Rad50

Summary

Gene Symbol: Rad50
Description: RAD50 double strand break repair protein
Alias: NBSLD, RAD502, hRad50, DNA repair protein RAD50, RAD50 homolog, double strand break repair protein
Species: human
Products:     Rad50

Top Publications

  1. Choudhury A, Elliott F, Iles M, Churchman M, Bristow R, Bishop D, et al. Analysis of variants in DNA damage signalling genes in bladder cancer. BMC Med Genet. 2008;9:69 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA was extracted from a peripheral blood sample and genotyping of 24 SNPs in MRE11, NBS1, RAD50, H2AX and ATM was undertaken using an allelic discrimination method (Taqman)...
  2. Bhaskara V, Dupré A, Lengsfeld B, Hopkins B, Chan A, Lee J, et al. Rad50 adenylate kinase activity regulates DNA tethering by Mre11/Rad50 complexes. Mol Cell. 2007;25:647-61 pubmed
    Mre11 and Rad50 are the catalytic components of a highly conserved DNA repair complex that functions in many aspects of DNA metabolism involving double-strand breaks...
  3. Rass E, Grabarz A, Plo I, Gautier J, Bertrand P, Lopez B. Role of Mre11 in chromosomal nonhomologous end joining in mammalian cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:819-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing of Rad50 or CtIP decreases end-joining efficiency in the same pathway as Mre11...
  4. Uhrhammer N, Delort L, Bignon Y. Rad50 c.687delT does not contribute significantly to familial breast cancer in a French population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:684-5 pubmed publisher
    ..recently been associated with breast cancer risk: heterozygosity for deleterious mutations in components of the Rad50-Mre11-Nbs1 complex seems to predispose to breast cancer. In particular, the c...
  5. Stracker T, Theunissen J, Morales M, Petrini J. The Mre11 complex and the metabolism of chromosome breaks: the importance of communicating and holding things together. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:845-54 pubmed
    The conserved Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) plays a role in each aspect of chromosome break metabolism...
  6. Heikkinen K, Karppinen S, Soini Y, Makinen M, Winqvist R. Mutation screening of Mre11 complex genes: indication of RAD50 involvement in breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. J Med Genet. 2003;40:e131 pubmed
  7. van Noort J, van der Heijden T, de Jager M, Wyman C, Kanaar R, Dekker C. The coiled-coil of the human Rad50 DNA repair protein contains specific segments of increased flexibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:7581-6 pubmed
    ..we report the observation of striking irregularities in the flexibility of the coiled-coil region of the human Rad50 DNA repair protein...
  8. de Jager M, van Noort J, van Gent D, Dekker C, Kanaar R, Wyman C. Human Rad50/Mre11 is a flexible complex that can tether DNA ends. Mol Cell. 2001;8:1129-35 pubmed
    The human Rad50 protein, classified as a structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family member, is complexed with Mre11 (R/M) and has important functions in at least two distinct double-strand break repair pathways...
  9. Carney J, Maser R, Olivares H, Davis E, Le Beau M, Yates J, et al. The hMre11/hRad50 protein complex and Nijmegen breakage syndrome: linkage of double-strand break repair to the cellular DNA damage response. Cell. 1998;93:477-86 pubmed
    ..We have isolated the gene encoding p95, a member of the hMre11/hRad50 double-strand break repair complex. The p95 gene mapped to 8q21...

More Information

Publications76

  1. Cahill D, Carney J. Dimerization of the Rad50 protein is independent of the conserved hook domain. Mutagenesis. 2007;22:269-74 pubmed
    ..this study, we have examined the effects of mutating the key cysteine residues in the hook domain of human Rad50 (hRad50), focusing on the interactions Rad50 has with itself, Mre11 and DNA...
  2. Lukas C, Melander F, Stucki M, Falck J, Bekker Jensen S, Goldberg M, et al. Mdc1 couples DNA double-strand break recognition by Nbs1 with its H2AX-dependent chromatin retention. EMBO J. 2004;23:2674-83 pubmed
    Mdc1/NFBD1 controls cellular responses to DNA damage, in part via interacting with the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex that is involved in the recognition, signalling, and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
  3. Zhu X, Kuster B, Mann M, Petrini J, de Lange T. Cell-cycle-regulated association of RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 with TRF2 and human telomeres. Nat Genet. 2000;25:347-52 pubmed
    ..Here we show by nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry that RAD50 protein is present in TRF2 immunocomplexes...
