Rac1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Rac1
Description: Rac family small GTPase 1
Alias: MIG5, MRD48, Rac-1, TC-25, p21-Rac1, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, cell migration-inducing gene 5 protein, ras-like protein TC25, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1)
Species: human
Products:     Rac1

Top Publications

  1. Li X, Law J, Lee A. Semaphorin 5A and plexin-B3 regulate human glioma cell motility and morphology through Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton. Oncogene. 2012;31:595-610 pubmed publisher
    ..The concomitant inactivation of Rac1 is of mechanistic importance because forced expression of constitutively active Rac1 abolishes these inhibitory ..
  2. Costa C, Germena G, Hirsch E. Dissection of the interplay between class I PI3Ks and Rac signaling in phagocytic functions. ScientificWorldJournal. 2010;10:1826-39 pubmed publisher
  3. Xiao Y, Peng Y, Wan J, Tang G, Chen Y, Tang J, et al. The atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor Dock4 regulates neurite differentiation through modulation of Rac1 GTPase and actin dynamics. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:20034-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Dedicator of cytokinesis 4 (Dock4), an atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, is found to be associated with neuropsychiatric diseases, including autism and schizophrenia...
  4. Neukomm L, Frei A, Cabello J, Kinchen J, Zaidel Bar R, Ma Z, et al. Loss of the RhoGAP SRGP-1 promotes the clearance of dead and injured cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that SRGP-1 functions in engulfing cells and functions as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for CED-10 (Rac1)...
  5. Cajanek L, Ganji R, Henriques Oliveira C, Theofilopoulos S, Konik P, Bryja V, et al. Tiam1 regulates the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 signaling pathway and the differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:59-70 pubmed publisher
    ..we present the molecular and functional characterization of a signaling pathway downstream of Wnt5a, the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 pathway...
  6. Navarro Lérida I, Sánchez Perales S, Calvo M, Rentero C, Zheng Y, Enrich C, et al. A palmitoylation switch mechanism regulates Rac1 function and membrane organization. EMBO J. 2012;31:534-51 pubmed publisher
    The small GTPase Rac1 plays important roles in many processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, cell-cycle progression and gene expression...
  7. Goc A, Abdalla M, Al Azayzih A, Somanath P. Rac1 activation driven by 14-3-3? dimerization promotes prostate cancer cell-matrix interactions, motility and transendothelial migration. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40594 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression with wild-type 14-3-3? or constitutively active Rac1 enhanced extracellular matrix recognition, lamellipodia formation, cell migration and trans-endothelial migration ..
  8. Oberoi T, Dogan T, Hocking J, Scholz R, Mooz J, Anderson C, et al. IAPs regulate the plasticity of cell migration by directly targeting Rac1 for degradation. EMBO J. 2012;31:14-28 pubmed publisher
    Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are a highly conserved class of multifunctional proteins. Rac1 is a well-studied Rho GTPase that controls numerous basic cellular processes...
  9. Sandrock K, Bielek H, Schradi K, Schmidt G, Klugbauer N. The nuclear import of the small GTPase Rac1 is mediated by the direct interaction with karyopherin alpha2. Traffic. 2010;11:198-209 pubmed publisher
    The small GTPase Rac1 is involved in multiple cytosolic functions but recent data point out that Rac1 also translocates to the nucleus to regulate signalling pathways that control gene expression and progression through the cell cycle...

More Information

Publications76

  1. Castillo Lluva S, Tatham M, Jones R, Jaffray E, Edmondson R, Hay R, et al. SUMOylation of the GTPase Rac1 is required for optimal cell migration. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:1078-85 pubmed publisher
    The Rho-like GTPase, Rac1, induces cytoskeletal rearrangements required for cell migration...
  2. Castro Castro A, Ojeda V, Barreira M, Sauzeau V, Navarro Lérida I, Muriel O, et al. Coronin 1A promotes a cytoskeletal-based feedback loop that facilitates Rac1 translocation and activation. EMBO J. 2011;30:3913-27 pubmed publisher
    The activation of the Rac1 GTPase during cell signalling entails its translocation from the cytosol to membranes, release from sequestering Rho GDP dissociation inhibitors (RhoGDI), and GDP/GTP exchange...
