA-damage-induced RAD51 nuclear foci and were able to limit genotoxin-induced genomic instability, both hallmarks of a competent HR ..
  24. Sinha M, Peterson C. A Rad51 presynaptic filament is sufficient to capture nucleosomal homology during recombinational repair of a DNA double-strand break. Mol Cell. 2008;30:803-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We employ a biotin-streptavidin minichromosome capture assay to show that yRad51 or hRad51 presynaptic filaments are sufficient to locate a homologous sequence and form initial joints, even on the surface ..
  25. Zhang F, Fan Q, Ren K, Andreassen P. PALB2 functionally connects the breast cancer susceptibility proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:1110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..physically and functionally connects BRCA1 and BRCA2 into a DNA damage response network that also includes the RAD51 recombinase. PALB2 directly binds BRCA1, as determined with bacterially expressed fragments of each protein...
  26. Slupianek A, Dasgupta Y, Ren S, Gurdek E, Donlin M, Nieborowska Skorska M, et al. Targeting RAD51 phosphotyrosine-315 to prevent unfaithful recombination repair in BCR-ABL1 leukemia. Blood. 2011;118:1062-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that BCR-ABL1 (nonmutated and T315I mutant) promoted RAD51 recombinase-mediated unfaithful homeologous recombination repair (HomeoRR) in a dosage-dependent manner...
  27. Gresner P, Gromadzinska J, Polanska K, Twardowska E, Jurewicz J, Wasowicz W. Genetic variability of Xrcc3 and Rad51 modulates the risk of head and neck cancer. Gene. 2012;504:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..head and neck cancer (HNC) risk and fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in Xrcc3 and Rad51 genes. This study involved 81 HNC cases and 111 healthy control subjects...
  28. Jakubowska A, Gronwald J, Menkiszak J, Gorski B, Huzarski T, Byrski T, et al. The RAD51 135 G>C polymorphism modifies breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk in Polish BRCA1 mutation carriers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:270-5 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the effect of the RAD51 C allele is an important risk modifier for malignancies occurring on a background of BRCA1 mutations...
  29. Voso M, Fabiani E, D Alo F, Guidi F, Di Ruscio A, Sica S, et al. Increased risk of acute myeloid leukaemia due to polymorphisms in detoxification and DNA repair enzymes. Ann Oncol. 2007;18:1523-8 pubmed
    ..We found a significantly higher prevalence of the polymorphic variants RAD51-G135C and CYP3A4-A-290G genes in AML cases, when compared with controls (P = 0.02 and P = 0...
  30. Meindl A, Hellebrand H, Wiek C, Erven V, Wappenschmidt B, Niederacher D, et al. Germline mutations in breast and ovarian cancer pedigrees establish RAD51C as a human cancer susceptibility gene. Nat Genet. 2010;42:410-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide the first unambiguous evidence of highly penetrant mutations associated with human cancer in a RAD51 paralog and support the 'common disease, rare allele' hypothesis.
  31. Navadgi V, Shukla A, Vempati R, Rao B. DNA mediated disassembly of hRad51 and hRad52 proteins and recruitment of hRad51 to ssDNA by hRad52. FEBS J. 2006;273:199-207 pubmed
    ..In the same conditions, DNA binding assays reveal hRad52-mediated recruitment of hRad51 on ssDNA...
  32. Urbanska K, Pannizzo P, Lassak A, Gualco E, Surmacz E, Croul S, et al. Estrogen receptor beta-mediated nuclear interaction between IRS-1 and Rad51 inhibits homologous recombination directed DNA repair in medulloblastoma. J Cell Physiol. 2009;219:392-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Following cisplatin-induced DNA damage, nuclear IRS-1 localized at the sites of damaged DNA, and interacted with Rad51--an enzymatic component of homologous recombination directed DNA repair (HRR)...
  33. Slupianek A, Schmutte C, Tombline G, Nieborowska Skorska M, Hoser G, Nowicki M, et al. BCR/ABL regulates mammalian RecA homologs, resulting in drug resistance. Mol Cell. 2001;8:795-806 pubmed
    b>RAD51 is one of six mitotic human homologs of the E. coli RecA protein (RAD51-Paralogs) that play a central role in homologous recombination and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
  34. Lu H, Guo X, Meng X, Liu J, Allen C, Wray J, et al. The BRCA2-interacting protein BCCIP functions in RAD51 and BRCA2 focus formation and homologous recombinational repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:1949-57 pubmed
    ..b>RAD51 and BRCA2 colocalization in nuclear foci is a hallmark of HRR...