  4. Heikkinen K, Rapakko K, Karppinen S, Erkko H, Knuutila S, Lundan T, et al. RAD50 and NBS1 are breast cancer susceptibility genes associated with genomic instability. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1593-9 pubmed
    The Mre11 complex, composed of RAD50, NBS1 and MRE11, has an essential role in the maintenance of genomic integrity and preventing cells from malignancy...
  5. Hopfner K, Craig L, Moncalian G, Zinkel R, Usui T, Owen B, et al. The Rad50 zinc-hook is a structure joining Mre11 complexes in DNA recombination and repair. Nature. 2002;418:562-6 pubmed publisher
    The Mre11 complex (Mre11 Rad50 Nbs1) is central to chromosomal maintenance and functions in homologous recombination, telomere maintenance and sister chromatid association...
  6. Takemura H, Rao V, Sordet O, Furuta T, Miao Z, Meng L, et al. Defective Mre11-dependent activation of Chk2 by ataxia telangiectasia mutated in colorectal carcinoma cells in response to replication-dependent DNA double strand breaks. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:30814-23 pubmed
    The Mre11.Rad50.Nbs1 (MRN) complex binds DNA double strand breaks to repair DNA and activate checkpoints. We report MRN deficiency in three of seven colon carcinoma cell lines of the NCI Anticancer Drug Screen...
  7. He J, Shi L, Truong L, Lu C, Razavian N, Li Y, et al. Rad50 zinc hook is important for the Mre11 complex to bind chromosomal DNA double-stranded breaks and initiate various DNA damage responses. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:31747-56 pubmed publisher
    The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex plays critical roles in checkpoint activation and double-stranded break (DSB) repair...
  8. Chiba N, Parvin J. Redistribution of BRCA1 among four different protein complexes following replication blockage. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:38549-54 pubmed
    ..with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme (holo-pol), a large mass complex called the fraction 5 complex, the Rad50-Mre11-Nbs1 complex, and a complex that has not been described previously...
  9. Trujillo K, Yuan S, Lee E, Sung P. Nuclease activities in a complex of human recombination and DNA repair factors Rad50, Mre11, and p95. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:21447-50 pubmed
    Genetic studies in yeast have indicated a role of the RAD50 and MRE11 genes in homologous recombination, telomere length maintenance, and DNA repair processes...
  10. Lee J, Paull T. Direct activation of the ATM protein kinase by the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex. Science. 2004;304:93-6 pubmed
    The complex containing the Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 proteins (MRN) is essential for the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, integrating DNA repair with the activation of checkpoint signaling through the protein kinase ATM (..
  11. Falck J, Coates J, Jackson S. Conserved modes of recruitment of ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs to sites of DNA damage. Nature. 2005;434:605-11 pubmed
  12. Weidinger S, Gieger C, Rodriguez E, Baurecht H, Mempel M, Klopp N, et al. Genome-wide scan on total serum IgE levels identifies FCER1A as novel susceptibility locus. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000166 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphisms within the RAD50 gene on chromosome 5q31 were consistently associated with IgE levels (P values 6.28 x 10(-7)-4...
  13. Grenon M, Gilbert C, Lowndes N. Checkpoint activation in response to double-strand breaks requires the Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:844-7 pubmed
    Studies of human Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) cells have led to the proposal that the Mre11/Rad50/ NBS1 complex, which is involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), might also function in activating the DNA damage ..
  14. Goldberg M, Stucki M, Falck J, D Amours D, Rahman D, Pappin D, et al. MDC1 is required for the intra-S-phase DNA damage checkpoint. Nature. 2003;421:952-6 pubmed
    MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1 form a highly conserved protein complex (the MRE11 complex) that is involved in the detection, signalling and repair of DNA damage...
  15. Bartkova J, Tommiska J, Oplustilova L, Aaltonen K, Tamminen A, Heikkinen T, et al. Aberrations of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 DNA damage sensor complex in human breast cancer: MRE11 as a candidate familial cancer-predisposing gene. Mol Oncol. 2008;2:296-316 pubmed publisher
    The MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1 genes encode proteins of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex critical for proper maintenance of genomic integrity and tumour suppression; however, the extent and impact of their cancer-predisposing defects, and ..
  16. Moncalian G, Lengsfeld B, Bhaskara V, Hopfner K, Karcher A, Alden E, et al. The rad50 signature motif: essential to ATP binding and biological function. J Mol Biol. 2004;335:937-51 pubmed
    ..One of the most critical of these is the Mre11/Rad50 (M/R) complex, which is present in all three biological kingdoms, but is not well-understood at the biochemical ..