  3. van Rijssel J, Hoogenboezem M, Wester L, Hordijk P, van Buul J. The N-terminal DH-PH domain of Trio induces cell spreading and migration by regulating lamellipodia dynamics in a Rac1-dependent fashion. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29912 pubmed publisher
    The guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Trio encodes two DH-PH domains that catalyze nucleotide exchange on Rac1, RhoG and RhoA...
  4. Dawson J, Bruche S, Spence H, Braga V, Machesky L. Mtss1 promotes cell-cell junction assembly and stability through the small GTPase Rac1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31141 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus propose that Mtss1 promotes Rac1 activation and actin recruitment driving junction maintenance...
  5. Krauthammer M, Kong Y, Ha B, Evans P, Bacchiocchi A, McCusker J, et al. Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1006-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas...
  6. Yang Q, Luo G, Li Y, Shan H, Wang H, Xu G. Expression of Rac-1 related to tumor depth, lymph node metastasis and patient prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Med Oncol. 2013;30:689 pubmed publisher
    ..The results in this study indicate, for the first time, that Rac-1 is involved in the invasion and metastatic progression of ESCC and may be a potential marker for evaluating the prognosis of ESCC patients and a therapy target for ESCC. ..
  7. Osborn Heaford H, Ryan A, Murthy S, Racila A, He C, Sieren J, et al. Mitochondrial Rac1 GTPase import and electron transfer from cytochrome c are required for pulmonary fibrosis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:3301-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rac1, a small GTPase, is known to increase mitochondrial H(2)O(2) generation in macrophages; however, the mechanism by ..
  8. Torrino S, Visvikis O, Doye A, Boyer L, Stefani C, Munro P, et al. The E3 ubiquitin-ligase HACE1 catalyzes the ubiquitylation of active Rac1. Dev Cell. 2011;21:959-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Rac1 small GTPase controls essential aspects of cell biology and is a direct target of numerous bacterial virulence factors. The CNF1 toxin of pathogenic Escherichia coli addresses Rac1 to ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)...
  9. Schoentaube J, Olling A, Tatge H, Just I, Gerhard R. Serine-71 phosphorylation of Rac1/Cdc42 diminishes the pathogenic effect of Clostridium difficile toxin A. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:1816-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that EGF-treated CaCo-2 monolayers were less susceptible to TcdA-catalysed glucosylation of Rac1 but not of RhoA, which correlated with phosphorylation of Rac1 at Ser-71...
  10. Yoshida T, Zhang Y, Rivera Rosado L, Chen J, Khan T, Moon S, et al. Blockade of Rac1 activity induces G1 cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in breast cancer cells through downregulation of cyclin D1, survivin, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:1657-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Rac1 GTPase regulates a variety of signaling pathways that are implicated in malignant phenotypes...
  11. Paulino V, Yang Z, Kloss J, Ennis M, Armstrong B, Loftus J, et al. TROY (TNFRSF19) is overexpressed in advanced glial tumors and promotes glioblastoma cell invasion via Pyk2-Rac1 signaling. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:1558-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that TROY overexpression in glioma cells activates Rac1 signaling in a Pyk2-dependent manner to drive glioma cell invasion and migration...
  12. Raynaud F, Moutin E, Schmidt S, Dahl J, Bertaso F, Boeckers T, et al. Rho-GTPase-activating protein interacting with Cdc-42-interacting protein 4 homolog 2 (Rich2): a new Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) GTPase-activating protein that controls dendritic spine morphogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:2600-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Rich2 specifically stimulated the Rac1 GTPase in these neurons...
  13. Castillo Lluva S, Tan C, Daugaard M, Sorensen P, Malliri A. The tumour suppressor HACE1 controls cell migration by regulating Rac1 degradation. Oncogene. 2013;32:1735-42 pubmed publisher
    The small GTPase Rac1 is a key regulator of cell motility. Multiple mechanisms regulate Rac1 activity including its ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation...
