RAD1

Summary

Gene Symbol: RAD1
Description: RAD1 checkpoint DNA exonuclease
Alias: HRAD1, REC1, cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD1, DNA repair exonuclease REC1, DNA repair exonuclease rad1 homolog, RAD1 checkpoint clamp component, RAD1 homolog, cell cycle checkpoint protein Hrad1, checkpoint control protein HRAD1, exonuclease homolog RAD1, rad1-like DNA damage checkpoint protein
Species: human
Products:     RAD1

Top Publications

  1. Volkmer E, Karnitz L. Human homologs of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1, hus1, and rad9 form a DNA damage-responsive protein complex. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:567-70 pubmed
    ..Searches for human homologs of S. pombe rad1, rad9, and hus1 genes identified the potential human homologs hRad1, hRad9, and hHus1; however, little is known about the roles of these proteins in human cells...
  2. St Onge R, Udell C, Casselman R, Davey S. The human G2 checkpoint control protein hRAD9 is a nuclear phosphoprotein that forms complexes with hRAD1 and hHUS1. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:1985-95 pubmed
    ..that the human checkpoint control protein hRAD9 physically associates with two other checkpoint control proteins, hRAD1 and hHUS1...
  3. Zou L, Cortez D, Elledge S. Regulation of ATR substrate selection by Rad17-dependent loading of Rad9 complexes onto chromatin. Genes Dev. 2002;16:198-208 pubmed
    ..in yeast suggested that several checkpoint proteins, including the RFC-related Rad17 protein, and the PCNA-related Rad1-Rad9-Hus1 protein complex might function as sensors of DNA damage...
  4. Toueille M, El Andaloussi N, Frouin I, Freire R, Funk D, Shevelev I, et al. The human Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 damage sensor clamp interacts with DNA polymerase beta and increases its DNA substrate utilisation efficiency: implications for DNA repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:3316-24 pubmed
    ..This requires the action of DNA damage sensors such as the Rad family proteins. The three human proteins Rad9, Rad1 and Hus1 form a heterotrimeric complex (called the 9-1-1 complex) that is recruited onto DNA upon damage...
  5. Wang W, Brandt P, Rossi M, Lindsey Boltz L, Podust V, Fanning E, et al. The human Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex stimulates flap endonuclease 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16762-7 pubmed
    The toroidal damage checkpoint complex Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) has been characterized as a sensor of DNA damage...
  6. Wu X, Shell S, Zou Y. Interaction and colocalization of Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 checkpoint complex with replication protein A in human cells. Oncogene. 2005;24:4728-35 pubmed
    ..It is a protein essential for most cellular DNA metabolic pathways. Checkpoint proteins Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 form a clamp-like complex which plays a central role in the DNA damage-induced checkpoint response...
  7. Wang W, Lindsey Boltz L, Sancar A, Bambara R. Mechanism of stimulation of human DNA ligase I by the Rad9-rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20865-72 pubmed
    Accumulating evidence suggests that the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) checkpoint complex, known to be a sensor of DNA damage, is also a component of DNA repair systems...
  8. Guan X, Bai H, Shi G, Theriot C, Hazra T, Mitra S, et al. The human checkpoint sensor Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 interacts with and stimulates NEIL1 glycosylase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:2463-72 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that hNEIL1 interacts with hRad9, hRad1 and hHus1 as individual proteins and as a complex...
  9. Burtelow M, Roos Mattjus P, Rauen M, Babendure J, Karnitz L. Reconstitution and molecular analysis of the hRad9-hHus1-hRad1 (9-1-1) DNA damage responsive checkpoint complex. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:25903-9 pubmed
    ..we demonstrated that in human cells all the hRad9 and hHus1 and approximately one-half of the cellular pool of hRad1 interacted as a stable, biochemically discrete complex, with an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa...

More Information

Publications115 found, 100 shown here

  1. Lindsey Boltz L, Bermudez V, Hurwitz J, Sancar A. Purification and characterization of human DNA damage checkpoint Rad complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11236-41 pubmed
    ..composed of hRad17-RFCp36-RFCp37-RFCp38-RFCp40 (hRad17-RFC) and a heterotrimeric complex composed of hRad9-hHus1-hRad1 (checkpoint 9-1-1 complex)...
  2. Bermudez V, Lindsey Boltz L, Cesare A, Maniwa Y, Griffith J, Hurwitz J, et al. Loading of the human 9-1-1 checkpoint complex onto DNA by the checkpoint clamp loader hRad17-replication factor C complex in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1633-8 pubmed
    The human DNA damage sensors, Rad17-replication factor C (Rad17-RFC) and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) checkpoint complex, are thought to be involved in the early steps of the DNA damage checkpoint response...
  3. Ellison V, Stillman B. Biochemical characterization of DNA damage checkpoint complexes: clamp loader and clamp complexes with specificity for 5' recessed DNA. PLoS Biol. 2003;1:E33 pubmed
    ..Proteins required for this pathway include Rad17, Rad9, Hus1, Rad1, and Rfc-2, Rfc-3, Rfc-4, and Rfc-5...
