Gene Symbol: RAD23A
Description: RAD23 homolog A, nucleotide excision repair protein
Alias: HHR23A, HR23A, UV excision repair protein RAD23 homolog A, RAD23, yeast homolog, A
Species: human
Products:     RAD23A

Top Publications

  1. Raasi S, Pickart C. Rad23 ubiquitin-associated domains (UBA) inhibit 26 S proteasome-catalyzed proteolysis by sequestering lysine 48-linked polyubiquitin chains. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8951-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that contrary to prediction from this model, the effect of human Rad23A on the degradation of polyubiquitinated substrates catalyzed by purified proteasomes is exclusively inhibitory...
  2. Kang Y, Chen X, Lary J, Cole J, Walters K. Defining how ubiquitin receptors hHR23a and S5a bind polyubiquitin. J Mol Biol. 2007;369:168-76 pubmed
    Ubiquitin receptors connect substrate ubiquitylation to proteasomal degradation. HHR23a binds proteasome subunit 5a (S5a) through a surface that also binds ubiquitin...
  3. Zhu Q, Wani G, Wani M, Wani A. Human homologue of yeast Rad23 protein A interacts with p300/cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB)-binding protein to down-regulate transcriptional activity of p53. Cancer Res. 2001;61:64-70 pubmed
    ..We examined the role of the human homologue of yeast Rad23 protein A (hHR23A), one of the two human homologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleotide excision repair gene product Rad23, ..
  4. Chen L, Shinde U, Ortolan T, Madura K. Ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domains in Rad23 bind ubiquitin and promote inhibition of multi-ubiquitin chain assembly. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:933-8 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that the interaction with Ub is required for Rad23 activity, and that other UBA-containing proteins may have a similar function. ..
  5. Wang G, Sawai N, Kotliarova S, Kanazawa I, Nukina N. Ataxin-3, the MJD1 gene product, interacts with the two human homologs of yeast DNA repair protein RAD23, HHR23A and HHR23B. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:1795-803 pubmed
    ..We found that ataxin-3 interacts with two human homologs of the yeast DNA repair protein RAD23, HHR23A and HHR23B...
  6. Elder R, Song X, Chen M, Hopkins K, Lieberman H, Zhao Y. Involvement of rhp23, a Schizosaccharomyces pombe homolog of the human HHR23A and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD23 nucleotide excision repair genes, in cell cycle control and protein ubiquitination. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:581-91 pubmed
    A functional homolog (rhp23) of human HHR23A and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD23 was cloned from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and characterized...
  7. Mueller T, Feigon J. Solution structures of UBA domains reveal a conserved hydrophobic surface for protein-protein interactions. J Mol Biol. 2002;319:1243-55 pubmed
    ..The human homologue of yeast Rad23A (HHR23A) is one example of a nucleotide excision-repair protein that contains both an internal and a C-terminal ..
  8. Gragerov A, Kino T, Ilyina Gragerova G, Chrousos G, Pavlakis G. HHR23A, the human homologue of the yeast repair protein RAD23, interacts specifically with Vpr protein and prevents cell cycle arrest but not the transcriptional effects of Vpr. Virology. 1998;245:323-30 pubmed
    Yeast two-hybrid selection of proteins interacting with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr identified HHR23A, a human homologue of the yeast DNA repair protein RAD23, as a specific interactor...
  9. Wang Q, Goh A, Howley P, Walters K. Ubiquitin recognition by the DNA repair protein hHR23a. Biochemistry. 2003;42:13529-35 pubmed
    ..The DNA repair protein hHR23a has two UBA domains that can each bind ubiquitin in addition to an N-terminal UBL domain that binds S5a and S2, ..

More Information


  1. Glockzin S, Ogi F, Hengstermann A, Scheffner M, Blattner C. Involvement of the DNA repair protein hHR23 in p53 degradation. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8960-9 pubmed
    ..In this model, the Uba domain of hHR23 binds to polyubiquitin chains formed on p53 and protects them from deubiquitylation, while the Ubl domain delivers the polyubiquitylated p53 molecules to the proteasome. ..
  2. Raasi S, Orlov I, Fleming K, Pickart C. Binding of polyubiquitin chains to ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domains of HHR23A. J Mol Biol. 2004;341:1367-79 pubmed
    ..study of the interaction of K48-linked polyubiquitin chains with UBA domains of the DNA repair/proteolysis protein HHR23A, using surface plasmon resonance and other approaches...
