PTX3

Summary

Gene Symbol: PTX3
Description: pentraxin 3
Alias: TNFAIP5, TSG-14, pentraxin-related protein PTX3, TNF alpha-induced protein 5, long pentraxin 3, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 5, tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 14 protein, tumor necrosis factor-inducible protein TSG-14
Species: human
Products:     PTX3

Top Publications

  1. Lee G, Lee T, Vilcek J. TSG-14, a tumor necrosis factor- and IL-1-inducible protein, is a novel member of the pentaxin family of acute phase proteins. J Immunol. 1993;150:1804-12 pubmed
    ..Our data strongly suggest that TSG-14 is a novel member of the pentaxin family of acute phase proteins. ..
  2. He X, Han B, Liu M. Long pentraxin 3 in pulmonary infection and acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;292:L1039-49 pubmed
    b>Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a newly discovered acute phase protein produced at the sites of infection and inflammation by tissue cells, macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells...
  3. Ma Y, Doni A, Hummelshøj T, Honore C, Bastone A, Mantovani A, et al. Synergy between ficolin-2 and pentraxin 3 boosts innate immune recognition and complement deposition. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28263-75 pubmed publisher
    The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a multifunctional soluble pattern recognition molecule that is crucial in innate immune protection against opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus...
  4. Deban L, Jaillon S, Garlanda C, Bottazzi B, Mantovani A. Pentraxins in innate immunity: lessons from PTX3. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;343:237-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The long pentraxin PTX3 is produced by innate immunity cells (e.g...
  5. Yilmaz M, Carrero J, Martin Ventura J, Sonmez A, Saglam M, Celik T, et al. Combined therapy with renin-angiotensin system and calcium channel blockers in type 2 diabetic hypertensive patients with proteinuria: effects on soluble TWEAK, PTX3, and flow-mediated dilation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:1174-81 pubmed publisher
    Soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) and long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) concentrations have been associated with endothelial function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
  6. Klouche M, Peri G, Knabbe C, Eckstein H, Schmid F, Schmitz G, et al. Modified atherogenic lipoproteins induce expression of pentraxin-3 by human vascular smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis. 2004;175:221-8 pubmed
    ..Recently, the acute-phase protein pentraxin-3 (PTX3), which has C-terminal sequence homology with the classic pentraxin C-reactive protein (CRP), was described to be ..
  7. Napoleone E, Di Santo A, Bastone A, Peri G, Mantovani A, de Gaetano G, et al. Long pentraxin PTX3 upregulates tissue factor expression in human endothelial cells: a novel link between vascular inflammation and clotting activation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:782-7 pubmed
    Inflammation is a major contributing factor to atherosclerotic plaque development and ischemic heart disease. PTX3 is a long pentraxin that was recently found to be increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction...
  8. Boehme M, Kaehne F, Kuehne A, Bernhardt W, Schröder M, Pommer W, et al. Pentraxin 3 is elevated in haemodialysis patients and is associated with cardiovascular disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:2224-9 pubmed
    ..renal failure and its association with cardiovascular disease is well described, there are no data on pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in this population...
  9. Nebuloni M, Pasqualini F, Zerbi P, Lauri E, Mantovani A, Vago L, et al. PTX3 expression in the heart tissues of patients with myocardial infarction and infectious myocarditis. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2011;20:e27-35 pubmed publisher
    The long pentraxin 3 is involved in innate resistance to pathogens, controlling inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling...

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Suliman M, Yilmaz M, Carrero J, Qureshi A, Saglam M, Ipcioglu O, et al. Novel links between the long pentraxin 3, endothelial dysfunction, and albuminuria in early and advanced chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3:976-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, both pentraxin 3 and proteinuria were associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. ..
  2. Iwata A, Miura S, Tanaka T, Ike A, Sugihara M, Nishikawa H, et al. Plasma pentraxin-3 levels are associated with coronary plaque vulnerability and are decreased by statin. Coron Artery Dis. 2012;23:315-21 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a novel candidate immunoinflammatory marker that has been reported to be associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and to predict adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease...