  4. Smirnova E, Toueille M, Markkanen E, Hubscher U. The human checkpoint sensor and alternative DNA clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 modulates the activity of DNA ligase I, a component of the long-patch base excision repair machinery. Biochem J. 2005;389:13-7 pubmed
    The human checkpoint sensor and alternative clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 can interact with and specifically stimulate DNA ligase I...
  5. Friedrich Heineken E, Toueille M, Tännler B, Bürki C, Ferrari E, Hottiger M, et al. The two DNA clamps Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 complex and proliferating cell nuclear antigen differentially regulate flap endonuclease 1 activity. J Mol Biol. 2005;353:980-9 pubmed
    ..Growing evidence suggests that the Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 cell-cycle checkpoint complex (9-1-1 complex), which is recruited to DNA lesion upon DNA damage, plays a major ..
  6. Oide S, Liu J, Yun S, Wu D, Michev A, Choi M, et al. Histidine kinase two-component response regulator proteins regulate reproductive development, virulence, and stress responses of the fungal cereal pathogens Cochliobolus heterostrophus and Gibberella zeae. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:1867-80 pubmed publisher
    ..pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus has 21 HK genes, 4 candidate response regulator (RR) genes (SSK1, SKN7, RIM15, REC1), and 1 gene (HPT1) encoding a histidine phosphotransfer domain protein...
  7. Zhou Z, Zhao J, Chen C, Liu Y, Zeng J, Wu Z, et al. HUS1 checkpoint clamp component (HUS1) is a potential tumor suppressor in primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Mol Carcinog. 2019;58:76-87 pubmed publisher
    ..component (HUS1), which is a member of an evolutionarily conserved, genotoxin-activated checkpoint complex (Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 [9-1-1] complex), is involved in cell cycle arrest and DNA repair in response to DNA damage...
  8. Shanmugam I, Abbas M, Ayoub F, Mirabal S, Bsaili M, Caulder E, et al. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 20 regulates Rad17 stability, checkpoint kinase 1 phosphorylation and DNA repair by homologous recombination. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:22739-48 pubmed publisher
    Rad17 is a subunit of the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 clamp loader complex, which is required for Chk1 activation after DNA damage. Rad17 has been shown to be regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system...
  9. Stafford J, Dyson G, Levin N, Chaudhry S, Rosati R, Kalpage H, et al. Reanalysis of BRCA1/2 negative high risk ovarian cancer patients reveals novel germline risk loci and insights into missing heritability. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178450 pubmed publisher
    ..involved in OVCA relevant pathways; DNA repair and cell cycle control, including CHEK1, TP53I3, REC8, HMMR, RAD52, RAD1, POLK, POLQ, and MCM4...
  10. Damasceno J, Obonaga R, Santos E, Scott A, McCulloch R, Tosi L. Functional compartmentalization of Rad9 and Hus1 reveals diverse assembly of the 9-1-1 complex components during the DNA damage response in Leishmania. Mol Microbiol. 2016;101:1054-68 pubmed publisher
    The Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex is a key component in the coordination of DNA damage sensing, cell cycle progression and DNA repair pathways in eukaryotic cells...
  11. Luncsford P, Chang D, Shi G, Bernstein J, Madabushi A, Patterson D, et al. A structural hinge in eukaryotic MutY homologues mediates catalytic activity and Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex interactions. J Mol Biol. 2010;403:351-70 pubmed publisher
    ..A key feature of MYH activity is its coordination with cell cycle checkpoint via interaction with the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex...
  12. Tsai F, Kai M. The checkpoint clamp protein Rad9 facilitates DNA-end resection and prevents alternative non-homologous end joining. Cell Cycle. 2014;13:3460-4 pubmed publisher
    DNA damage activates the cell cycle checkpoint to regulate cell cycle progression. The checkpoint clamp (Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 complex) is recruited to damage sites, and is required for checkpoint activation...
  13. Stranava M, Martínek V, Man P, Fojtikova V, Kavan D, Vaněk O, et al. Structural characterization of the heme-based oxygen sensor, AfGcHK, its interactions with the cognate response regulator, and their combined mechanism of action in a bacterial two-component signaling system. Proteins. 2016;84:1375-89 pubmed publisher
    ..domain of the AfGcHK kinase domain interacts with the helix H1 and the β-strand B2 area of the RR protein's Rec1 domain, and that the C-side of the H8 helix region in the dimerization domain of the AfGcHK protein interacts ..
  14. Xu X, Shi R, Zheng L, Guo Z, Wang L, Zhou M, et al. SUMO-1 modification of FEN1 facilitates its interaction with Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 to counteract DNA replication stress. J Mol Cell Biol. 2018;10:460-474 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, in response to DNA damage, FEN1 interacts with the PCNA-like Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex instead of PCNA to engage in DNA repair activities, such as homology-directed repair of stalled DNA ..
  15. Mardiros A, Benoun J, Haughton R, Baxter K, Kelson E, Fischhaber P. Rad10-YFP focus induction in response to UV depends on RAD14 in yeast. Acta Histochem. 2011;113:409-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The function of Rad14 presumably precedes that of the Rad1-Rad10 endonuclease complex, which functions in a downstream step incising DNA 5' to the site of DNA damage...