  17. Leung J, Ghosal G, Wang W, Shen X, Wang J, Li L, et al. Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked gene product ATRX is required for proper replication restart and cellular resistance to replication stress. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:6342-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we identified ATRX as a binding partner of MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex. Together, these results suggest a non-canonical function of ATRX in guarding genomic stability. ..
  18. Zhong Z, Jiang W, Cesare A, Neumann A, Wadhwa R, Reddel R. Disruption of telomere maintenance by depletion of the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex in cells that use alternative lengthening of telomeres. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29314-22 pubmed
    ..that overexpression of Sp100 protein can suppress ALT and that this was associated with sequestration of the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) recombination protein complex by Sp100...
  19. Zhong Q, Chen C, Li S, Chen Y, Wang C, Xiao J, et al. Association of BRCA1 with the hRad50-hMre11-p95 complex and the DNA damage response. Science. 1999;285:747-50 pubmed
    ..Here, it is shown that BRCA1 interacts in vitro and in vivo with hRad50, which forms a complex with hMre11 and p95/nibrin...
  20. Tommiska J, Seal S, Renwick A, Barfoot R, Baskcomb L, Jayatilake H, et al. Evaluation of RAD50 in familial breast cancer predisposition. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:2911-6 pubmed
    ..b>RAD50 is part of a highly conserved complex important in recognising, signalling and repairing DNA double-strand breaks...
  21. Jazayeri A, Balestrini A, Garner E, Haber J, Costanzo V. Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1-dependent processing of DNA breaks generates oligonucleotides that stimulate ATM activity. EMBO J. 2008;27:1953-62 pubmed publisher
    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be processed by the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, which is essential to promote ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) activation...
  22. Hsu H, Wang H, Chen S, Hsu G, Shen C, Yu J. Breast cancer risk is associated with the genes encoding the DNA double-strand break repair Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:2024-32 pubmed
    The evolutionarily conserved Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, consisting of proteins encoded by the genes Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1, was recently shown to play a crucial role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by recruiting the nuclear ..
  23. Nimonkar A, Genschel J, Kinoshita E, Polaczek P, Campbell J, Wyman C, et al. BLM-DNA2-RPA-MRN and EXO1-BLM-RPA-MRN constitute two DNA end resection machineries for human DNA break repair. Genes Dev. 2011;25:350-62 pubmed publisher
    ..human proteins: Bloom helicase (BLM); DNA2 helicase/nuclease; Exonuclease 1 (EXO1); the complex comprising MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1 (MRN); and Replication protein A (RPA). Resection occurs via two routes...
  24. Wang Y, Cortez D, Yazdi P, Neff N, Elledge S, Qin J. BASC, a super complex of BRCA1-associated proteins involved in the recognition and repair of aberrant DNA structures. Genes Dev. 2000;14:927-39 pubmed
    ..This complex includes tumor suppressors and DNA damage repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, ATM, BLM, and the RAD50-MRE11-NBS1 protein complex...
  25. Robison J, Lu L, Dixon K, Bissler J. DNA lesion-specific co-localization of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex and replication protein A (RPA) to repair foci. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:12927-34 pubmed
    ..or DNA damage, involves the activation of DNA repair and cell cycle regulatory proteins including the MRN (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) complex and replication protein A (RPA)...
  26. Lee J, Paull T. ATM activation by DNA double-strand breaks through the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex. Science. 2005;308:551-4 pubmed
    ..We show that the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex acts as a double-strand break sensor for ATM and recruits ATM to broken DNA molecules...
  27. Stewart G, Wang B, Bignell C, Taylor A, Elledge S. MDC1 is a mediator of the mammalian DNA damage checkpoint. Nature. 2003;421:961-6 pubmed
    ..These results highlight a crucial role for MDC1 in mediating transduction of the DNA damage signal. ..
  28. de Jager M, Wyman C, van Gent D, Kanaar R. DNA end-binding specificity of human Rad50/Mre11 is influenced by ATP. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:4425-31 pubmed
    The Rad50, Mre11 and Nbs1 complex is involved in many essential chromosomal organization processes dealing with DNA ends, including two major pathways of DNA double-strand break repair, homologous recombination and non-homologous end ..