  3. Kunes P, Lonsky V, Mandak J, Kolackova M, Andrys C, Kudlova M, et al. The long pentraxin 3 in cardiac surgery: distinct responses in "on-pump" and "off-pump" patients. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2007;41:171-9 pubmed
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a newly identified acute phase reactant with non-redundant functions in innate immunity...
  4. Doni A, Mantovani G, Porta C, Tuckermann J, Reichardt H, Kleiman A, et al. Cell-specific regulation of PTX3 by glucocorticoid hormones in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29983-92 pubmed publisher
    PTX3 (prototypic long pentraxin 3) is a fluid phase pattern recognition receptor, which plays nonredundant roles in the resistance against diverse pathogens, in the assembly of a hyaluronic acid-rich extracellular matrix, and in female ..
  5. Hollan I, Bottazzi B, Cuccovillo I, Førre Ø, Mikkelsen K, Saatvedt K, et al. Increased levels of serum pentraxin 3, a novel cardiovascular biomarker, in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010;62:378-85 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a key component of innate immunity, is a strong marker of disease severity in coronary artery disease (CAD)...
  6. Locatelli M, Ferrero S, Martinelli Boneschi F, Boiocchi L, Zavanone M, Maria Gaini S, et al. The long pentraxin PTX3 as a correlate of cancer-related inflammation and prognosis of malignancy in gliomas. J Neuroimmunol. 2013;260:99-106 pubmed publisher
    Inflammation is a component of glioma microenvironment. PTX3 is a component of the humoral arm of innate immunity and a candidate marker of inflammation...
  7. Jaillon S, Moalli F, Ragnarsdottir B, Bonavita E, Puthia M, Riva F, et al. The humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 is a key component of innate immunity against urinary tract infection. Immunity. 2014;40:621-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of the soluble pattern recognition molecule pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity, in UTIs...
  8. Bottazzi B, Vouret Craviari V, Bastone A, De Gioia L, Matteucci C, Peri G, et al. Multimer formation and ligand recognition by the long pentraxin PTX3. Similarities and differences with the short pentraxins C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:32817-23 pubmed
    b>PTX3 is a prototypic long pentraxin consisting of a C-terminal 203-amino acid pentraxin-like domain coupled with an N-terminal 178-amino acid unrelated portion...
  9. Kanbay M, Ikizek M, Solak Y, Selcoki Y, Uysal S, Armutcu F, et al. Uric acid and pentraxin-3 levels are independently associated with coronary artery disease risk in patients with stage 2 and 3 kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2011;33:325-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend a clinical trial to determine whether lowering uric acid could prevent progression of CAD in patients with CKD. ..
  10. Ma Y, Doni A, Skjoedt M, Honore C, Arendrup M, Mantovani A, et al. Heterocomplexes of mannose-binding lectin and the pentraxins PTX3 or serum amyloid P component trigger cross-activation of the complement system. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:3405-17 pubmed publisher
    The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3), serum amyloid P component (SAP), and C-reactive protein belong to the pentraxin family of pattern recognition molecules involved in tissue homeostasis and innate immunity...
  11. Diamandis E, Goodglick L, Planque C, Thornquist M. Pentraxin-3 is a novel biomarker of lung carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:2395-9 pubmed publisher
    Our objective was to validate the performance of three new candidate lung cancer biomarkers, pentraxin-3 (PTX3), human kallikrein 11 (KLK11), and progranulin...
  12. Huttunen R, Hurme M, Aittoniemi J, Huhtala H, Vuento R, Laine J, et al. High plasma level of long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is associated with fatal disease in bacteremic patients: a prospective cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17653 pubmed publisher
    b>Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase protein secreted by various cells, including leukocytes and endothelial cells. Like C-reactive protein (CRP), it belongs to the pentraxin superfamily...