  16. Lim P, Patel D, Poisson K, Basuita M, Tsai C, Lyndaker A, et al. Genome Protection by the 9-1-1 Complex Subunit HUS1 Requires Clamp Formation, DNA Contacts, and ATR Signaling-independent Effector Functions. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:14826-40 pubmed publisher
    The RAD9A-HUS1-RAD1 (9-1-1) complex is a heterotrimeric clamp that promotes checkpoint signaling and repair at DNA damage sites...
  17. Moore D, Karlin J, González Barrera S, Mardiros A, Lisby M, Doughty A, et al. Rad10 exhibits lesion-dependent genetic requirements for recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:6429-38 pubmed publisher
    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rad1-Rad10 protein complex participates in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and homologous recombination (HR)...
  18. Broustas C, Lieberman H. RAD9 enhances radioresistance of human prostate cancer cells through regulation of ITGB1 protein levels. Prostate. 2014;74:1359-70 pubmed publisher
    ..controlling integrin β1 expression is unique and not shared by the other members of the 9-1-1 complex, HUS1 and RAD1. RAD9 or integrin β1 silencing sensitizes DU145 and PC3 cells to ionizing radiation...
  19. Zaidi A, Dresman S, Burt C, Rule S, McCallum L. Molecular signatures for CCN1, p21 and p27 in progressive mantle cell lymphoma. J Cell Commun Signal. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..We have used the human MCL cell lines REC1 < G519 < JVM2 as a model for disease aggression...
  20. Kingsley J, Tai Y, Marshall E, Glasgow A, Oliveira R, Parks J, et al. Autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity after acute resistance exercise: responses between sexes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Autonomic modulation, blood pressure variability (LFSAP), and cardiovagal BRS were assessed at rest, 15-20 minutes (Rec1) and 25-30 minutes (Rec2) post-exercise...
  21. Lee J, Dunphy W. Rad17 plays a central role in establishment of the interaction between TopBP1 and the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 complex at stalled replication forks. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:926-35 pubmed publisher
    ..It is known that Rad17 loads the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) complex onto DNA...
  22. De Haro L, Wray J, Williamson E, Durant S, Corwin L, Gentry A, et al. Metnase promotes restart and repair of stalled and collapsed replication forks. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:5681-91 pubmed publisher
    ..breaks at collapsed forks, and it co-immunoprecipitates with PCNA and RAD9, a member of the PCNA-like RAD9-HUS1-RAD1 intra-S checkpoint complex. Metnase also promotes TopoIIα-mediated relaxation of positively supercoiled DNA...
  23. Sarangi P, Altmannova V, Holland C, Bartosova Z, Hao F, Anrather D, et al. A versatile scaffold contributes to damage survival via sumoylation and nuclease interactions. Cell Rep. 2014;9:143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..It helps cells cope with base lesions and protein-DNA adducts through its known function of recruiting the Rad1-Rad10 nuclease to DNA. In addition, it promotes UV survival via a mechanism mediated by its sumoylation...
  24. MacNeill S. Identification of a candidate rad1 subunit for the kinetoplastid 9-1-1 (rad9-hus1-rad1) complex. Biology (Basel). 2014;3:922-7 pubmed publisher
    The trimeric 9-1-1 (Rad9-Hus1-Rad1) complex plays an important role in the eukaryotic DNA damage response by recruiting DNA repair factors and checkpoint mediators to damaged sites...
  25. Mahshid Y, Markoutsa S, Dincbas Renqvist V, Sürün D, Christensson B, Sander B, et al. Phosphorylation of serine 523 on 5-lipoxygenase in human B lymphocytes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2015;100:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate by immunoblotting that native 5-LO in mantle B cell lymphoma (MCL) cells (Granta519, JEKO1, and Rec1) and in primary chronic B lymphocytic leukemia cells (B-CLL) is phosphorylated on Ser523...
  26. Mejía Ramírez E, Limbo O, Langerak P, Russell P. Critical Function of γH2A in S-Phase. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005517 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly Chk1, Cds1/Chk2 and the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 checkpoint clamp, which are crucial for surviving many genotoxins, are fully dispensable in RFC-defective cells...
  27. Mardirosian M, Nalbandyan L, Miller A, Phan C, Kelson E, Fischhaber P. Saw1 localizes to repair sites but is not required for recruitment of Rad10 to repair intermediates bearing short non-homologous 3' flaps during single-strand annealing in S. cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biochem. 2016;412:131-9 pubmed publisher
    SAW1 is required for efficient removal by the Rad1-Rad10 nuclease of 3' non-homologous DNA ends (flaps) formed as intermediates during two modes of double-strand break (DSB) repair in S...