  29. Robison J, Elliott J, Dixon K, Oakley G. Replication protein A and the Mre11.Rad50.Nbs1 complex co-localize and interact at sites of stalled replication forks. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34802-10 pubmed
    ..subunit protein complex required for DNA replication and DNA repair) and the MRN complex (consisting of Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1; involved in DNA double-strand break repair)...
  30. Rollinson S, Kesby H, Morgan G. Haplotypic variation in MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1 and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2006;47:2567-83 pubmed
    The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 tri-complex is involved in the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks, detecting DNA damage, activating cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis...
  31. Zhong H, Bryson A, Eckersdorff M, Ferguson D. Rad50 depletion impacts upon ATR-dependent DNA damage responses. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2685-93 pubmed
    The Mre11/Rad50/NBS1 (MRN) complex is mutated in inherited genomic instability syndromes featuring cancer predisposition, mental retardation and immunodeficiency...
  32. Moreno Herrero F, de Jager M, Dekker N, Kanaar R, Wyman C, Dekker C. Mesoscale conformational changes in the DNA-repair complex Rad50/Mre11/Nbs1 upon binding DNA. Nature. 2005;437:440-3 pubmed
    The human Rad50/Mre11/Nbs1 complex (hR/M/N) functions as an essential guardian of genome integrity by directing the proper processing of DNA ends, including DNA breaks...
  33. Yabuki M, Fujii M, Maizels N. The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex accelerates somatic hypermutation and gene conversion of immunoglobulin variable regions. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:730-6 pubmed
    ..MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) is a ubiquitous and conserved nuclease complex critical for DNA break repair and is essential in class-..
  34. Paull T, Gellert M. Nbs1 potentiates ATP-driven DNA unwinding and endonuclease cleavage by the Mre11/Rad50 complex. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1276-88 pubmed
    The Nijmegen breakage syndrome gene product (Nbs1) was shown recently to associate in vivo with the Mre11 and Rad50 proteins, which play pivotal roles in eukaryotic DNA double-strand break repair, meiotic recombination, and telomere ..
  35. Ballal R, Saha T, Fan S, Haddad B, Rosen E. BRCA1 localization to the telomere and its loss from the telomere in response to DNA damage. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:36083-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings further suggest that Rad50 is required to localize BRCA1 at the telomere and that the association of BRCA1 with Rad50 does not require DNA...
  36. Schuetz J, MacArthur A, Leach S, Lai A, Gallagher R, Connors J, et al. Genetic variation in the NBS1, MRE11, RAD50 and BLM genes and susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma. BMC Med Genet. 2009;10:117 pubmed publisher
    ..The members of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex and BLM have central roles in maintenance of DNA integrity...
  37. Li X, Howard T, Zheng S, Haselkorn T, Peters S, Meyers D, et al. Genome-wide association study of asthma identifies RAD50-IL13 and HLA-DR/DQ regions. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:328-335.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple SNPs in the RAD50-IL13 region on chromosome 5q31.1 were associated with asthma: rs2244012 in intron 2 of RAD50 (P = 3.04E-07)...
  38. Paull T, Gellert M. The 3' to 5' exonuclease activity of Mre 11 facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Mol Cell. 1998;1:969-79 pubmed
    MRE11 and RAD50 are known to be required for nonhomologous joining of DNA ends in vivo...
  39. De la Rosa M, Nelson S. An interaction between the Walker A and D-loop motifs is critical to ATP hydrolysis and cooperativity in bacteriophage T4 Rad50. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:26258-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we evaluate the functional role of the D-loop using a bacteriophage T4 ABC protein, Rad50 (gp46)...
  40. Locher K, Lee A, Rees D. The E. coli BtuCD structure: a framework for ABC transporter architecture and mechanism. Science. 2002;296:1091-8 pubmed
    ..cytoplasm by a gate region whereas the dimer arrangement of the BtuD subunits resembles the ATP-bound form of the Rad50 DNA repair enzyme...
  41. Maser R, Monsen K, Nelms B, Petrini J. hMre11 and hRad50 nuclear foci are induced during the normal cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6087-96 pubmed
    We previously identified a conserved multiprotein complex that includes hMre11 and hRad50. In this study, we used immunofluorescence to investigate the role of this complex in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair...
  42. Lemos B, Kaplan A, Bae J, Ferrazzoli A, Kuo J, Anand R, et al. CRISPR/Cas9 cleavages in budding yeast reveal templated insertions and strand-specific insertion/deletion profiles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:E2040-E2047 pubmed publisher
    ..Cas9 events are highly dependent on the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex, independent of Mre11's nuclease activity...