  3. Varadan R, Assfalg M, Raasi S, Pickart C, Fushman D. Structural determinants for selective recognition of a Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chain by a UBA domain. Mol Cell. 2005;18:687-98 pubmed
    ..the structural basis of selective recognition of Lys48-linked di- and tetraubiquitin chains by the UBA2 domain of hHR23A. Although the interaction of UBA2 with Lys48-linked diubiquitin involves the same hydrophobic surface on each ..
  4. Kang Y, Vossler R, Diaz Martinez L, Winter N, Clarke D, Walters K. UBL/UBA ubiquitin receptor proteins bind a common tetraubiquitin chain. J Mol Biol. 2006;356:1027-35 pubmed
    ..Altogether our results suggest a mechanism through which UBL/UBA proteins could protect chains from premature de-ubiquitylation and unnecessary elongation during their transit to the proteasome. ..
  5. Mansky L, Preveral S, Le Rouzic E, Bernard L, Selig L, Depienne C, et al. Interaction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr with the HHR23A DNA repair protein does not correlate with multiple biological functions of Vpr. Virology. 2001;282:176-85 pubmed
    ..We have explored the contribution of the interaction of HIV-1 Vpr with HHR23A, a cellular protein implicated in DNA repair, to the known phenotypes of Vpr...
  6. Walters K, Lech P, Goh A, Wang Q, Howley P. DNA-repair protein hHR23a alters its protein structure upon binding proteasomal subunit S5a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:12694-9 pubmed
    The Rad23 family of proteins, including the human homologs hHR23a and hHR23b, stimulates nucleotide excision repair and has been shown to provide a novel link between proteasome-mediated protein degradation and DNA repair...
  7. Chen L, Madura K. Evidence for distinct functions for human DNA repair factors hHR23A and hHR23B. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:3401-8 pubmed
    ..Although human Rad23 proteins (hHR23A and hHR23B) have redundant roles in DNA repair, we determined they formed distinct interactions with proteasomes ..
  8. Kang Y, Zhang N, Koepp D, Walters K. Ubiquitin receptor proteins hHR23a and hPLIC2 interact. J Mol Biol. 2007;365:1093-101 pubmed
    ..b>HHR23a and hPLIC2 are two such ubiquitin receptors that contain ubiquitin-like (UBL) domains, which interact with the ..
  9. Hsieh H, Hsieh Y, Huang Y, Shen F, Tsai H, Tsai J, et al. HHR23A, a human homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad23, regulates xeroderma pigmentosum C protein and is required for nucleotide excision repair. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;335:181-7 pubmed
    b>HHR23A and hHR23B are the human homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad23. hHR23B is associated with the nucleotide excision repair (NER) factor xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) protein and is required for global genome repair...
  10. Raasi S, Varadan R, Fushman D, Pickart C. Diverse polyubiquitin interaction properties of ubiquitin-associated domains. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:708-14 pubmed
    ..Conversely, non-UBA sequences can modulate the interaction properties of a UBA domain. ..
  11. Ferro A, Carvalho A, Teixeira Castro A, Almeida C, Tomé R, Cortes L, et al. NEDD8: a new ataxin-3 interactor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1773:1619-27 pubmed
    ..In agreement, ataxin-3 displays deneddylase activity against a fluorogenic NEDD8 substrate. ..
  12. Withers Ward E, Jowett J, Stewart S, Xie Y, Garfinkel A, Shibagaki Y, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr interacts with HHR23A, a cellular protein implicated in nucleotide excision DNA repair. J Virol. 1997;71:9732-42 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that Vpr interacts physically with HHR23A, one member of an evolutionarily conserved gene family involved in nucleotide excision repair...
  13. Schauber C, Chen L, Tongaonkar P, Vega I, Lambertson D, Potts W, et al. Rad23 links DNA repair to the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Nature. 1998;391:715-8 pubmed
    ..The ubiquitin-like domain of human Rad23 (UbL[HRB]) also interacts with the human proteasome. These results demonstrate that ubiquitin-like domains (UbLs) represent a new class of proteasome-interacting motifs. ..
  14. Dieckmann T, Withers Ward E, Jarosinski M, Liu C, Chen I, Feigon J. Structure of a human DNA repair protein UBA domain that interacts with HIV-1 Vpr. Nat Struct Biol. 1998;5:1042-7 pubmed
    ..shown to interact specifically with the second UBA (ubiquitin associated) domain found in the DNA repair protein HHR23A, a highly evolutionarily conserved protein...