  28. Seol J, Holland C, Li X, Kim C, Li F, Medina Rivera M, et al. Distinct roles of XPF-ERCC1 and Rad1-Rad10-Saw1 in replication-coupled and uncoupled inter-strand crosslink repair. Nat Commun. 2018;9:2025 pubmed publisher
    Yeast Rad1-Rad10 (XPF-ERCC1 in mammals) incises UV, oxidation, and cross-linking agent-induced DNA lesions, and contributes to multiple DNA repair pathways...
  29. Peng X, Liu S, Bao C, Liu Y, Xie H, Cai Y, et al. Regulation of ATRIP protein abundance by RAD9 in the DNA damage repair pathway. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2015;61:31-6 pubmed
    ..A number of proteins act in concert with ATR to phosphorylate Chk1, including RAD17, the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 complex, ATR/ATRIP and TopBp1...
  30. Kim H, Colaiácovo M. ZTF-8 interacts with the 9-1-1 complex and is required for DNA damage response and double-strand break repair in the C. elegans germline. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004723 pubmed publisher
    ..ZTF-8 partially co-localizes with the 9-1-1 DDR complex and interacts with MRT-2/Rad1, a component of this complex...
  31. Lindsey Boltz L, Kemp M, Capp C, Sancar A. RHINO forms a stoichiometric complex with the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp and mediates ATR-Chk1 signaling. Cell Cycle. 2015;14:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that RHINO (for Rad9, Rad1, Hus1 interacting nuclear orphan) forms complexes with both the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp and TopBP1 in human cells ..
  32. Panigrahi S, Hopkins K, Lieberman H. Regulation of NEIL1 protein abundance by RAD9 is important for efficient base excision repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:4531-46 pubmed publisher
    RAD9 participates in DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. As a member of the RAD9-HUS1-RAD1 (9-1-1) complex, it can sense DNA damage and recruit ATR to damage sites...
  33. Balmus G, Lim P, Oswald A, Hume K, Cassano A, Pierre J, et al. HUS1 regulates in vivo responses to genotoxic chemotherapies. Oncogene. 2016;35:662-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Optimal ATR signaling requires the RAD9A-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1) complex, a toroidal clamp that is loaded at damage sites and scaffolds signaling and repair factors...
  34. Aung H, Huangteerakul C, Panvongsa W, Jensen A, Chairoungdua A, Sukrong S, et al. Interrogation of ethnomedicinal plants for synthetic lethality effects in combination with deficiency in the DNA repair endonuclease RAD1 using a yeast cell-based assay. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;223:10-21 pubmed publisher
    ..ethnomedicinal plants using a yeast cell-based assay for synthetic lethal interactions with cells deleted for RAD1, the yeast homologue of human ERCC4 (XPF) MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanolic extracts from thirty-two species of ..
  35. Lyndaker A, Lim P, Mleczko J, Diggins C, Holloway J, Holmes R, et al. Conditional inactivation of the DNA damage response gene Hus1 in mouse testis reveals separable roles for components of the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 complex in meiotic chromosome maintenance. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003320 pubmed publisher
    The RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1) complex is a heterotrimeric PCNA-like clamp that responds to DNA damage in somatic cells by promoting DNA repair as well as ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint signaling...
  36. Chequer F, Venâncio V, Almeida M, Aissa A, Bianchi M, Antunes L. Erythrosine B and quinoline yellow dyes regulate DNA repair gene expression in human HepG2 cells. Toxicol Ind Health. 2017;33:765-774 pubmed publisher
    ..One gene ( LIG1) was downregulated and 20 genes related to ATR/ATM signaling ( ATR, RBBP8, RAD1, CHEK1, CHEK2, TOPB1), nucleotide excision repair ( ERCC1, XPA), base excision repair ( FEN1, MBD4), mismatch ..
  37. Yun H, Shi R, Yang Q, Zhang X, Wang Y, Zhou X, et al. Over expression of hRad9 protein correlates with reduced chemosensitivity in breast cancer with administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7548 pubmed publisher
    Human Rad 9 (hRad9), part of the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 complex plays an important role in DNA damage repair as an up-stream regulator of checkpoint signaling, however little is known about its role in response to chemotherapy of breast cancer ..
  38. Destephanis D, McLeod M, Yan S. REV1 is important for the ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response pathway in Xenopus egg extracts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;460:609-15 pubmed publisher
    ..REV1 plays a downstream role of a checkpoint protein complex assembly including ATR, ATRIP, TopBP1 and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex to MMC-induced ICLs on chromatin in the DDR pathway...
  39. Adamczyk J, Deregowska A, Panek A, Golec E, Lewinska A, Wnuk M. Affected chromosome homeostasis and genomic instability of clonal yeast cultures. Curr Genet. 2016;62:405-18 pubmed publisher
    ..replication intermediates) were studied using both single-gene deletion haploid mutants (bub1, bub2, mad1, tel1, rad1 and tor1) and diploid cells lacking one active gene of interest, namely BUB1/bub1, BUB2/bub2, MAD1/mad1, TEL1/tel1, ..