  35. Xia B, Sheng Q, Nakanishi K, Ohashi A, Wu J, Christ N, et al. Control of BRCA2 cellular and clinical functions by a nuclear partner, PALB2. Mol Cell. 2006;22:719-29 pubmed
    ..Thus, PALB2 licenses key cellular biochemical properties of BRCA2 and ensures its tumor suppression function. ..
  36. Hilario J, Amitani I, Baskin R, Kowalczykowski S. Direct imaging of human Rad51 nucleoprotein dynamics on individual DNA molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:361-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Rad51 protein (Rad51) is central to recombinational repair of double-strand DNA breaks. It polymerizes onto DNA and promotes strand exchange between homologous chromosomes...
  37. Ding S, Yu J, Chen S, Hsu G, Kuo S, Lin Y, et al. Genetic variants of BLM interact with RAD51 to increase breast cancer susceptibility. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Bloom (BLM) helicase directly interacts with RAD51 recombinase, which is involved in regulating HR, and it is thus of particular interest to examine whether this ..
  38. Petermann E, Orta M, Issaeva N, Schultz N, Helleday T. Hydroxyurea-stalled replication forks become progressively inactivated and require two different RAD51-mediated pathways for restart and repair. Mol Cell. 2010;37:492-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that stalled replication forks are efficiently restarted in a RAD51-dependent process that does not trigger homologous recombination (HR)...
  39. Wu X, Mondal G, Wang X, Wu J, Yang L, Pankratz V, et al. Microcephalin regulates BRCA2 and Rad51-associated DNA double-strand break repair. Cancer Res. 2009;69:5531-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that MCPH1 binds to BRCA2 and regulates the localization of BRCA2 and Rad51 at sites of DNA damage...
  40. Wang Z, Dong H, Fu Y, Ding H. RAD51 135G>C polymorphism contributes to breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis involving 26,444 subjects. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;124:765-9 pubmed publisher
    b>RAD51 plays a key role in homologous recombination repair of double-stranded DNA breaks which may cause chromosomal breaks and genomic instability...
  41. Smolarz B, Zadrozny M, Duda Szymańska J, Makowska M, Samulak D, Michalska M, et al. RAD51 genotype and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) risk in Polish women. Pol J Pathol. 2013;64:39-43 pubmed
    ..The aim of this work was to evaluate the single nucleotide polymorphism -135G>C (rs1801320) of the RAD51 gene encoding DNA repair proteins by homologous recombination (HR) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)...
  42. Sun H, Bai J, Chen F, Jin Y, Yu Y, Jin L, et al. RAD51 G135C polymorphism is associated with breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis involving 22,399 subjects. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;125:157-61 pubmed publisher
    Several studies have investigated the associations between RAD51 G135C polymorphism and the susceptibility to breast cancer, but results have been inconclusive...
  43. Park J, Yoo H, Kim B, Park R, Choi S, Kim Y. Identification of a novel human Rad51 variant that promotes DNA strand exchange. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:3226-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Five paralogs of the human Rad51 gene (hRad51) have been identified to date, including hRad51B, hRad51C, hRad51D, Xrcc2 and Xrcc3...
  44. Pellegrini L, Yu D, Lo T, Anand S, Lee M, Blundell T, et al. Insights into DNA recombination from the structure of a RAD51-BRCA2 complex. Nature. 2002;420:287-93 pubmed
    The breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2 controls the function of RAD51, a recombinase enzyme, in pathways for DNA repair by homologous recombination...
  45. Hayakawa T, Zhang F, Hayakawa N, Ohtani Y, Shinmyozu K, Nakayama J, et al. MRG15 binds directly to PALB2 and stimulates homology-directed repair of chromosomal breaks. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1124-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, MRG15 interacts with the entire BRCA complex, which contains BRCA1, PALB2, BRCA2 and RAD51. Interestingly, MRG15-deficient cells, similarly to cells deficient in PALB2 or BRCA2, showed reduced efficiency ..
  46. Conilleau S, Takizawa Y, Tachiwana H, Fleury F, Kurumizaka H, Takahashi M. Location of tyrosine 315, a target for phosphorylation by cAbl tyrosine kinase, at the edge of the subunit-subunit interface of the human Rad51 filament. J Mol Biol. 2004;339:797-804 pubmed
    b>Rad51 is a key element of recombinational DNA repair and its activity is regulated by phosphorylation of the tyrosine residue at position 315 by cAbl kinase...