  14. Frasa M, Maximiano F, Smolarczyk K, Francis R, Betson M, Lozano E, et al. Armus is a Rac1 effector that inactivates Rab7 and regulates E-cadherin degradation. Curr Biol. 2010;20:198-208 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that a TBC/RabGAP protein, Armus, integrates signaling between Arf6, Rac1, and Rab7 during junction disassembly...
  15. Kobayashi T, Inoue T, Shimizu Y, Terada N, Maeno A, Kajita Y, et al. Activation of Rac1 is closely related to androgen-independent cell proliferation of prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:722-34 pubmed publisher
    ..androgen-induced activation of cSrc regulates the activity of aPKC through the small molecular weight G protein Rac1 in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells...
  16. Wang H, Linghu H, Wang J, Che Y, Xiang T, Tang W, et al. The role of Crk/Dock180/Rac1 pathway in the malignant behavior of human ovarian cancer cell SKOV3. Tumour Biol. 2010;31:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..the main target of signal adaptor protein Crk and acted as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for small GTPase Rac1. In the present study, Dock180 was found to combine primarily with CrkI other than CrkII, and its association with ..
  17. Guo S, Bao S. srGAP2 arginine methylation regulates cell migration and cell spreading through promoting dimerization. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35133-41 pubmed publisher
    ..GTPase-activating proteins (srGAPs) are critical for neuronal migration through inactivation of Rho GTPases Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA. Here we report that srGAP2 physically interacts with protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5)...
  18. Wang Z, Jia M, Cao H, Bian P, Fang X. Knockdown of Coronin-1C disrupts Rac1 activation and impairs tumorigenic potential in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:1066-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we demonstrated a relationship between Coronin-1C overexpression and human HCC growth through enhancement of tumor cell proliferation and migration, which are correlated with Rac-1 activation. ..
  19. Sylow L, Jensen T, Kleinert M, Mouatt J, Maarbjerg S, Jeppesen J, et al. Rac1 is a novel regulator of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Diabetes. 2013;62:1139-51 pubmed publisher
    In skeletal muscle, the actin cytoskeleton-regulating GTPase, Rac1, is necessary for insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation. Muscle contraction increases glucose transport and represents an alternative signaling pathway to insulin...
  20. Allen R, Bogle I, Ridley A. A model of localised Rac1 activation in endothelial cells due to fluid flow. J Theor Biol. 2011;280:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the rate-limiting step of Rac1 activation is predicted to be conversion of Rac-GDP to Rac-GTP, rather than activation of upstream components...
  21. Wu L, Cai C, Wang X, Liu M, Li X, Tang H. MicroRNA-142-3p, a new regulator of RAC1, suppresses the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:1322-30 pubmed publisher
    b>RAC1 regulates a diverse array of cellular events including migration and invasion. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have a key role in the regulation of gene expression...
  22. de Kreuk B, Nethe M, Fernandez Borja M, Anthony E, Hensbergen P, Deelder A, et al. The F-BAR domain protein PACSIN2 associates with Rac1 and regulates cell spreading and migration. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2375-88 pubmed publisher
    The Rac1 GTPase controls cytoskeletal dynamics and is a key regulator of cell spreading and migration mediated by signaling through effector proteins, such as the PAK kinases and the Scar and WAVE proteins...
  23. Kovac B, Teo J, Makela T, Vallenius T. Assembly of non-contractile dorsal stress fibers requires ?-actinin-1 and Rac1 in migrating and spreading cells. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:263-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the non-contractility of dorsal stress fibers is supported by the finding that Rac1 induces dorsal stress fiber assembly whereas contractile ventral stress fibers are induced by RhoA...
  24. Rom S, Fan S, Reichenbach N, Dykstra H, Ramirez S, Persidsky Y. Glycogen synthase kinase 3? inhibition prevents monocyte migration across brain endothelial cells via Rac1-GTPase suppression and down-regulation of active integrin conformation. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:1414-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Because small GTPases, such as Rac1, control leukocyte movement, we measured active Rac1 after monocyte activation with relevant stimuli...