  43. Gurung R, Lim S, Low G, Hande M. MST-312 Alters Telomere Dynamics, Gene Expression Profiles and Growth in Human Breast Cancer Cells. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2014;7:283-98 pubmed publisher
    ..MST-312 induced DNA damage at telomeres accompanied by reduced expression of DNA damage-related genes ATM and RAD50. Co-treatment with MST-312 and the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) inhibitor PJ-34 further enhanced growth ..
  44. Galli A, Chan C, Parfenova L, Cervelli T, Schiestl R. Requirement of POL3 and POL4 on non-homologous and microhomology-mediated end joining in rad50/xrs2 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutagenesis. 2015;30:841-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we studied the epistatic interaction between POL3, RAD50, XRS2 and POL4 in NHEJ using a plasmid-based endjoining assay in yeast...
  45. Paingankar M, Arankalle V. Identification and characterization of cellular proteins interacting with Hepatitis E virus untranslated regions. Virus Res. 2015;208:98-109 pubmed publisher
    ..that DHX9, PTK-7, DIS3 and TCR E chain (CD3É›) of all the three cell lines interacted with HEV 3'UTR while RAD50 and TLE-4 interacted with HEV 5'UTR...
  46. Chen J, Lin W, Chen Z, Liu H. PARP-1-dependent recruitment of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein promotes double-strand break repair and genome stability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:E1759-E1768 pubmed publisher
    ..CIRBP depleted cells exhibited defects in DNA damage-induced chromatin association of the MRN complex (Mre11, Rad50, and NBS1) and ATM kinase...
  47. He M, Di G, Cao A, Hu Z, Jin W, Shen Z, et al. RAD50 and NBS1 are not likely to be susceptibility genes in Chinese non-BRCA1/2 hereditary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;133:111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have shown sequence variants in two such genes, RAD50 and NBS1, which can be predisposed to breast cancer...
  48. Carrillo A, Bouska A, Arrate M, Eischen C. Mdmx promotes genomic instability independent of p53 and Mdm2. Oncogene. 2015;34:846-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we identified Mdmx associated with Nbs1 of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) DNA repair complex, and this association increased upon DNA damage and was detected at chromatin...
  49. Pancholi N, Weitzman M. Serotype-specific restriction of wild-type adenoviruses by the cellular Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex. Virology. 2018;518:221-231 pubmed publisher
    ..Human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) targets the cellular Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex (MRN) to evade detection by the DNA damage response (DDR)...
  50. Alemayehu A, Fridrichova I. The MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex destabilization in Lynch-syndrome patients. Eur J Hum Genet. 2007;15:922-9 pubmed
    ..break (DSB) repair in Lynch-syndrome-related tumours, we evaluated the MSI type and alterations in the MRE11 and RAD50 repeats that are associated with the reduced protein expression and functional impairment of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (..
  51. Gao J, Zhang H, Arbman G, Sun X. RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 proteins in relation to tumour development and prognosis in patients with microsatellite stable colorectal cancer. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:1495-502 pubmed publisher
    b>RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 complex is essential for DNA double-strand break repair and for maintaining genomic integrity...
  52. Li B, Jog S, Reddy S, Comai L. WRN controls formation of extrachromosomal telomeric circles and is required for TRF2DeltaB-mediated telomere shortening. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1892-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, WRN has a key protective function at telomeres which influences telomere topology and inhibits accelerated attrition of telomeres. ..
  53. Murk W, Walsh K, Hsu L, Zhao L, Bracken M, Dewan A. Attempted replication of 50 reported asthma risk genes identifies a SNP in RAD50 as associated with childhood atopic asthma. Hum Hered. 2011;71:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The literature search identified 251 prior risk genes from 469 publications. RAD50 (rs2706347) and PTPRE (rs10830196) revealed crude associations with asthma at a Bonferroni-corrected level of ..
  54. Runge K, Li Y. A curious new role for MRN in Schizosaccharomyces pombe non-homologous end-joining. Curr Genet. 2018;64:359-364 pubmed publisher
    ..for NHEJ of cut DNA ends in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae include its version of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex...
  55. Naka I, Nishida N, Patarapotikul J, Nuchnoi P, Tokunaga K, Hananantachai H, et al. Identification of a haplotype block in the 5q31 cytokine gene cluster associated with the susceptibility to severe malaria. Malar J. 2009;8:232 pubmed publisher
    ..The detected haplotype block contained the RAD50 gene and the promoter of IL13, but not the other genes...