  47. Romanowicz Makowska H, Smolarz B, Zadrozny M, Kulig A. Analysis of RAD51 polymorphism and BRCA1 mutations in Polish women with breast cancer. Exp Oncol. 2006;28:156-9 pubmed
    ..The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of BRCA1 germ-line mutations and the RAD51 G/C polymorphism in patients with breast cancer. 100 breast cancer women provided blood for mutation analysis...
  48. Rebbeck T, Mitra N, Domchek S, Wan F, Chuai S, Friebel T, et al. Modification of ovarian cancer risk by BRCA1/2-interacting genes in a multicenter cohort of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Cancer Res. 2009;69:5801-10 pubmed publisher
    ..and 856 BRCA2 mutation carriers was used to evaluate haplotypes at ATM, BARD1, BRIP1, CTIP, MRE11, NBS1, RAD50, RAD51, and TOPBP1 in ovarian cancer risk...
  49. Kuschel B, Auranen A, McBride S, Novik K, Antoniou A, Lipscombe J, et al. Variants in DNA double-strand break repair genes and breast cancer susceptibility. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:1399-407 pubmed
    ..cancer case-control study analysing polymorphisms in genes involved in homologous recombination (NBS1, RAD52, RAD51, XRCC2 and XRCC3) and non-homologous end-joining (KU70/80 and LIG4)...
  50. Wang L, Bondy M, Shen H, El Zein R, Aldape K, Cao Y, et al. Polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and risk of glioma. Cancer Res. 2004;64:5560-3 pubmed
    ..genetic variation in genes involved in DNA strand breaks, such as XRCC1 in single-strand break repair, XRCC3 and RAD51 in homologous recombination repair, and XRCC7 in nonhomologous end joining double-strand break repair...
  51. Shim K, Tombline G, Heinen C, Charbonneau N, Schmutte C, Fishel R. Magnesium influences the discrimination and release of ADP by human RAD51. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:704-17 pubmed
    b>hRAD51 lacks cooperative DNA-dependent ATPase activity and appears to function with 5-10-fold less Mg2+ compared to RecA...
  52. Ouyang K, Woo L, Zhu J, Huo D, Matunis M, Ellis N. SUMO modification regulates BLM and RAD51 interaction at damaged replication forks. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000252 pubmed publisher
    ..At damaged forks, BLM interacts with RAD51 recombinase, the essential enzyme in HR that catalyzes homology-dependent strand invasion...
  53. Akisik E, Yazici H, Dalay N. ARLTS1, MDM2 and RAD51 gene variations are associated with familial breast cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Variations in the ARLTS1, RAD51 and MDM2 genes have been associated with increased risk of different cancer types but for breast cancer the ..
  54. Webb P, Hopper J, Newman B, Chen X, Kelemen L, Giles G, et al. Double-strand break repair gene polymorphisms and risk of breast or ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:319-23 pubmed
    ..We investigated, using a case-control design, whether the double-strand break repair gene polymorphisms RAD51 5' untranslated region -135 G > C, XRCC2 R188H G > A, and XRCC3 T241M C > T were associated with risk of ..
  55. Thorslund T, Esashi F, West S. Interactions between human BRCA2 protein and the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1. EMBO J. 2007;26:2915-22 pubmed
    ..BRCA2 protein regulates recombinational repair by interaction with RAD51 via a series of degenerate BRC repeat motifs encoded by exon 11 (BRCA2(996-2113)), and an unrelated C-terminal ..
  56. Ishida T, Takizawa Y, Sakane I, Kurumizaka H. Altered DNA binding by the human Rad51-R150Q mutant found in breast cancer patients. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:1374-8 pubmed
    The human Rad51 protein (HsRad51) catalyzes homologous pairing and strand exchange between single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) during recombinational repair of double-stranded DNA breaks...
  57. Mitra A, Jameson C, Barbachano Y, Sanchez L, Kote Jarai Z, Peock S, et al. Overexpression of RAD51 occurs in aggressive prostatic cancer. Histopathology. 2009;55:696-704 pubmed publisher
    ..the hypothesis that, in a matched series of prostatic cancers, either with or without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, RAD51 protein expression is enhanced in association with BRCA mutation genotypes...