  25. Griner E, Caino M, Sosa M, Colon Gonzalez F, Chalmers M, Mischak H, et al. A novel cross-talk in diacylglycerol signaling: the Rac-GAP beta2-chimaerin is negatively regulated by protein kinase Cdelta-mediated phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16931-41 pubmed publisher
  26. Nishimura Y, Applegate K, Davidson M, Danuser G, Waterman C. Automated screening of microtubule growth dynamics identifies MARK2 as a regulator of leading edge microtubules downstream of Rac1 in migrating cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41413 pubmed publisher
    Polarized microtubule (MT) growth in the leading edge is critical to directed cell migration, and is mediated by Rac1 GTPase...
  27. Humphries J, Byron A, Bass M, Craig S, Pinney J, Knight D, et al. Proteomic analysis of integrin-associated complexes identifies RCC2 as a dual regulator of Rac1 and Arf6. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra51 pubmed publisher
    ..RCC2) was detected in the alpha(5)beta(1)-fibronectin signaling network at an intersection between the Rac1 and adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) subnetworks...
  28. Lebensohn A, Kirschner M. Activation of the WAVE complex by coincident signals controls actin assembly. Mol Cell. 2009;36:512-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results explain how the WAVE complex can integrate coincident signals to promote localized actin nucleation during cell motility. ..
  29. Nethe M, de Kreuk B, Tauriello D, Anthony E, Snoek B, Stumpel T, et al. Rac1 acts in conjunction with Nedd4 and dishevelled-1 to promote maturation of cell-cell contacts. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3430-42 pubmed publisher
    The Rho-GTPase Rac1 promotes actin polymerization and membrane protrusion that mediate initial contact and subsequent maturation of cell-cell junctions...
  30. Nethe M, Anthony E, Fernandez Borja M, Dee R, Geerts D, Hensbergen P, et al. Focal-adhesion targeting links caveolin-1 to a Rac1-degradation pathway. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1948-58 pubmed publisher
    ..through signalling by Rho-like GTPases, such as RhoA, which stimulates myosin-based contractility, and CDC42 and Rac1, which promote actin polymerization and protrusion...
  31. Cheadle L, Biederer T. The novel synaptogenic protein Farp1 links postsynaptic cytoskeletal dynamics and transsynaptic organization. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:985-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, Farp1 activates the GTPase Rac1 in spines downstream of SynCAM 1 clustering, and promotes F-actin assembly...
  32. Quast T, Eppler F, Semmling V, Schild C, Homsi Y, Levy S, et al. CD81 is essential for the formation of membrane protrusions and regulates Rac1-activation in adhesion-dependent immune cell migration. Blood. 2011;118:1818-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we observed a selective loss of Rac1 activity in the absence of CD81, the latter of which is exclusively required for integrin-dependent migration on 2-..
  33. Wang S, Watanabe T, Matsuzawa K, Katsumi A, Kakeno M, Matsui T, et al. Tiam1 interaction with the PAR complex promotes talin-mediated Rac1 activation during polarized cell migration. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:331-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The interactions of talin with Tiam1 and the PAR complex were required for adhesion-induced Rac1 activation, cell spreading, and migration toward integrin substrates...
  34. Carter G, Bernstone L, Baskaran D, James W. HIV-1 infects macrophages by exploiting an endocytic route dependent on dynamin, Rac1 and Pak1. Virology. 2011;409:234-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the limitations of a purely pharmacological study such as this, the final elucidation of this pathway awaits the development of reliable forward genetic approaches in authentic macrophages. ..
  35. Ando K, Ishibashi T, Ohkawara H, Inoue N, Sugimoto K, Uekita H, et al. Crucial role of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1- MMP) in RhoA/Rac1-dependent signaling pathways in thrombin- stimulated endothelial cells. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2011;18:762-73 pubmed
    ..TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein expression, which is modulated by small GTPases RhoA and Rac1, Ca(2+) signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  36. Hua K, Tan C, Johansson G, Lee J, Yang P, Lu H, et al. N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein suppresses cancer cell metastasis by binding PIX proteins and inhibiting Cdc42/Rac1 activity. Cancer Cell. 2011;19:218-31 pubmed publisher
    ..of PIX, thereby preventing the formation of the GIT-PIX-Paxillin complex, resulting in reduced intrinsic Cdc42/Rac1 activity and decreased cell migration...