  56. Paull T, Rogakou E, Yamazaki V, Kirchgessner C, Gellert M, Bonner W. A critical role for histone H2AX in recruitment of repair factors to nuclear foci after DNA damage. Curr Biol. 2000;10:886-95 pubmed
    ..Using two different methods to create DNA double-strand breaks in human cells, we found that the repair factors Rad50 and Rad51 each colocalized with phosphorylated H2AX (gamma-H2AX) foci after DNA damage...
  57. Hollingworth R, Horniblow R, Forrest C, Stewart G, Grand R. Localization of Double-Strand Break Repair Proteins to Viral Replication Compartments following Lytic Reactivation of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA are recognized by the Ku70/80 heterodimer and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex and result in activation of the DNA-PK and ATM kinases, which play key roles in regulating the cellular DNA damage ..
  58. Robert F, Hardy S, Nagy Z, Baldeyron C, Murr R, Déry U, et al. The transcriptional histone acetyltransferase cofactor TRRAP associates with the MRN repair complex and plays a role in DNA double-strand break repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:402-12 pubmed
    ..TRRAP was shown to be required for the mitotic checkpoint and normal cell cycle progression. MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1 (product of the Nijmegan breakage syndrome gene) form the MRN complex that is involved in the detection, ..
  59. Gatei M, Kijas A, Biard D, Dork T, Lavin M. RAD50 phosphorylation promotes ATR downstream signaling and DNA restart following replication stress. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:4232-48 pubmed publisher
    The MRE11/RAD50/NBN (MRN) complex plays a key role in detecting DNA double-strand breaks, recruiting and activating ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and in processing the breaks...
  60. Brooks J, Teraoka S, Reiner A, Satagopan J, Bernstein L, Thomas D, et al. Variants in activators and downstream targets of ATM, radiation exposure, and contralateral breast cancer risk in the WECARE study. Hum Mutat. 2012;33:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..One hundred fifty-two SNPs in six genes (CHEK2, MRE11A, MDC1, NBN, RAD50, TP53BP1) involved in the DNA DSBs response were genotyped...
  61. Zheng L, Kanagaraj R, Mihaljevic B, Schwendener S, Sartori A, Gerrits B, et al. MRE11 complex links RECQ5 helicase to sites of DNA damage. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:2645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that RECQ5 is constitutively associated with the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex, a primary sensor of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that promotes DSB repair and regulates DNA ..
  62. Dimitrova N, de Lange T. Cell cycle-dependent role of MRN at dysfunctional telomeres: ATM signaling-dependent induction of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in G1 and resection-mediated inhibition of NHEJ in G2. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5552-63 pubmed publisher
    Here, we address the role of the MRN (Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1) complex in the response to telomeres rendered dysfunctional by deletion of the shelterin component TRF2...
  63. Maruyama A, Nishikawa K, Kawatani Y, Mimura J, Hosoya T, Harada N, et al. The novel Nrf2-interacting factor KAP1 regulates susceptibility to oxidative stress by promoting the Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective response. Biochem J. 2011;436:387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support our contention that KAP1 participates in the oxidative stress response by maximizing Nrf2-dependent transcription. ..
  64. Gunn A, Bennardo N, Cheng A, Stark J. Correct end use during end joining of multiple chromosomal double strand breaks is influenced by repair protein RAD50, DNA-dependent protein kinase DNA-PKcs, and transcription context. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42470-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that DNA-PKcs kinase activity and RAD50 are also important to limit distal end use, but that H2AX is dispensable...
  65. Jung S, Malovannaya A, Wei J, O Malley B, Qin J. Proteomic analysis of steady-state nuclear hormone receptor coactivator complexes. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:2451-65 pubmed
    ..We hope that the electronic availability of these data to the general scientific community will facilitate generation and testing of new hypotheses to further our understanding of nuclear receptor signaling and coactivator functions. ..
  66. Liu D, O Connor M, Qin J, Songyang Z. Telosome, a mammalian telomere-associated complex formed by multiple telomeric proteins. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51338-42 pubmed
    ..These results help to unify previous observations and suggest that telomere maintenance depends on the multi-subunit telosome. ..
  67. Xu X, Stern D. NFBD1/MDC1 regulates ionizing radiation-induced focus formation by DNA checkpoint signaling and repair factors. FASEB J. 2003;17:1842-8 pubmed
    ..We report here that NFBD1 physically associates with ATM, p53, components of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex, and gamma-H2AX...