  40. Qu M, Rappas M, Wardlaw C, Garcia V, Ren J, Day M, et al. Phosphorylation-dependent assembly and coordination of the DNA damage checkpoint apparatus by Rad4(TopBP1). Mol Cell. 2013;51:723-736 pubmed publisher
    ..facilitates activation of the DNA damage checkpoint in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by physically coupling the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 clamp, the Rad3(ATR) -Rad26(ATRIP) kinase complex, and the Crb2(53BP1) mediator...
  41. Xue L, Cui H, Buer B, Vijayakumar V, Delaux P, Junkermann S, et al. Network of GRAS transcription factors involved in the control of arbuscule development in Lotus japonicus. Plant Physiol. 2015;167:854-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Allelic rad1 mutants display a strongly reduced number of arbuscules, which undergo accelerated degeneration...
  42. Kar A, Kaur M, Ghosh T, Khan M, Sharma A, Shekhar R, et al. RPA70 depletion induces hSSB1/2-INTS3 complex to initiate ATR signaling. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:4962-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified that TopBP1 and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex are essential for the alternate mode of ATR activation...
  43. Balu R, Knott R, Cowieson N, Elvin C, Hill A, Choudhury N, et al. Structural ensembles reveal intrinsic disorder for the multi-stimuli responsive bio-mimetic protein Rec1-resilin. Sci Rep. 2015;5:10896 pubmed publisher
    b>Rec1-resilin is the first recombinant resilin-mimetic protein polymer, synthesized from exon-1 of the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG15920 that has demonstrated unusual multi-stimuli responsiveness in aqueous solution...
  44. Brown S, Costello S, Kelly M, Ramalingam M, Drew E, Publicover S, et al. Complex CatSper-dependent and independent [Ca2+]i signalling in human spermatozoa induced by follicular fluid. Hum Reprod. 2017;32:1995-2006 pubmed publisher
    ..recruited in accordance with local ethics approval (13/ES/0091) from the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service REC1. Activities of CatSper and KSper were assessed by patch clamp electrophysiology...
  45. Hu Q, Tang D, Wang H, Shen Y, Chen X, Ji J, et al. The Exonuclease Homolog OsRAD1 Promotes Accurate Meiotic Double-Strand Break Repair by Suppressing Nonhomologous End Joining. Plant Physiol. 2016;172:1105-1116 pubmed
    ..Here, we characterized a RAD1 homolog in rice (Oryza sativa) and obtained evidence that O. sativa RAD1 (OsRAD1) is important for meiotic DSB repair...
  46. Hwang B, Jin J, Gao Y, Shi G, Madabushi A, Yan A, et al. SIRT6 protein deacetylase interacts with MYH DNA glycosylase, APE1 endonuclease, and Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 checkpoint clamp. BMC Mol Biol. 2015;16:12 pubmed publisher
    ..Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) checkpoint clamp promotes cell cycle checkpoint signaling and DNA repair...
  47. Park H, Floss D, Lévesque Tremblay V, Bravo A, Harrison M. Hyphal Branching during Arbuscule Development Requires Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhiza1. Plant Physiol. 2015;169:2774-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, RAM1 regulates expression of a transcription factor Required for Arbuscule Development (RAD1). RAD1 is also required for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, and rad1 mutants show reduced colonization...
  48. Hwang B, Jin J, Gunther R, Madabushi A, Shi G, Wilson G, et al. Association of the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 checkpoint clamp with MYH DNA glycosylase and DNA. DNA Repair (Amst). 2015;31:80-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The heterotrimeric Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) clamp is a DNA damage response sensor and can be loaded onto DNA...
  49. Rashev M, Surtees J, Guarné A. Large-scale production of recombinant Saw1 in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2017;133:75-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Saw1 interacts with the structure-specific nuclease Rad1-Rad10 and this results in the recruitment of this nuclease to 3' non-homologous DNA tailed recombination ..
  50. Segovia R, Shen Y, Lujan S, Jones S, Stirling P. Hypermutation signature reveals a slippage and realignment model of translesion synthesis by Rev3 polymerase in cisplatin-treated yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:2663-2668 pubmed publisher
    ..Our sequencing results indicate mutagenesis by cisplatin in rad1Δ cells appeared to depend almost entirely on interstrand cross-links at GpCpN motifs...
  51. Bai H, Madabushi A, Guan X, Lu A. Interaction between human mismatch repair recognition proteins and checkpoint sensor Rad9-Rad1-Hus1. DNA Repair (Amst). 2010;9:478-87 pubmed publisher
    In eukaryotic cells, the cell cycle checkpoint proteins Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 form the 9-1-1 complex which is structurally similar to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp...
  52. Ohashi E, Tsurimoto T. Functions of Multiple Clamp and Clamp-Loader Complexes in Eukaryotic DNA Replication. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;1042:135-162 pubmed publisher
    ..The PCNA paralogues, RAD9, HUS1, and RAD1 form the heterotrimeric 9-1-1 ring that is similar to the PCNA homotrimeric ring, and the 9-1-1 clamp complex is ..
  53. Brinkmeyer M, David S. Distinct functional consequences of MUTYH variants associated with colorectal cancer: Damaged DNA affinity, glycosylase activity and interaction with PCNA and Hus1. DNA Repair (Amst). 2015;34:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas, only Q324H, and not R295C, was found to have reduced affinity for Hus1 of the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 complex, despite both being localized to the same region implicated for interaction with Hus1...