  15. Hiyama H, Yokoi M, Masutani C, Sugasawa K, Maekawa T, Tanaka K, et al. Interaction of hHR23 with S5a. The ubiquitin-like domain of hHR23 mediates interaction with S5a subunit of 26 S proteasome. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:28019-25 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that the human NER factor hHR23B as well as another human homolog of RAD23, hHR23A, interact specifically with S5a, a subunit of the human 26 S proteasome using the yeast two-hybrid system...
  16. Fang H, Chen C, Hung M, Hsiao Y, Chiang T, Lin T, et al. Caspase-14 is an anti-apoptotic protein targeting apoptosis-inducing factor in lung adenocarcinomas. Oncol Rep. 2011;26:359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..identified three proteins that interacted with apoptosis-inducing factor: human homolog of yeast Rad23 protein A (hHR23A), microsomal glutathione S-transferase and caspase-14 (casp-14)...
  17. Bethea C, Reddy A. Ovarian steroids regulate gene expression related to DNA repair and neurodegenerative diseases in serotonin neurons of macaques. Mol Psychiatry. 2015;20:1565-78 pubmed publisher
    ..NBN1, PCNA (proliferating nuclear antigen), GADD45A (DNA damage-inducible), RAD23A (DNA damage recognition) and GTF2H5 (gene transcription factor 2H5) significantly increased with E or E+P ..
  18. Brignone C, Bradley K, Kisselev A, Grossman S. A post-ubiquitination role for MDM2 and hHR23A in the p53 degradation pathway. Oncogene. 2004;23:4121-9 pubmed
    ..siRNA-mediated depletion of hHR23A or hHR23B in human cell lines accelerated p53 degradation...
  19. Renaud E, Miccoli L, Zacal N, Biard D, Craescu C, Rainbow A, et al. Differential contribution of XPC, RAD23A, RAD23B and CENTRIN 2 to the UV-response in human cells. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011;10:835-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We silenced the XPC, RAD23A or RAD23B genes in HeLa cells for a long period of time by using Epstein Barr Virus-derived plasmids carrying ..
  20. Ren B, Wang Y, Wang H, Wu Y, Li J, Tian J. Comparative proteomics reveals the neurotoxicity mechanism of ER stressors tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Neurotoxicology. 2018;68:25-37 pubmed publisher
    ..A protein responsible for delivering ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome, the UV excision repair protein RAD23 homolog A (HR23 A), was discovered as a DEP altered by both Tm and DTT...
  21. Deniaud A, Brenner C, Kroemer G. Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by HIV-1 Vpr. Mitochondrion. 2004;4:223-33 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, Vpr modulates MMP through direct structural and functional interactions with PTPC proteins. ..
  22. Padilla J, Jenkins N, Thorne P, Martin J, Rector R, Davis J, et al. Identification of genes whose expression is altered by obesity throughout the arterial tree. Physiol Genomics. 2014;46:821-32 pubmed publisher
    ..with obesity (MIS18A, CTRB1, FAM151B, FOLR2, PXMP4, OAS1B, SREBF2, KLRA17, SLC25A44, SNX10, SLFN3, MEF2BNB, IRF7, RAD23A, LGALS3BP) and five genes that were consistently downregulated with obesity (C2, GOLGA7, RIN3, PCP4, CYP2E1)...
  23. van der Spek P, Eker A, Rademakers S, Visser C, Sugasawa K, Masutani C, et al. XPC and human homologs of RAD23: intracellular localization and relationship to other nucleotide excision repair complexes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:2551-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, we cannot detect any bound HHR23A. Thus the HHR23 proteins may have an additional function independent of XPC...
  24. Zhao R, Li G, Bukrinsky M. Vpr-host interactions during HIV-1 viral life cycle. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2011;6:216-29 pubmed publisher
  25. Li L, Lu X, Peterson C, Legerski R. XPC interacts with both HHR23B and HHR23A in vivo. Mutat Res. 1997;383:197-203 pubmed
    ..XPC interacts in vivo, by means of the yeast two-hybrid system, with both HHR23B and a second homologue of RAD23, HHR23A. Domain mapping studies have revealed that both RAD23 homologues interact with XPC at the same highly conserved ..