  37. Xie X, Chang S, Tatsumoto T, Chan A, Miki T. TIM, a Dbl-related protein, regulates cell shape and cytoskeletal organization in a Rho-dependent manner. Cell Signal. 2005;17:461-71 pubmed
    ..These results, taken together, suggest that TIM acts as an upstream regulator for the RhoA/ROCK-mediated cellular functions. ..
  38. Quaranta M, Mattioli B, Spadaro F, Straface E, Giordani L, Ramoni C, et al. HIV-1 Nef triggers Vav-mediated signaling pathway leading to functional and morphological differentiation of dendritic cells. FASEB J. 2003;17:2025-36 pubmed
    ..This has a direct effect on Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity for the small GTPase Rac1. We hypothesize that targeting Vav, Nef modulates both early signaling events (such as cytoskeletal rearrangement) ..
  39. Akbar H, Kim J, Funk K, Cancelas J, Shang X, Chen L, et al. Genetic and pharmacologic evidence that Rac1 GTPase is involved in regulation of platelet secretion and aggregation. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:1747-55 pubmed
    b>Rac1 GTPase, a member of the Ras-related Rho GTPase family, is the major Rac isoform present in platelets and has been shown to be involved in cell actin cytoskeleton reorganization and adhesion...
  40. Gómez del Pulgar T, Bandres E, Espina C, Valdes Mora F, Pérez Palacios R, Garcia Amigot F, et al. Differential expression of Rac1 identifies its target genes and its contribution to progression of colorectal cancer. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:2289-302 pubmed
    The small GTPase Rac1 is involved in the regulation of critical cellular functions, such as transcription control, cell cycle, and organization of actin cytoskeleton...
  41. Karnoub A, Worthylake D, Rossman K, Pruitt W, Campbell S, Sondek J, et al. Molecular basis for Rac1 recognition by guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:1037-41 pubmed
    ..Here, we utilized the crystal structure of the DH/PH domains of the Rac-specific GEF Tiam1 in complex with Rac1 to determine the structural elements of Rac1 that regulate the specificity of this interaction...
  42. Komander D, Patel M, Laurin M, Fradet N, Pelletier A, Barford D, et al. An alpha-helical extension of the ELMO1 pleckstrin homology domain mediates direct interaction to DOCK180 and is critical in Rac signaling. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4837-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, although this does not affect DOCK180 GEF activity toward Rac in vivo, Rac signaling is impaired, implying additional roles for ELMO in mediating intracellular Rac signaling. ..
  43. Hu B, Shi B, Jarzynka M, Yiin J, D SOUZA SCHOREY C, Cheng S. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 regulates glioma cell invasion through the IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1-Rac1-mediated pathway. Cancer Res. 2009;69:794-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Cellular depletion of ARF6 by small interfering RNA decreased Rac1 activation, impaired HGF-stimulated and serum-stimulated glioma cell migration in vitro, and markedly decreased the ..
  44. Azim A, Barkalow K, Chou J, Hartwig J. Activation of the small GTPases, rac and cdc42, after ligation of the platelet PAR-1 receptor. Blood. 2000;95:959-64 pubmed
    ..The differences in subcellular distribution and previous evidence showing quantitatively divergent effects of rac and cdc42 on actin nucleation in permeabilized platelets indicate different signaling roles for these GTPases. ..
  45. Han Q, Leng J, Bian D, Mahanivong C, Carpenter K, Pan Z, et al. Rac1-MKK3-p38-MAPKAPK2 pathway promotes urokinase plasminogen activator mRNA stability in invasive breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:48379-85 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we found that alphav integrin ligation activated small GTPase Rac1 preferentially, and dominant negative Rac1 inhibited alphav integrin-mediated p38 MAPK activation...