  54. Meyer D, Fu B, Heyer W. DNA polymerases δ and λ cooperate in repairing double-strand breaks by microhomology-mediated end-joining in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E6907-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The association of Pol δ depended on RAD1, which encodes the flap endonuclease needed to cleave MMEJ intermediates before DNA synthesis...
  55. Stella S, Alcón P, Montoya G. Structure of the Cpf1 endonuclease R-loop complex after target DNA cleavage. Nature. 2017;546:559-563 pubmed publisher
    ..In this catalytic conformation, the PAM-interacting domain and the helix-loop-helix motif in the REC1 domain adopt a 'rail' shape and 'flap-on' conformations, respectively, channelling the PAM strand into the cavity...
  56. Whittaker J, Balu R, Knott R, de Campo L, Mata J, Rehm C, et al. Structural evolution of photocrosslinked silk fibroin and silk fibroin-based hybrid hydrogels: A small angle and ultra-small angle scattering investigation. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;114:998-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, the hierarchical structure of photocrosslinked RSF and RSF-based hybrid hydrogel systems: (i) RSF/Rec1-resilin and (ii) RSF/poly(N-vinylcaprolactam (PVCL) is reported for the first time using small-angle scattering (..
  57. Larkin R, Stefano G, Ruckle M, Stavoe A, Sinkler C, Brandizzi F, et al. REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE genes from Arabidopsis thaliana help to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E1116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The size of the chloroplast compartment was reduced most in rec1 mutants. The REC1 protein accumulated in the cytosol and the nucleus...
  58. Bass T, Luzwick J, Kavanaugh G, Carroll C, Dungrawala H, Glick G, et al. ETAA1 acts at stalled replication forks to maintain genome integrity. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:1185-1195 pubmed publisher
    ..ETAA1 functions in parallel to the TOPBP1/RAD9/HUS1/RAD1 pathway to regulate ATR and maintain genome stability...
  59. Burtelow M, Kaufmann S, Karnitz L. Retention of the human Rad9 checkpoint complex in extraction-resistant nuclear complexes after DNA damage. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:26343-8 pubmed
    ..extraction-resistant hRad9 interacted with its binding partners, hHus1 and an inducibly phosphorylated form of hRad1. Thus, these studies demonstrate that hRad9 is a nuclear protein that becomes more firmly anchored to nuclear ..
  60. Xiang S, Kumano T, Iwasaki S, Sun X, Yoshioka K, Yamamoto K. The J domain of Tpr2 regulates its interaction with the proapoptotic and cell-cycle checkpoint protein, Rad9. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;287:932-40 pubmed
    ..that is postulated to function in the early phase of cell-cycle checkpoint control through complex formation with Rad1 and Hus1. Rad9 is also thought to be involved in controlling apoptosis through its interaction with Bcl-2...
  61. Griffith J, Lindsey Boltz L, Sancar A. Structures of the human Rad17-replication factor C and checkpoint Rad 9-1-1 complexes visualized by glycerol spray/low voltage microscopy. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:15233-6 pubmed
    ..The checkpoint proteins hRad9, hHus1, and hRad1 have limited homology to the replication processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and hRad17 ..
  62. Hopkins K, Wang X, Berlin A, Hang H, Thaker H, Lieberman H. Expression of mammalian paralogues of HRAD9 and Mrad9 checkpoint control genes in normal and cancerous testicular tissue. Cancer Res. 2003;63:5291-8 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the encoded human protein is nuclear and can physically interact with checkpoint proteins HRAD1, HRAD9, HHUS1, and HHUS1B, much like HRAD9...
  63. Guan X, Madabushi A, Chang D, Fitzgerald M, Shi G, Drohat A, et al. The human checkpoint sensor Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 interacts with and stimulates DNA repair enzyme TDG glycosylase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:6207-18 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that hTDG interacts with hRad9, hRad1 and hHus1 as individual proteins and as a complex...
  64. Takeishi Y, Ohashi E, Ogawa K, Masai H, Obuse C, Tsurimoto T. Casein kinase 2-dependent phosphorylation of human Rad9 mediates the interaction between human Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 complex and TopBP1. Genes Cells. 2010;15:761-71 pubmed publisher
    The checkpoint clamp Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) is loaded by the Rad17-RFC complex onto chromatin after DNA damage and plays a key role in the ATR-dependent checkpoint activation...
  65. Krivokuca A, Cavic M, Malisic E, Rakobradovic J, Kolarevic Ivankovic D, Tomasevic Z, et al. Polymorphisms in cancer susceptibility genes XRCC1, RAD51 and TP53 and the risk of breast cancer in Serbian women. Int J Biol Markers. 2016;31:e258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Dominant alleles of RAD51, TP53 and XRCC1 combined genotypes indicated a strong protective role against hereditary breast cancer. ..