  13. Bussolati B, Peri G, Salvidio G, Verzola D, Mantovani A, Camussi G. The long pentraxin PTX3 is synthesized in IgA glomerulonephritis and activates mesangial cells. J Immunol. 2003;170:1466-72 pubmed
    The long pentraxin PTX3 has been recently involved in amplification of the inflammatory reactions and regulation of innate immunity. In the present study we evaluated the expression and role of PTX3 in glomerular inflammation...
  14. Uusitalo Seppälä R, Huttunen R, Aittoniemi J, Koskinen P, Leino A, Vahlberg T, et al. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is associated with severe sepsis and fatal disease in emergency room patients with suspected infection: a prospective cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53661 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied plasma pentraxin 3 (PTX3) upon admission to the emergency department in patients with suspected infection...
  15. Bonacina F, Baragetti A, Catapano A, Norata G. Long pentraxin 3: experimental and clinical relevance in cardiovascular diseases. Mediators Inflamm. 2013;2013:725102 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity and belongs, together with the C-reactive protein (CRP) and other acute phase proteins, to the pentraxins' superfamily: soluble, multifunctional, pattern ..
  16. Alberti L, Gilardini L, Zulian A, Micheletto G, Peri G, Doni A, et al. Expression of long pentraxin PTX3 in human adipose tissue and its relation with cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis. 2009;202:455-60 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute phase protein strongly expressed by advanced atherosclerotic lesions...
  17. Yamasaki K, Kurimura M, Kasai T, Sagara M, Kodama T, Inoue K. Determination of physiological plasma pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels in healthy populations. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:471-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) values in healthy subjects and to characterize its relationship with gender, age, body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, and blood sugar levels...
  18. Kacerovsky M, Tosner J, Drahosova M, Hornychova H, Andrys C. Pentraxin 3 in amniotic fluid as a marker of intra-amniotic inflammation in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010;108:203-6 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether amniotic fluid levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) are of value in the prenatal diagnosis of acute histological chorioamnionitis in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM)...
  19. Scarchilli L, Camaioni A, Bottazzi B, Negri V, Doni A, Deban L, et al. PTX3 interacts with inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor: implications for hyaluronan organization and cumulus oophorus expansion. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30161-70 pubmed
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and heavy chains (HCs) of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor (IalphaI) are essential for hyaluronan (HA) organization within the extracellular matrix of the cumulus oophorus, which is critical for in vivo oocyte ..
  20. Jenny N, Arnold A, Kuller L, Tracy R, Psaty B. Associations of pentraxin 3 with cardiovascular disease and all-cause death: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:594-9 pubmed publisher
    We examined associations of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a vascular inflammation marker, with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause death. 1583 Cardiovascular Health Study participants free of prevalent CVD were included...
  21. Vänskä M, Koivula I, Hamalainen S, Pulkki K, Nousiainen T, Jantunen E, et al. High pentraxin 3 level predicts septic shock and bacteremia at the onset of febrile neutropenia after intensive chemotherapy of hematologic patients. Haematologica. 2011;96:1385-9 pubmed publisher
    ..High level of pentraxin 3 predicts septic shock and bacteremia already at the onset of febrile neutropenia. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00781040.). ..
  22. Aydogdu A, Tasci I, Tapan S, Basaran Y, Aydogan U, Meric C, et al. High plasma level of long Pentraxin 3 is associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012;28:722-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory mediator synthesized in a variety of cells and tissues including heart, vascular endothelial ..
  23. Argani H, Ghorbanihaghjo A, Panahi G, Rashtchizadeh N, Safa J, Meimand S. Serum Fetuin-A and Pentraxin3 in hemodialysis and renal transplant patients. Clin Biochem. 2012;45:775-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate of Fetuin-A and Pentraxin3 (PTX3) as the main factors for vascular calcification and inflammation in hemodialysis (HD) and renal transplant (RT) patients...