  46. Miki H, Suetsugu S, Takenawa T. WAVE, a novel WASP-family protein involved in actin reorganization induced by Rac. EMBO J. 1998;17:6932-41 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we conclude that WAVE plays a critical role downstream of Rac in regulating the actin cytoskeleton required for membrane ruffling. ..
  47. Billuart P, Bienvenu T, Ronce N, Des Portes V, Vinet M, Zemni R, et al. Oligophrenin-1 encodes a rhoGAP protein involved in X-linked mental retardation. Nature. 1998;392:923-6 pubmed
    ..Such activation is known to affect cell migration and outgrowth of axons and dendrites in vivo. Our results demonstrate an association between cognitive impairment and a defect in a signalling pathway that depends on a Ras-like GTPase. ..
  48. Nagata K, Puls A, Futter C, Aspenstrom P, Schaefer E, Nakata T, et al. The MAP kinase kinase kinase MLK2 co-localizes with activated JNK along microtubules and associates with kinesin superfamily motor KIF3. EMBO J. 1998;17:149-58 pubmed
  49. Han G, Fan B, Zhang Y, Zhou X, Wang Y, Dong H, et al. Positive regulation of migration and invasion by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein via Rac1 pathway in human breast cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2008;20:929-39 pubmed
    ..phosphoprotein (VASP) on the migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells and its relationship to Rac1 which is a member of the Rho family and has been found to be implicated in tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis...
  50. Tan T, Fang N, Neo T, Singh P, Zhang J, Zhou R, et al. Rac1 GTPase is activated by hepatitis B virus replication--involvement of HBX. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:360-74 pubmed
    ..membrane rufflings and lamellipodia like structures reminiscent of cells expressing constitutively activated Rac1. We also showed that activated Rac1 resulted in increased viral replication...
  51. Miki H, Yamaguchi H, Suetsugu S, Takenawa T. IRSp53 is an essential intermediate between Rac and WAVE in the regulation of membrane ruffling. Nature. 2000;408:732-5 pubmed
    ..From studies of ectopic expression, we found that IRSp53 is essential for Rac to induce membrane ruffling, probably because it recruits WAVE, which stimulates actin polymerization mediated by the Arp2/3 complex. ..
  52. Justilien V, Fields A. Ect2 links the PKCiota-Par6alpha complex to Rac1 activation and cellular transformation. Oncogene. 2009;28:3597-607 pubmed publisher
    Protein kinase Ciota (PKCiota) promotes non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by binding to Par6alpha and activating a Rac1-Pak-Mek1,2-Erk1,2 signaling cascade. The mechanism by which the PKCiota-Par6alpha complex regulates Rac1 is unknown...
  53. Didsbury J, Weber R, Bokoch G, Evans T, Snyderman R. rac, a novel ras-related family of proteins that are botulinum toxin substrates. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:16378-82 pubmed
    A new family of ras-related proteins, designated rac (ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate) has been identified. rac1 and rac2 cDNA clones were isolated from a differentiated HL-60 library and encode proteins that are 92% homologous ..
  54. Fackler O, Luo W, Geyer M, Alberts A, Peterlin B. Activation of Vav by Nef induces cytoskeletal rearrangements and downstream effector functions. Mol Cell. 1999;3:729-39 pubmed
    ..Nef associates with and activates a serine/threonine kinase (Nef-associated kinase [NAK]) via the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42...
  55. Sugimoto K, Ishibashi T, Sawamura T, Inoue N, Kamioka M, Uekita H, et al. LOX-1-MT1-MMP axis is crucial for RhoA and Rac1 activation induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein in endothelial cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:127-36 pubmed publisher
    RhoA and Rac1 activation plays a key role in endothelial dysfunction. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a major receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in endothelial cells (ECs)...
  56. Kawasaki Y, Senda T, Ishidate T, Koyama R, Morishita T, Iwayama Y, et al. Asef, a link between the tumor suppressor APC and G-protein signaling. Science. 2000;289:1194-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the APC-Asef complex may regulate the actin cytoskeletal network, cell morphology and migration, and neuronal function. ..