  66. Herzog R, Zendedel A, Lammerding L, Beyer C, Slowik A. Impact of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone on inflammatory and apoptotic microRNA expression after ischemia in a rat model. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;167:126-134 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, steroid treatment inhibited the hypoxia-induced increase of the miR-375 target genes Bcl-2 and RAD1. These findings provide new insights into the regulatory role of neuroprotection mediated by sex steroids in the ..
  67. Piazza A, Wright W, Heyer W. Multi-invasions Are Recombination Byproducts that Induce Chromosomal Rearrangements. Cell. 2017;170:760-773.e15 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, the 3'-flap nuclease Rad1-Rad10 and enzymes known to disrupt recombination intermediates (Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1, Srs2, and Mph1) inhibit MIR...
  68. Ben Younes K, Body S, Costé Ã, Viailly P, Miloudi H, Coudre C, et al. A lowered 26S proteasome activity correlates with mantle lymphoma cell lines resistance to genotoxic stress. BMC Cancer. 2017;17:538 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that among a panel of MCL cell lines, REC1 cells were resistant towards genotoxic stress. We studied the molecular basis of this resistance...
  69. Su X, Freudenreich C. Cytosine deamination and base excision repair cause R-loop-induced CAG repeat fragility and instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E8392-E8401 pubmed publisher
    ..The Rad1/XPF and Rad2/XPG nucleases were also important in protecting against contractions, but through BER rather than ..
  70. Bluyssen H, van Os R, Naus N, Jaspers I, Hoeijmakers J, de Klein A. A human and mouse homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1+ cell cycle checkpoint control gene. Genomics. 1998;54:331-7 pubmed
    ..We isolated and characterized the putative human RAD1 (hRAD1) and mouse RAD1 (mRAD1) homologs of the S. pombe Rad1 (Rad1) protein...
  71. Bao S, Tibbetts R, Brumbaugh K, Fang Y, Richardson D, Ali A, et al. ATR/ATM-mediated phosphorylation of human Rad17 is required for genotoxic stress responses. Nature. 2001;411:969-74 pubmed
    ..In contrast to wild-type hRad17, the hRad17AA mutant showed no ionizing-radiation-inducible association with hRad1, a component of the hRad1-hRad9-hHus1 checkpoint complex...
  72. Dufault V, Oestreich A, Vroman B, Karnitz L. Identification and characterization of RAD9B, a paralog of the RAD9 checkpoint gene. Genomics. 2003;82:644-51 pubmed
    RAD9 is an integral element of the PCNA-like HUS1-RAD1-RAD9 (9-1-1) complex that participates in genotoxin-induced CHK1 activation. We have identified a novel RAD9 paralog, dubbed RAD9B, in humans and mice...
  73. Hirai I, Sasaki T, Wang H. Human hRad1 but not hRad9 protects hHus1 from ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. Oncogene. 2004;23:5124-30 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the human hRad1 protein plays a significant role as molecular chaperone in the process of the hRad9-hRad1-hHus1 heterotrimeric ..
  74. Cotta Ramusino C, McDonald E, Hurov K, Sowa M, Harper J, Elledge S. A DNA damage response screen identifies RHINO, a 9-1-1 and TopBP1 interacting protein required for ATR signaling. Science. 2011;332:1313-7 pubmed publisher
    ..RHINO independently bound the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex (9-1-1) and the ATR activator TopBP1...
  75. Leung J, Ghosal G, Wang W, Shen X, Wang J, Li L, et al. Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked gene product ATRX is required for proper replication restart and cellular resistance to replication stress. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:6342-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we identified ATRX as a binding partner of MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex. Together, these results suggest a non-canonical function of ATRX in guarding genomic stability. ..
  76. Rey T, Bonhomme M, Chatterjee A, Gavrin A, Toulotte J, Yang W, et al. The Medicago truncatula GRAS protein RAD1 supports arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis and Phytophthora palmivora susceptibility. J Exp Bot. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..SNP) markers most significantly associated with plant colonization response were identified upstream of RAD1, which encodes a GRAS transcription regulator first negatively implicated in root nodule symbiosis and recently ..
  77. Parker A, Van de Weyer I, Laus M, Oostveen I, Yon J, Verhasselt P, et al. A human homologue of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1+ checkpoint gene encodes an exonuclease. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:18332-9 pubmed
    ..We have identified a human homologue of the S. pombe rad1(+) gene, designated Hrad1, as well as a mouse homologue: Mrad1...
  78. Sohn S, Cho Y. Crystal structure of the human rad9-hus1-rad1 clamp. J Mol Biol. 2009;390:490-502 pubmed publisher
    Three evolutionarily conserved proteins, Rad9, Hus1, and Rad1, form a heterotrimeric 9-1-1 complex that plays critical roles in cellular responses to DNA damage by activating checkpoints and by recruiting DNA repair enzymes to DNA lesions...
  79. Warmerdam D, Kanaar R, Smits V. Differential Dynamics of ATR-Mediated Checkpoint Regulators. J Nucleic Acids. 2010;2010: pubmed publisher
    ..temporal behaviour of the proteins involved, and we, therefore, examined the behaviour of the ATRIP-ATR and Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 putative DNA damage sensor complexes and the downstream effector kinase Chk1...