  24. Ronca R, Alessi P, Coltrini D, Di Salle E, Giacomini A, Leali D, et al. Long pentraxin-3 as an epithelial-stromal fibroblast growth factor-targeting inhibitor in prostate cancer. J Pathol. 2013;230:228-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The soluble pattern recognition receptor long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) acts as a natural FGF antagonist that binds FGF2 and FGF8b via its N-terminal domain...
  25. Breviario F, d Aniello E, Golay J, Peri G, Bottazzi B, Bairoch A, et al. Interleukin-1-inducible genes in endothelial cells. Cloning of a new gene related to C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:22190-7 pubmed
    ..endothelial cells exposed for 1 h to interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) has led to the identification of a novel gene (PTX3) related to pentaxins (C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component in man), a subclass of acute phase proteins...
  26. Sprong T, Peri G, Neeleman C, Mantovani A, Signorini S, Van der Meer J, et al. Pentraxin 3 and C-reactive protein in severe meningococcal disease. Shock. 2009;31:28-32 pubmed publisher
    The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an important element of the innate immune system and has potential as a diagnostic tool in inflammatory conditions...
  27. Jaillon S, Jeannin P, Hamon Y, Fremaux I, Doni A, Bottazzi B, et al. Endogenous PTX3 translocates at the membrane of late apoptotic human neutrophils and is involved in their engulfment by macrophages. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:465-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Neutrophils constitutively express the prototypic long pentraxin PTX3 that binds to apoptotic cells and modulates their clearance...
  28. Duran S, Duran I, Kaptanagası F, Nartop F, Ciftçi H, Korkmaz G. The role of pentraxin 3 as diagnostic value in classification of patients with heart failure. Clin Biochem. 2013;46:983-987 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a new inflammatory marker that is the prototype of the long pentraxin group, while C-reactive protein (CRP) is the short pentraxin group...
  29. Camozzi M, Zacchigna S, Rusnati M, Coltrini D, Ramirez Correa G, Bottazzi B, et al. Pentraxin 3 inhibits fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent activation of smooth muscle cells in vitro and neointima formation in vivo. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:1837-42 pubmed
    ..Long-pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition receptor with non-redundant functions in inflammation and innate immunity...
  30. Cetin I, Cozzi V, Pasqualini F, Nebuloni M, Garlanda C, Vago L, et al. Elevated maternal levels of the long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194:1347-53 pubmed
    ..Elevated maternal plasma levels of pentraxin 3 in preeclamptic versus normal pregnancies could represent a marker of altered endothelial function, typical of preeclampsia. ..
  31. Bevelacqua V, Libra M, Mazzarino M, Gangemi P, Nicotra G, Curatolo S, et al. Long pentraxin 3: a marker of inflammation in untreated psoriatic patients. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:415-23 pubmed
    ..and their relationship with inflammatory markers, such as CRP and fibrinogen we have investigated the role of PTX3 in psoriasis...
  32. Chu S, Park J, Lee M, Jekal Y, Ahn K, Chung J, et al. The association between pentraxin 3 and insulin resistance in obese children at baseline and after physical activity intervention. Clin Chim Acta. 2012;413:1430-7 pubmed publisher
    The role of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in the development of insulin resistance is still not clear...
  33. Lee T, Wisniewski H, Vilcek J. A novel secretory tumor necrosis factor-inducible protein (TSG-6) is a member of the family of hyaluronate binding proteins, closely related to the adhesion receptor CD44. J Cell Biol. 1992;116:545-57 pubmed
  34. Miyaki A, Maeda S, Choi Y, Akazawa N, Eto M, Tanaka K, et al. Association of plasma pentraxin 3 with arterial stiffness in overweight and obese individuals. Am J Hypertens. 2013;26:1250-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The degree of arterial stiffness in obese individuals is greater than that in normal-weight subjects. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is mainly produced by vascular tissues and exerts a cardioprotective effect...