  58. Shim K, Schmutte C, Tombline G, Heinen C, Fishel R. hXRCC2 enhances ADP/ATP processing and strand exchange by hRAD51. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30385-94 pubmed
    The assembly of bacterial RecA, and its human homolog hRAD51, into an operational ADP/ATP-regulated DNA-protein (nucleoprotein) filament is essential for homologous recombination repair (HRR)...
  59. Trojanek J, Croul S, Ho T, Wang J, Darbinyan A, Nowicki M, et al. T-antigen of the human polyomavirus JC attenuates faithful DNA repair by forcing nuclear interaction between IRS-1 and Rad51. J Cell Physiol. 2006;206:35-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Following T-antigen-mediated nuclear translocation, IRS-1 binds Rad51 at the site of damaged DNA...
  60. Mine J, Disseau L, Takahashi M, Cappello G, Dutreix M, Viovy J. Real-time measurements of the nucleation, growth and dissociation of single Rad51-DNA nucleoprotein filaments. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:7171-87 pubmed
    Human Rad51 (hRad51), the protein central to DNA pairing and strand exchange during homologous recombination, polymerizes on DNA to form nucleoprotein filaments...
  61. Taniguchi T, Garcia Higuera I, Andreassen P, Gregory R, Grompe M, D Andrea A. S-phase-specific interaction of the Fanconi anemia protein, FANCD2, with BRCA1 and RAD51. Blood. 2002;100:2414-20 pubmed
    ..Monoubiquitinated FANCD2 colocalizes with BRCA1 and RAD51 in S-phase-specific nuclear foci...
  62. Fabiani E, D Alo F, Scardocci A, Greco M, Di Ruscio A, Criscuolo M, et al. Polymorphisms of detoxification and DNA repair enzymes in myelodyplastic syndromes. Leuk Res. 2009;33:1068-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Frequencies of polymorphic variants of RAD51, XRCC3, NQO1, GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP3A4 and XPD enzymes were similar in patients and controls...
  63. Amunugama R, He Y, Willcox S, Forties R, Shim K, Bundschuh R, et al. RAD51 protein ATP cap regulates nucleoprotein filament stability. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:8724-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that substitution of human RAD51(Asp-316) with lysine (HsRAD51(D316K)) decreases NPF turnover and facilitates considerably improved recombinase functions...
  64. Li Y, Yu H, Luo R, Zhang Y, Zhang M, Wang X, et al. Elevated expression of Rad51 is correlated with decreased survival in resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Surg Oncol. 2011;104:617-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Rad51 plays a critical role in homologous recombination and correlates with many human malignancies. However, its role and clinical significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been clarified...
  65. Raderschall E, Stout K, Freier S, Suckow V, Schweiger S, Haaf T. Elevated levels of Rad51 recombination protein in tumor cells. Cancer Res. 2002;62:219-25 pubmed
    b>Rad51 is the key enzyme for homologous recombination, an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for the repair of DNA damage and the generation of genetic diversity...
  66. Poplawski T, Arabski M, Kozirowska D, Blasinska Morawiec M, Morawiec Z, Morawiec Bajda A, et al. DNA damage and repair in gastric cancer--a correlation with the hOGG1 and RAD51 genes polymorphisms. Mutat Res. 2006;601:83-91 pubmed
    ..The hOGG1 gene encodes glycosylase of base excision repair and RAD51 specifies a key protein in homologues recombination repair...
  67. Jakubowska A, Jaworska K, Cybulski C, Janicka A, Szymanska Pasternak J, Lener M, et al. Do BRCA1 modifiers also affect the risk of breast cancer in non-carriers?. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45:837-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We genotyped seven SNPs in six distinct genes (PHB, RAD51, ITGB3, TGFB1, VEGF, MTHFR) in 1100 unselected Polish breast cancer patients and 1100 controls...
  68. Zhang Z, Yang L, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Nie L, Li L, et al. [Relationship between NQO1C(609T), RAD51(G135C), XRCC3(C241T) single nucleotide polymorphisms and acute lymphoblastic leukemia]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2009;17:523-8 pubmed
    This study was purposed to investigate the relationship between NQO1C(609T), RAD51(G135C), XRCC3(C241T) single nucleotide polymorphisms and incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)...
  69. Hannay J, Liu J, Zhu Q, Bolshakov S, Li L, Pisters P, et al. Rad51 overexpression contributes to chemoresistance in human soft tissue sarcoma cells: a role for p53/activator protein 2 transcriptional regulation. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:1650-60 pubmed
    We investigated whether Rad51 overexpression plays a role in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) chemoresistance as well as the regulatory mechanisms underlying its expression...