  57. Qian Y, Zhong X, Flynn D, Zheng J, Qiao M, Wu C, et al. ILK mediates actin filament rearrangements and cell migration and invasion through PI3K/Akt/Rac1 signaling. Oncogene. 2005;24:3154-65 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of ILK was sufficient to induce Rac1 activation, which was abolish by a PI3K inhibitor, indicating that Rac1 activity is involved in ILK signaling in a ..
  58. Miki H, Takenawa T. WAVE2 serves a functional partner of IRSp53 by regulating its interaction with Rac. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;293:93-9 pubmed
    ..We also report that IRSp53 induces spreading and neurite formation of N1E-115 cells, which presumably reflect functional cooperation with Rac. ..
  59. Wang S, Shin I, Wu F, Friedman D, Arteaga C. HER2/Neu (ErbB2) signaling to Rac1-Pak1 is temporally and spatially modulated by transforming growth factor beta. Cancer Res. 2006;66:9591-600 pubmed
    ..phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), recruits actin and actinin to HER2, which then colocalizes with Vav2, activated Rac1, and Pak1 at cell protrusions...
  60. Haller C, Rauch S, Michel N, Hannemann S, Lehmann M, Keppler O, et al. The HIV-1 pathogenicity factor Nef interferes with maturation of stimulatory T-lymphocyte contacts by modulation of N-Wasp activity. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19618-30 pubmed
    ..role of N-Wasp in this process, Nef also blocked morphological changes induced by the known N-Wasp regulators Rac1 and Cdc42...
  61. Xue Y, Bi F, Zhang X, Pan Y, Liu N, Zheng Y, et al. Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation by targeting Rac1 GTPase with small interference RNA in tumor cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;320:1309-1315 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Racl may be involved in angiogenesis by controlling the expression of angiogenesis-related factors and provide a possible strategy for the treatment of tumor angiogenesis by targeting the Racl GTPase. ..
  62. Govind S, Kozma R, Monfries C, Lim L, Ahmed S. Cdc42Hs facilitates cytoskeletal reorganization and neurite outgrowth by localizing the 58-kD insulin receptor substrate to filamentous actin. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:579-94 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Cdc42Hs facilitates cytoskeletal reorganization and neurite outgrowth by localizing protein complexes via adaptor proteins such as IRS-58 to F-actin. ..
  63. Yan J, Yang Y, Zhang H, King C, Kan H, Cai Y, et al. Menin interacts with IQGAP1 to enhance intercellular adhesion of beta-cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:973-82 pubmed publisher
    ..menin interacts with the scaffold protein, IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), reduces GTP-Rac1 interaction with IQGAP1 but increases epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin)/beta-catenin interaction with IQGAP1...
  64. Singleton P, Dudek S, Chiang E, Garcia J. Regulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate-induced endothelial cytoskeletal rearrangement and barrier enhancement by S1P1 receptor, PI3 kinase, Tiam1/Rac1, and alpha-actinin. FASEB J. 2005;19:1646-56 pubmed
    ..microM, 5 min) to CEMs of the S1P receptors S1P1 and S1P3, p110 PI3 kinase alpha and beta catalytic subunits, the Rac1 GEF, Tiam1, and alpha-actinin isoforms 1 and 4...
  65. Ren Y, Li R, Zheng Y, Busch H. Cloning and characterization of GEF-H1, a microtubule-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac and Rho GTPases. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34954-60 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GEF-H1 may have a direct role in activation of Rac and/or Rho and in bringing the activated GTPase to specific target sites such as microtubules. ..
  66. Barros P, Jordan P, Matos P. Rac1 signaling modulates BCL-6-mediated repression of gene transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4156-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Rac1 is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases that not only regulates signaling pathways involved in cell adhesion and migration but also regulates gene transcription...
  67. Sánchez Martín L, Sanchez Sanchez N, Gutierrez Lopez M, Rojo A, Vicente Manzanares M, Pérez Alvarez M, et al. Signaling through the leukocyte integrin LFA-1 in T cells induces a transient activation of Rac-1 that is regulated by Vav and PI3K/Akt-1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:16194-205 pubmed