  35. Rolph M, Zimmer S, Bottazzi B, Garlanda C, Mantovani A, Hansson G. Production of the long pentraxin PTX3 in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:e10-4 pubmed
    ..The long pentraxin family member, pentraxin 3 (PTX3), was recently described...
  36. Deban L, Jarva H, Lehtinen M, Bottazzi B, Bastone A, Doni A, et al. Binding of the long pentraxin PTX3 to factor H: interacting domains and function in the regulation of complement activation. J Immunol. 2008;181:8433-40 pubmed
    The long pentraxin PTX3 is a multifunctional soluble molecule involved in inflammation and innate immunity...
  37. Yilmaz M, Sonmez A, Ortiz A, Saglam M, Kilic S, Eyileten T, et al. Soluble TWEAK and PTX3 in nondialysis CKD patients: impact on endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6:785-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) and long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) are predictors of mortality in dialysis patients and determinants of endothelial dysfunction...
  38. Ma Y, Doni A, Romani L, Jürgensen H, Behrendt N, Mantovani A, et al. Ficolin-1-PTX3 complex formation promotes clearance of altered self-cells and modulates IL-8 production. J Immunol. 2013;191:1324-33 pubmed publisher
    The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) has been shown to be important in maintaining internal tissue homeostasis and in protecting against fungal Aspergillus fumigatus infection...
  39. Lee G, Goodman A, Lee T, Vilcek J. Relationship of TSG-14 protein to the pentraxin family of major acute phase proteins. J Immunol. 1994;153:3700-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, in the intact organism the main cellular sources of TSG-14 and classical acute phase proteins appear to be different. ..
  40. Miyaki A, Maeda S, Yoshizawa M, Misono M, Sasai H, Shimojo N, et al. Is pentraxin 3 involved in obesity-induced decrease in arterial distensibility?. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010;17:278-84 pubmed
    ..Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a recently identified member of the pentraxin family of proteins, is produced in areas of atherosclerosis...
  41. Han B, Haitsma J, Zhang Y, Bai X, Rubacha M, Keshavjee S, et al. Long pentraxin PTX3 deficiency worsens LPS-induced acute lung injury. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37:334-42 pubmed publisher
    Long pentraxin PTX3 is an inflammatory mediator and a component of the humoral arm of innate immunity...
  42. Morishita T, Uzui H, Nakano A, Mitsuke Y, Geshi T, Ueda T, et al. Number of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral artery disease as a marker of severity and association with pentraxin-3, malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19:149-58 pubmed
    ..05). EPC changed according to the Fontaine and TASC II classification and decreased in the advanced phases, and was associated with novel biomarkers and related to the severity of PAD. ..
  43. Job E, Bottazzi B, Gilbertson B, Edenborough K, Brown L, Mantovani A, et al. Serum amyloid P is a sialylated glycoprotein inhibitor of influenza A viruses. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59623 pubmed publisher
    Members of the pentraxin family, including PTX3 and serum amyloid P component (SAP), have been reported to play a role in innate host defence against a range of microbial pathogens, yet little is known regarding their antiviral activities...
  44. Peri G, Introna M, Corradi D, Iacuitti G, Signorini S, Avanzini F, et al. PTX3, A prototypical long pentraxin, is an early indicator of acute myocardial infarction in humans. Circulation. 2000;102:636-41 pubmed
    Inflammation is an important component of ischemic heart disease. PTX3 is a long pentraxin whose expression is induced by cytokines in endothelial cells, mononuclear phagocytes, and myocardium...
  45. Klouche M, Brockmeyer N, Knabbe C, Rose John S. Human herpesvirus 8-derived viral IL-6 induces PTX3 expression in Kaposi's sarcoma cells. AIDS. 2002;16:F9-18 pubmed
    ..complex of human IL-6 with the soluble IL-6 receptor, and expression of the novel acute-phase protein pentraxin-3 (PTX3) was analysed...