  70. Sliwinski T, Walczak A, Przybylowska K, Rusin P, Pietruszewska W, Zielinska Blizniewska H, et al. Polymorphisms of the XRCC3 C722T and the RAD51 G135C genes and the risk of head and neck cancer in a Polish population. Exp Mol Pathol. 2010;89:358-66 pubmed publisher
    ..association between head and neck cancer risk and two polymorphisms: the C722T of the XRCC3 and the G135C of the RAD51-genes of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HRR)...
  71. Zhang J, Ma Z, Treszezamsky A, Powell S. MDC1 interacts with Rad51 and facilitates homologous recombination. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:902-9 pubmed
    ..MDC1 forms a complex with Rad51 through a direct interaction with the forkhead-associated domain of MDC1, not the BRCA1 C-terminal domain...
  72. Rollinson S, Smith A, Allan J, Adamson P, Scott K, Skibola C, et al. RAD51 homologous recombination repair gene haplotypes and risk of acute myeloid leukaemia. Leuk Res. 2007;31:169-74 pubmed
    ..leukaemia (AML) risk, we have examined the frequency of two variants in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of RAD51 (RAD51 135 G>C and the RAD51 172 G>T) in a large case-control study of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)...
  73. van Mameren J, Modesti M, Kanaar R, Wyman C, Peterman E, Wuite G. Counting RAD51 proteins disassembling from nucleoprotein filaments under tension. Nature. 2009;457:745-8 pubmed publisher
    The central catalyst in eukaryotic ATP-dependent homologous recombination consists of RAD51 proteins, polymerized around single-stranded DNA. This nucleoprotein filament recognizes and invades a homologous duplex DNA segment...
  74. Short S, Giampieri S, Worku M, Alcaide German M, Sioftanos G, Bourne S, et al. Rad51 inhibition is an effective means of targeting DNA repair in glioma models and CD133+ tumor-derived cells. Neuro Oncol. 2011;13:487-99 pubmed publisher
    High grade gliomas (HGGs) are characterized by resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Targeting Rad51-dependent homologous recombination repair may be an effective target for chemo- and radiosensitization...
  75. Kim P, Allen C, Wagener B, Shen Z, Nickoloff J. Overexpression of human RAD51 and RAD52 reduces double-strand break-induced homologous recombination in mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:4352-60 pubmed
    ..b>RAD51 functions with RAD52 and other proteins to effect strand exchange during HR, forming heteroduplex DNA (hDNA) that ..
  76. Esashi F, Galkin V, Yu X, Egelman E, West S. Stabilization of RAD51 nucleoprotein filaments by the C-terminal region of BRCA2. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:468-74 pubmed
    The human breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 is required for the regulation of RAD51-mediated homologous recombinational repair...
  77. Shin A, Lee K, Ahn B, Park C, Noh S, Park D, et al. Genotype-phenotype relationship between DNA repair gene genetic polymorphisms and DNA repair capacity. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2008;9:501-5 pubmed
    ..DNA repair genes included were those involved in double-strand break repair (ATM, XRCC2, XRCC4, XRCC6, LIG4, RAD51, RAD52), base excision repair (LIG1), nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1), and mismatch repair (hMLH1)...
  78. Le Scodan R, Cizeron Clairac G, Fourme E, Meseure D, Vacher S, Spyratos F, et al. DNA repair gene expression and risk of locoregional relapse in breast cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;78:328-36 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RAD51 was the only gene associated with LRR in both cohorts...
  79. Krupa R, Sobczuk A, Popławski T, Wozniak K, Blasiak J. DNA damage and repair in endometrial cancer in correlation with the hOGG1 and RAD51 genes polymorphism. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:1163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The hOGG1 gene encodes a glycosylase of base excision repair and RAD51 specifies a key protein in homologues recombination repair...
  80. Thorslund T, McIlwraith M, Compton S, Lekomtsev S, Petronczki M, Griffith J, et al. The breast cancer tumor suppressor BRCA2 promotes the specific targeting of RAD51 to single-stranded DNA. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1263-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Monomeric and dimeric forms of BRCA2 were observed by EM. BRCA2 directed the binding of RAD51 recombinase to ssDNA, reduced the binding of RAD51 to duplex DNA and stimulated RAD51-mediated DNA strand exchange...