  26. Kaur M, Pop M, Shi D, Brignone C, Grossman S. hHR23B is required for genotoxic-specific activation of p53 and apoptosis. Oncogene. 2007;26:1231-7 pubmed
    ..forms of p53 are stabilized after DNA damage in concert with p53 functional activation, and human Rad23 proteins (hHR23A and B) regulate p53 stability in unstressed cells, the role of hHR23B in post-genotoxin regulation of p53 was ..
  27. Tsou W, Ouyang M, Hosking R, Sutton J, Blount J, Burr A, et al. The deubiquitinase ataxin-3 requires Rad23 and DnaJ-1 for its neuroprotective role in Drosophila melanogaster. Neurobiol Dis. 2015;82:12-21 pubmed publisher
    ..requires its direct interaction with the ubiquitin-binding and proteasome-associated protein, Rad23 (known as hHR23A/B in mammals) in order to suppress toxicity from polyQ species in Drosophila...
  28. Saeki Y, Sone T, Toh e A, Yokosawa H. Identification of ubiquitin-like protein-binding subunits of the 26S proteasome. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:813-9 pubmed
    ..By cross-linking experiments, Rpn1 and Rpn2 were identified as Ubl-binding subunits. Taken together, the results suggest that the Rpn1 and Rpn2 in the base subcomplex form the receptor for the ubiquitin-like protein. ..
  29. Di Lello P, Hymowitz S. Unveiling the Structural and Dynamic Nature of the Ubiquitin Code. Structure. 2016;24:498-499 pubmed publisher
    ..small-angle neutron scattering, and docking to convincingly demonstrate that K27-linked diubiquitin is relatively rigid with unexpected similarity to the conformation of K48-linked diubiquitin bound to the UBA2 domain of hHR23a.
  30. STEINBERG M, Hubbard K, Utti C, Clas B, Hwang B, Hill H, et al. Patterns of persistent DNA damage associated with sun exposure and the glutathione S-transferase M1 genotype in melanoma patients. Photochem Photobiol. 2009;85:379-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the idea that exposure to solar radiation early in life may induce long-term cellular changes that lead to persistent DNA damage and altered patterns of gene expression. ..
  31. Goh A, Walters K, Elsasser S, Verma R, Deshaies R, Finley D, et al. Components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway compete for surfaces on Rad23 family proteins. BMC Biochem. 2008;9:4 pubmed publisher
    ..Disrupting the intramolecular UBL-UBA domain interactions in HHR23A indeed potentiates ubiquitin-binding...
  32. Kumar S, Kao W, Howley P. Physical interaction between specific E2 and Hect E3 enzymes determines functional cooperativity. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13548-54 pubmed
  33. Tan X, Liang R, Chuang S. hHR23A is required to control the basal turnover of Chk1. Cell Signal. 2015;27:2304-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that the effect of hHR23A on Chk1 protein turnover could impact the cell cycle progression observed in hHR23A-knockdown cells...
  34. Singh R, Dagnino L. E2F1 interactions with hHR23A inhibit its degradation and promote DNA repair. Oncotarget. 2016;7:26275-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Reciprocally, E2F1 regulates hHR23A subcellular localization, recruiting it to sites of DNA photodamage...
  35. Sims J, Haririnia A, Dickinson B, Fushman D, Cohen R. Avid interactions underlie the Lys63-linked polyubiquitin binding specificities observed for UBA domains. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:883-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We reexamine previous conclusions based on GST-UBAs and present an alternative model for how UBAs achieve a diverse range of linkage specificities. ..
  36. Haririnia A, Verma R, Purohit N, Twarog M, Deshaies R, Bolon D, et al. Mutations in the hydrophobic core of ubiquitin differentially affect its recognition by receptor proteins. J Mol Biol. 2008;375:979-96 pubmed
    ..Mutant Ubs bind tightly to the Ub-associated domain of the receptor proteins Rad23 and hHR23A but fail to bind the Ub-interacting motif present in the receptors Rpn10 and S5a...
  37. Kamiya Y, Uekusa Y, Sumiyoshi A, Sasakawa H, Hirao T, Suzuki T, et al. NMR characterization of the interaction between the PUB domain of peptide:N-glycanase and ubiquitin-like domain of HR23. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:1141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings imply that PNGase-PUB serves not only as p97-binding module but also as a possible activator of HR23 in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation mechanisms. ..