  46. Mantovani A, Garlanda C, Bottazzi B. Pentraxin 3, a non-redundant soluble pattern recognition receptor involved in innate immunity. Vaccine. 2003;21 Suppl 2:S43-7 pubmed
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is the first long pentraxin identified...
  47. Baruah P, Dumitriu I, Peri G, Russo V, Mantovani A, Manfredi A, et al. The tissue pentraxin PTX3 limits C1q-mediated complement activation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;80:87-95 pubmed
    ..The prototypic long PTX, PTX3, and the first component of the classical complement pathway, C1q, are innate opsonins involved in the disposal of ..
  48. Camozzi M, Rusnati M, Bugatti A, Bottazzi B, Mantovani A, Bastone A, et al. Identification of an antiangiogenic FGF2-binding site in the N terminus of the soluble pattern recognition receptor PTX3. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22605-13 pubmed
    Long-pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition receptor with non-redundant functions in inflammation and innate immunity...
  49. Yilmaz M, Axelsson J, Sonmez A, Carrero J, Saglam M, Eyileten T, et al. Effect of renin angiotensin system blockade on pentraxin 3 levels in type-2 diabetic patients with proteinuria. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4:535-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a multimeric inflammatory mediator. Increased serum PTX3 levels have been reported among end-stage renal disease patients...
  50. Garlanda C, Maina V, Cotena A, Moalli F. The soluble pattern recognition receptor pentraxin-3 in innate immunity, inflammation and fertility. J Reprod Immunol. 2009;83:128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..They play key roles as effectors and modulators of innate resistance and inflammation. The long pentraxin PTX3 represents a prototype humoral effector molecule...
  51. Cruciani L, Romero R, Vaisbuch E, Kusanovic J, Chaiworapongsa T, Mazaki Tovi S, et al. Pentraxin 3 in maternal circulation: an association with preterm labor and preterm PROM, but not with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23:1097-105 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase protein that has an important role in the regulation of the innate immune response...
  52. Inforzato A, Jaillon S, Moalli F, Barbati E, Bonavita E, Bottazzi B, et al. The long pentraxin PTX3 at the crossroads between innate immunity and tissue remodelling. Tissue Antigens. 2011;77:271-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is the prototypic member of the long pentraxins subfamily...
  53. Osorio Conles O, Guitart M, Chacon M, Maymó Masip E, Moreno Navarrete J, Montori Grau M, et al. Plasma PTX3 protein levels inversely correlate with insulin secretion and obesity, whereas visceral adipose tissue PTX3 gene expression is increased in obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;301:E1254-61 pubmed publisher
    Plasma acutephase protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3) concentration is dysregulated in human obesity and metabolic syndrome...
  54. Inforzato A, Bottazzi B, Garlanda C, Valentino S, Mantovani A. Pentraxins in humoral innate immunity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;946:1-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The long pentraxin PTX3 is a prototypic soluble PRM that is produced at sites of infection and inflammation by both somatic and immune ..
  55. Ryu W, Kim C, Kim B, Kim C, Lee S, Yoon B. Pentraxin 3: a novel and independent prognostic marker in ischemic stroke. Atherosclerosis. 2012;220:581-6 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is one of the pattern-recognition receptors related to the initial step of the immune response with C-reactive protein, but the physiologic and pathologic functions are not fully understood...
  56. Diamond J, Meyer N, Feng R, Rushefski M, Lederer D, Kawut S, et al. Variation in PTX3 is associated with primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:546-52 pubmed
    Elevated long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) levels are associated with the development of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation. Abnormalities in innate immunity, mediated by PTX3 release, may play a role in PGD pathogenesis...
  57. Padeh S, Farzam N, Chayen G, Gerstein M, Berkun Y. Pentraxin 3 is a marker of early joint inflammation in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Immunol Res. 2013;56:444-50 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute phase protein produced in different body tissues...