  81. Romanowicz Makowska H, Smolarz B, Połać I, Sporny S. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of RAD51 G135C, XRCC2 Arg188His and XRCC3 Thr241Met homologous recombination repair genes and the risk of sporadic endometrial cancer in Polish women. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012;38:918-24 pubmed publisher
    The genes RAD51, XRCC2 and XRCC3 encode proteins that are important for the repair of double-strand DNA breaks by homologous recombination...
  82. Lio Y, Mazin A, Kowalczykowski S, Chen D. Complex formation by the human Rad51B and Rad51C DNA repair proteins and their activities in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2469-78 pubmed
    The human Rad51 protein is essential for DNA repair by homologous recombination. In addition to Rad51 protein, five paralogs have been identified: Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2, Rad51D/Rad51L3, XRCC2, and XRCC3...
  83. Wesoly J, Agarwal S, Sigurdsson S, Bussen W, Van Komen S, Qin J, et al. Differential contributions of mammalian Rad54 paralogs to recombination, DNA damage repair, and meiosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:976-89 pubmed
    Homologous recombination is a versatile DNA damage repair pathway requiring Rad51 and Rad54...
  84. Ko J, Ciou S, Cheng C, Wang L, Hong J, Jheng M, et al. Involvement of Rad51 in cytotoxicity induced by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (gefitinib, IressaR) and chemotherapeutic agents in human lung cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:1448-58 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rad51 is an essential component of the homologous recombination repair pathway...
  85. Bergeron K, Murphy E, Brown L, Almeida K. Critical interaction domains between bloom syndrome protein and RAD51. Protein J. 2011;30:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study focuses on the partnerships of BLM protein to RAD51, a Homologous Recombination repair protein essential for survival...
  86. Prasad T, Yeykal C, Greene E. Visualizing the assembly of human Rad51 filaments on double-stranded DNA. J Mol Biol. 2006;363:713-28 pubmed
    b>Rad51 is the core component of the eukaryotic homologous recombination machinery and assembles into extended nucleoprotein filaments on DNA...
  87. Werbrouck J, De Ruyck K, Duprez F, Van Eijkeren M, Rietzschel E, Bekaert S, et al. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA double-strand break repair genes: association with head and neck cancer and interaction with tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Mutat Res. 2008;656:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..1843 A>G, XRCC3 c.562-14 A>G, XRCC3 c.722 C>T, Rad51 c.-3429 G>C, Rad51 c.-3392 G>T) and 4 SNPs in the non- homologous end joining DNA repair pathway (Lig4 c...
  88. Synowiec E, Stefanska J, Morawiec Z, Blasiak J, Wozniak K. Association between DNA damage, DNA repair genes variability and clinical characteristics in breast cancer patients. Mutat Res. 2008;648:65-72 pubmed publisher
    ..of basal (total endogenous) and endogenous oxidative DNA damage as well as polymorphism of the DNA repair genes: RAD51 (135 G/C), XRCC3 (Thr241Met), OGG1 (Ser326Cys) and XPD (Lys751Gln) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 41 breast ..
  89. Chun J, Buechelmaier E, Powell S. Rad51 paralog complexes BCDX2 and CX3 act at different stages in the BRCA1-BRCA2-dependent homologous recombination pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:387-95 pubmed publisher
    The Rad51 paralogs are required for homologous recombination (HR) and the maintenance of genomic stability. The molecular mechanisms by which the five vertebrate Rad51 paralogs regulate HR and genomic integrity remain unclear...
  90. Takizawa Y, Kinebuchi T, Kagawa W, Yokoyama S, Shibata T, Kurumizaka H. Mutational analyses of the human Rad51-Tyr315 residue, a site for phosphorylation in leukaemia cells. Genes Cells. 2004;9:781-90 pubmed
    The human Rad51 protein, which plays a central role in homologous recombination, catalyses homologous pairing...
  91. Palanca Suela S, Esteban Cardeñosa E, Barragán González E, de Juan Jiménez I, Chirivella González I, Segura Huerta A, et al. CASP8 D302H polymorphism delays the age of onset of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;119:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we investigate the relevance of RAD51 -135C > G, TP53 R72P, NQO1*2 and CASP8 D302H polymorphisms as potential modifiers of BC and/or OC ..
  92. Ayoub N, Rajendra E, Su X, Jeyasekharan A, Mahen R, Venkitaraman A. The carboxyl terminus of Brca2 links the disassembly of Rad51 complexes to mitotic entry. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1075-85 pubmed publisher
    The Rad51 recombinase assembles on DNA to execute homologous DNA recombination (HR)...