  38. van der Spek P, Smit E, Beverloo H, Sugasawa K, Masutani C, Hanaoka F, et al. Chromosomal localization of three repair genes: the xeroderma pigmentosum group C gene and two human homologs of yeast RAD23. Genomics. 1994;23:651-8 pubmed
    ..Recently, we reported the cloning and analysis of three human NER genes, XPC, HHR23A, and HHR23B...
  39. Yokoi M, Hanaoka F. Two mammalian homologs of yeast Rad23, HR23A and HR23B, as multifunctional proteins. Gene. 2017;597:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, recent comprehensive proteomic analyses will help to elucidate the functional protein-protein networks involving the HR23 proteins. ..
  40. Jaleel M, Villa F, Deak M, Toth R, Prescott A, van Aalten D, et al. The ubiquitin-associated domain of AMPK-related kinases regulates conformation and LKB1-mediated phosphorylation and activation. Biochem J. 2006;394:545-55 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that the UBA domains of AMPK-related kinases play an important role in regulating the conformation, activation and localization of these enzymes. ..
  41. Castaneda C, Kashyap T, Nakasone M, Krueger S, Fushman D. Unique structural, dynamical, and functional properties of k11-linked polyubiquitin chains. Structure. 2013;21:1168-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the hypothesis that polyubiquitin chains of different linkages possess unique conformational and dynamical properties, allowing them to be recognized differently by downstream receptor proteins. ..
  42. Kühnle S, Mothes B, Matentzoglu K, Scheffner M. Role of the ubiquitin ligase E6AP/UBE3A in controlling levels of the synaptic protein Arc. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8888-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that Arc protein levels are controlled by E6AP at the transcriptional rather than at the posttranslational level. ..
  43. Sugasawa K, Ng J, Masutani C, Maekawa T, Uchida A, van der Spek P, et al. Two human homologs of Rad23 are functionally interchangeable in complex formation and stimulation of XPC repair activity. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6924-31 pubmed
    ..recombinant hHR23B (rhHR23B) but also a second human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad23 repair protein, hHR23A, stimulates the in vitro repair activity of recombinant human XPC (rhXPC), revealing functional redundancy between ..
  44. Chen Y, Tajima T, Agrawal S. The crystal structure of the ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain of human homologue A of Rad23 (hHR23A) protein. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2011;24:131-8 pubmed publisher
    The human homologue of the yeast Rad23 protein, hHR23A, plays dual roles in DNA repair as well as in translocating polyubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome...
  45. Laco M, Cortes L, Travis S, Paulson H, Rego A. Valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97) is an activator of wild-type ataxin-3. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43563 pubmed publisher
    ..functional relevance of ataxin-3 interactions with two proteins previously described to interact with ataxin-3, hHR23A and valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97). We confirmed ataxin-3 affinity for both hHR23A and VCP/p97...
  46. Eichbaum Q, Beatty D, Parker M. Identification of cardiac autoantigens in human heart cDNA libraries using acute rheumatic fever sera. J Autoimmun. 1994;7:243-61 pubmed
    ..Another clone was completely homologous to the G-protein alpha-subunit of adenyl cyclase, whilst the sequence of the third clone was not found in any of the data banks. ..
  47. Withers Ward E, Mueller T, Chen I, Feigon J. Biochemical and structural analysis of the interaction between the UBA(2) domain of the DNA repair protein HHR23A and HIV-1 Vpr. Biochemistry. 2000;39:14103-12 pubmed
    The DNA repair protein HHR23A is a highly conserved protein that functions in nucleotide excision repair...
  48. Kim H, Kim K, Lledias F, Kisselev A, Scaglione K, Skowyra D, et al. Certain pairs of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) synthesize nondegradable forked ubiquitin chains containing all possible isopeptide linkages. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17375-86 pubmed
  49. Walters K, Kleijnen M, Goh A, Wagner G, Howley P. Structural studies of the interaction between ubiquitin family proteins and proteasome subunit S5a. Biochemistry. 2002;41:1767-77 pubmed
    ..this, we have determined the solution structure of the ubl domain of hPLIC-2 and obtained a structural model of hHR23a by using NMR spectroscopy and homology modeling...
  50. Ju D, Xie Y. A synthetic defect in protein degradation caused by loss of Ufd4 and Rad23. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;341:648-52 pubmed
    ..The current work also provides a direction for further investigation of the physiological functions of the UFD pathway. ..