  58. Koga S, Ikeda S, Yoshida T, Nakata T, Takeno M, Masuda N, et al. Elevated levels of systemic pentraxin 3 are associated with thin-cap fibroatheroma in coronary culprit lesions: assessment by optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2013;6:945-54 pubmed publisher
    This study sought to determine whether systemic levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a novel inflammatory marker, are associated with thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA). Biomarkers predicting the presence of TCFA in vivo have not been established...
  59. Polentarutti N, Picardi G, Basile A, Cenzuales S, Rivolta A, Matteucci C, et al. Interferon-gamma inhibits expression of the long pentraxin PTX3 in human monocytes. Eur J Immunol. 1998;28:496-501 pubmed
    b>PTX3 is a prototypic long pentraxin expressed by various cell types, most prominently monocytes and endothelial cells, in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and bacterial products...
  60. Nauta A, Bottazzi B, Mantovani A, Salvatori G, Kishore U, Schwaeble W, et al. Biochemical and functional characterization of the interaction between pentraxin 3 and C1q. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:465-73 pubmed
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a recently characterized member of the pentraxin family of acute-phase proteins produced during inflammation...
  61. Doni A, Peri G, Chieppa M, Allavena P, Pasqualini F, Vago L, et al. Production of the soluble pattern recognition receptor PTX3 by myeloid, but not plasmacytoid, dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:2886-93 pubmed
    b>PTX3 is a prototypic of long pentraxin consisting of an N-terminal portion coupled to a C-terminal pentraxin domain, the latter related to short pentraxins (C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component)...
  62. Han B, Mura M, Andrade C, Okutani D, Lodyga M, dos Santos C, et al. TNFalpha-induced long pentraxin PTX3 expression in human lung epithelial cells via JNK. J Immunol. 2005;175:8303-11 pubmed
    b>Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an acute-phase protein, is a newly clarified mediator for innate immunity and inflammation. As a soluble pattern recognition receptor, it has a nonredundant role in antifungal infection...
  63. Inforzato A, Peri G, Doni A, Garlanda C, Mantovani A, Bastone A, et al. Structure and function of the long pentraxin PTX3 glycosidic moiety: fine-tuning of the interaction with C1q and complement activation. Biochemistry. 2006;45:11540-51 pubmed
    The prototypic long pentraxin PTX3 is a unique fluid-phase pattern recognition receptor that plays a nonredundant role in innate immunity and female fertility...
  64. Cruciani L, Romero R, Vaisbuch E, Kusanovic J, Chaiworapongsa T, Mazaki Tovi S, et al. Pentraxin 3 in amniotic fluid: a novel association with intra-amniotic infection and inflammation. J Perinat Med. 2010;38:161-71 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that has an important role in immunoregulation and vascular integrity...
  65. Castiglioni M, Scavini M, Cavallin R, Pasi F, Rosa S, Sabbadini M, et al. Elevation of plasma levels of the long pentraxin 3 precedes preeclampsia in pregnant patients with type 1 diabetes. Autoimmunity. 2009;42:296-8 pubmed
    ..The prototypic long pentraxin, pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute phase reactant critically associated with vascular injury...
  66. Jylhävä J, Haarala A, Kahonen M, Lehtimaki T, Jula A, Moilanen L, et al. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors: the Health 2000 Survey. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;164:211-7 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a novel candidate immunoinflammatory marker that has been reported to be associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and to predict adverse outcomes in individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
  67. Daigo K, Yamaguchi N, Kawamura T, Matsubara K, Jiang S, Ohashi R, et al. The proteomic profile of circulating pentraxin 3 (PTX3) complex in sepsis demonstrates the interaction with azurocidin 1 and other components of neutrophil extracellular traps. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:M111.015073 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a long pentraxin subfamily member in the pentraxin family, plays an important role in innate immunity as a soluble pattern recognition receptor...