  80. Saugar I, Jiménez Martín A, Tercero J. Subnuclear Relocalization of Structure-Specific Endonucleases in Response to DNA Damage. Cell Rep. 2017;20:1553-1562 pubmed publisher
    ..Mus81-Mms4/EME1 relocalizes to subnuclear foci following DNA damage and colocalizes with the endonucleases Rad1-Rad10 (XPF-ERCC1) and Slx1-Slx4...
  81. Bardwell A, Bardwell L, Johnson D, Friedberg E. Yeast DNA recombination and repair proteins Rad1 and Rad10 constitute a complex in vivo mediated by localized hydrophobic domains. Mol Microbiol. 1993;8:1177-88 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad1 and Rad10 proteins are required for damage-specific incision during nucleotide excision repair and also for certain mitotic recombination events between repeated sequences...
  82. Udell C, Lee S, Davey S. HRAD1 and MRAD1 encode mammalian homologues of the fission yeast rad1(+) cell cycle checkpoint control gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:3971-6 pubmed
    ..The human gene, called HRAD1 , encodes a 282 amino acid protein that is 27% identical and 53% similar to yeast Rad1p...
  83. Freire R, Murguia J, Tarsounas M, Lowndes N, Moens P, Jackson S. Human and mouse homologs of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1(+) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD17: linkage to checkpoint control and mammalian meiosis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2560-73 pubmed
    ..The human gene HRAD1 is located on chromosome 5p13 and is most homologous to S. pombe rad1(+)...
  84. Dean F, Lian L, O Donnell M. cDNA cloning and gene mapping of human homologs for Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad17, rad1, and hus1 and cloning of homologs from mouse, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster. Genomics. 1998;54:424-36 pubmed
    ..The Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes rad17, rad1, and hus1 have been identified as playing roles in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control pathways...
  85. Hang H, Lieberman H. Physical interactions among human checkpoint control proteins HUS1p, RAD1p, and RAD9p, and implications for the regulation of cell cycle progression. Genomics. 2000;65:24-33 pubmed
    ..that HUS1 is expressed in different tissues, but the mRNA is most predominant in testis where high levels of RAD1 and RAD9 message have been detected...
  86. Huang J, Yuan H, Lu C, Liu X, Cao X, Wan M. Jab1 mediates protein degradation of the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex. J Mol Biol. 2007;371:514-27 pubmed
    The Rad1-Rad9-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex serves a dual role as a DNA-damage sensor in checkpoint signaling and as a mediator in the DNA repair pathway. However, the intercellular mechanisms that regulate the 9-1-1 complex are poorly understood...
  87. Pabla N, Huang S, Mi Q, Daniel R, Dong Z. ATR-Chk2 signaling in p53 activation and DNA damage response during cisplatin-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:6572-83 pubmed
    ..Together, the results suggest an important role for the DNA damage response mediated by ATR-Chk2 in p53 activation and renal cell apoptosis during cisplatin nephrotoxicity. ..
  88. Xu M, Bai L, Gong Y, Xie W, Hang H, Jiang T. Structure and functional implications of the human rad9-hus1-rad1 cell cycle checkpoint complex. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20457-61 pubmed publisher
    ..together with biochemical assays, reveals that the interdomain connecting loops (IDC loop) of hRad9, hHus1, and hRad1 are largely divergent, and further cocrystallization study indicates that a PCNA-interacting box (PIP box)-..
  89. Fernández Díez C, González Rojo S, Lombó M, Herraez M. Impact of sperm DNA damage and oocyte-repairing capacity on trout development. Reproduction. 2016;152:57-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression showed in out-of-season oocytes the overexpression of repair genes (ogg1, ung, lig3, rad1) and downregulation of tp53, indicating an enhanced repairing activity and reduced capacity to arrest development ..
  90. Higashide M, Shinohara M. Budding Yeast SLX4 Contributes to the Appropriate Distribution of Crossovers and Meiotic Double-Strand Break Formation on Bivalents During Meiosis. G3 (Bethesda). 2016;6:2033-42 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae, Slx4 is a multi-functional scaffold protein for structure-selective endonucleases, such as Slx1 and Rad1 (which are involved in DNA damage repair), and is also a negative regulator of the Rad9-dependent signaling pathway ..
  91. Cai R, Yan Neale Y, Cueto M, Xu H, Cohen D. HDAC1, a histone deacetylase, forms a complex with Hus1 and Rad9, two G2/M checkpoint Rad proteins. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:27909-16 pubmed
    ..In addition, bioinformatics analysis of the protein sequences of Hus1, Rad1, and Rad9, three checkpoint Rad proteins that form a complex, revealed that they all contain a putative ..
  92. Rauen M, Burtelow M, Dufault V, Karnitz L. The human checkpoint protein hRad17 interacts with the PCNA-like proteins hRad1, hHus1, and hRad9. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:29767-71 pubmed
    ..report, we demonstrate that endogenous human Rad17 (hRad17) interacts with the PCNA-related checkpoint proteins hRad1, hRad9, and hHus1...