  51. Kristariyanto Y, Abdul Rehman S, Campbell D, Morrice N, Johnson C, Toth R, et al. K29-selective ubiquitin binding domain reveals structural basis of specificity and heterotypic nature of k29 polyubiquitin. Mol Cell. 2015;58:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we establish methods to study K29-linked polyubiquitin and find that K29 linkages exist in cells within mixed or branched chains containing other linkages. ..
  52. van der Spek P, Visser C, Hanaoka F, Smit B, Hagemeijer A, Bootsma D, et al. Cloning, comparative mapping, and RNA expression of the mouse homologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleotide excision repair gene RAD23. Genomics. 1996;31:20-7 pubmed
    ..Two human homologs of RAD23, HHR23A and HHR23B (HGMW-approved symbols RAD23A and RAD23B), were previously isolated...
  53. Liang R, Chen L, Ko B, Shen Y, Li Y, Chen B, et al. Rad23 interaction with the proteasome is regulated by phosphorylation of its ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain. J Mol Biol. 2014;426:4049-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, threonine 75 in human HR23B also regulates interaction with the proteasome, suggesting that phosphorylation is a conserved mechanism for controlling Rad23/proteasome interaction. ..
  54. Masutani C, Sugasawa K, Yanagisawa J, Sonoyama T, Ui M, Enomoto T, et al. Purification and cloning of a nucleotide excision repair complex involving the xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein and a human homologue of yeast RAD23. EMBO J. 1994;13:1831-43 pubmed
    ..All RAD23 derivatives share a ubiquitin-like N-terminus. The nature of the XP-C defect implies that the complex exerts a unique function in the genome-overall repair pathway which is important for prevention of skin cancer. ..
  55. Krzeszinski J, Choe V, Shao J, Bao X, Cheng H, Luo S, et al. XPC promotes MDM2-mediated degradation of the p53 tumor suppressor. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidation of the proteolytic role of XPC in cancer cells will help to unravel the detailed mechanisms underlying the coordination of DNA repair and proteolysis. ..
  56. Kim T, Kang Y, Park Z, Kim Y, Hong S, Oh S, et al. SH3RF2 functions as an oncogene by mediating PAK4 protein stability. Carcinogenesis. 2014;35:624-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that SH3RF2 is an oncogene that may be a definitive regulator of PAK4. Therefore, SH3RF2 may represent an effective therapeutic target for cancer treatment. ..
  57. Nakasone M, Livnat Levanon N, Glickman M, Cohen R, Fushman D. Mixed-linkage ubiquitin chains send mixed messages. Structure. 2013;21:727-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Linkage-selective receptors from hHR23A and Rap80 preferentially bound to the K48 or K63 linkages in the branched trimer...
  58. Fang D, He K, Wang J, Mu R, Tan B, Jian Z, et al. RAD23A negatively regulates RIG-I/MDA5 signaling through promoting TRAF2 polyubiquitination and degradation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;431:686-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, UbL-UBA domain containing protein RAD23A was identified as a negative regulator of RIG-I/MDA5-mediated signaling activation through a small interfering RNA ..
  59. Tan X, Wang H, Liang R, Chuang S. Human Rad23A plays a regulatory role in autophagy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;478:1772-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of hHR23A in chemoresistance is unknown. In this study, we provide evidence suggesting that hHR23A may regulate autophagy...
  60. Massey L, Mah A, Ford D, Miller J, Liang J, Doong H, et al. Overexpression of ubiquilin decreases ubiquitination and degradation of presenilin proteins. J Alzheimers Dis. 2004;6:79-92 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that ubiquilin proteins play an important role in regulating PS protein levels in cells. ..
  61. Li G, Elder R, Dubrovsky L, Liang D, Pushkarsky T, Chiu K, et al. HIV-1 replication through hHR23A-mediated interaction of Vpr with 26S proteasome. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11371 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that Vpr stimulates HIV-1 replication at least in part through its interaction with hHR23A, a protein that binds to 19S subunit of the 26S proteasome and shuttles ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome ..
  62. Cooper E, Hudson A, Amos J, Wagstaff J, Howley P. Biochemical analysis of Angelman syndrome-associated mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase E6-associated protein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41208-17 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the loss of E6AP catalytic activity and likely the improper regulation of E6AP substrate(s) are important in the development of Angelman syndrome. ..
  63. Chen Y, Tajima T, Rees M, Garcia Maya M. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain of the human homologue A of Rad23 (hHR23A) protein. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2009;65:930-2 pubmed publisher
    Human homologue A of Rad23 (hHR23A) plays dual roles in DNA repair as well as serving as a shuttle vehicle targeting polyubiquitinated proteins for degradation...
  64. Hu Y, Mivechi N. Promotion of heat shock factor Hsf1 degradation via adaptor protein filamin A-interacting protein 1-like (FILIP-1L). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:31397-408 pubmed publisher
    ..FILIP-1L, Hsf1, and the ubiquitin-binding domain of HhR23A, a receptor that transports polyubiquitinated proteins to the 19 S proteasome subunit targeting them for ..
  65. Bacopulos S, Amemiya Y, Yang W, Zubovits J, Burger A, Yaffe M, et al. Effects of partner proteins on BCA2 RING ligase activity. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:63 pubmed publisher
    ..Ten unique BCA2 interacting proteins were identified, two of which were hHR23a and 14-3-3sigma...
  66. Shen Y, Chen B, Cherng S, Chueh P, Tan X, Lin Y, et al. Cisplatin transiently up-regulates hHR23 expression through enhanced translational efficiency in A549 adenocarcinoma cells. Toxicol Lett. 2011;205:341-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that cisplatin-induced increases in hHR23 levels are regulated by proliferative signaling pathways and important for DNA repair. ..
  67. Kumar S, Talis A, Howley P. Identification of HHR23A as a substrate for E6-associated protein-mediated ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:18785-92 pubmed
    ..Here we report the identification of HHR23A, one of the human homologues of the yeast DNA repair protein Rad23, as an E6-independent target of E6AP...
  68. Jung J, Byeon I, Delucia M, Koharudin L, Ahn J, Gronenborn A. Binding of HIV-1 Vpr protein to the human homolog of the yeast DNA repair protein RAD23 (hHR23A) requires its xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C binding (XPCB) domain as well as the ubiquitin-associated 2 (UBA2) domain. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:2577-88 pubmed publisher
    The human homolog of the yeast DNA repair protein RAD23, hHR23A, has been found previously to interact with the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 accessory protein Vpr...
  69. Miao F, Bouziane M, Dammann R, Masutani C, Hanaoka F, Pfeifer G, et al. 3-Methyladenine-DNA glycosylase (MPG protein) interacts with human RAD23 proteins. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:28433-8 pubmed
    ..In this report, we show that the hHR23A and -B also interact with the MPG protein and can serve as accessory proteins for DNA damage recognition in base ..
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    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that once Rub1/Nedd8 is channeled into ubiquitin pathways, it is recognized essentially like ubiquitin. ..
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    ..Application of the methodology provided further insights into the poly-Ub linkage specificity of the hHR23A-UBA2 domain, confirming its role in Lys48-linked poly-Ub signaling...
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    ..Due to the critical role of Vpr in HIV-1 pathogenicity, study of the interactions between Vpr and cellular proteins may help us to understand the mechanism(s) of HIV-1 pathogenicity. ..
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    ..Expression of Vpr, in particular, leads to cell cycle arrest in G(2), followed by apoptosis. Here we summarize our current understanding of Vpr biology with a focus on Vpr-induced G(2) arrest and apoptosis. ..
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    ..We previously found that the Vpr-binding protein, hHR23A, can partially alleviate induction of arrest...
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    ..Knockdown of hRpn13 caused no obvious proteolytic defect but loss of UCH37 proteins and decrease in deubiquitinating activity of 26S proteasomes. Our results indicate that hRpn13 is essential for the activity of UCH37. ..
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    ..Together, our observations expand the context of what can be considered to be a sufficient degradation signal and provide unique insights into the mechanisms of substrate ubiquitination. ..
  77. Mueller T, Feigon J. Structural determinants for the binding of ubiquitin-like domains to the proteasome. EMBO J. 2003;22:4634-45 pubmed
    b>HHR23A, a protein implicated in nucleotide excision repair, belongs to a class of proteins containing both a ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain and one or more ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domains, suggesting a role in the ubiquitin-proteasome ..
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    ..These results support a model in which ubiquitin plays an accessory role, in recruiting the 19S regulatory subunit of the proteasome, for transcriptional activation. ..
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    ..5) with a Lys48-linkage-selective receptor, the UBA2 domain of a shuttle protein hHR23a. Our results show that di-Ub binds UBA2 in the same mode and with comparable affinity as the closed state...