  68. Ishihara T, Haraguchi G, Tezuka D, Kamiishi T, Inagaki H, Isobe M. Diagnosis and assessment of Takayasu arteritis by multiple biomarkers. Circ J. 2013;77:477-83 pubmed
    ..There is a report that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 and pentraxin3 (PTX3) could be sensitive biomarkers, but the characteristics of these biomarkers have not been established...
  69. Fazzini F, Peri G, Doni A, Dell Antonio G, Dal Cin E, Bozzolo E, et al. PTX3 in small-vessel vasculitides: an independent indicator of disease activity produced at sites of inflammation. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:2841-50 pubmed
    To verify whether the prototypical long pentraxin PTX3 represents an indicator of the activity of small-vessel vasculitis...
  70. Shelton R, Liang S, Liang P, Chakrabarti A, Manier D, Sulser F. Differential expression of pentraxin 3 in fibroblasts from patients with major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:126-32 pubmed
    ..included an overexpressed 269 bp sequence tag showing approximately 95% identity with the Homo sapiens long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) gene sequence in the 3' noncoding region. The 269 bp complimentary DNA probe hybridized with the 1...
  71. Jeannin P, Bottazzi B, Sironi M, Doni A, Rusnati M, Presta M, et al. Complexity and complementarity of outer membrane protein A recognition by cellular and humoral innate immunity receptors. Immunity. 2005;22:551-60 pubmed
    ..The TLR2-activated functional program includes production of the long pentraxin PTX3, a soluble pattern recognition receptor involved in resistance against diverse pathogens...
  72. Reading P, Bozza S, Gilbertson B, Tate M, Moretti S, Job E, et al. Antiviral activity of the long chain pentraxin PTX3 against influenza viruses. J Immunol. 2008;180:3391-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identify the long pentraxin PTX3 as a potent innate inhibitor of influenza viruses both in vitro and in vivo...
  73. Maina V, Cotena A, Doni A, Nebuloni M, Pasqualini F, Milner C, et al. Coregulation in human leukocytes of the long pentraxin PTX3 and TSG-6. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:123-32 pubmed publisher
    The prototypic long PTX3 is a multifunctional protein involved in innate resistance to pathogens and in controlling inflammation...
  74. May L, Kuningas M, Van Bodegom D, Meij H, Frolich M, Slagboom P, et al. Genetic variation in pentraxin (PTX) 3 gene associates with PTX3 production and fertility in women. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:299-304 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) plays an important role in innate immune responses and in female fertility, as discovered with studies in mice. However, the role of PTX3 in human fertility is unknown...
  75. Baldini M, Maugeri N, Ramirez G, Giacomassi C, Castiglioni A, Prieto González S, et al. Selective up-regulation of the soluble pattern-recognition receptor pentraxin 3 and of vascular endothelial growth factor in giant cell arteritis: relevance for recent optic nerve ischemia. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:854-65 pubmed publisher
    To assess local expression and plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA)...
  76. Leali D, Inforzato A, Ronca R, Bianchi R, Belleri M, Coltrini D, et al. Long pentraxin 3/tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 interaction: a biological rheostat for fibroblast growth factor 2-mediated angiogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:696-703 pubmed publisher
    ..is a major proangiogenic inducer inhibited by the interaction with the soluble pattern recognition receptor long pentraxin 3 (PTX3)...
  77. Cozzi V, Garlanda C, Nebuloni M, Maina V, Martinelli A, Calabrese S, et al. PTX3 as a potential endothelial dysfunction biomarker for severity of preeclampsia and IUGR. Placenta. 2012;33:1039-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated PTX3 in maternal, fetal and placental compartments in complicated pregnancies...
  78. Mantovani A, Valentino S, Gentile S, Inforzato A, Bottazzi B, Garlanda C. The long pentraxin PTX3: a paradigm for humoral pattern recognition molecules. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013;1285:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component are prototypes of the short pentraxin family, while pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a prototype of the long pentraxins...
  79. Jaillon S, Mancuso G, Hamon Y, Beauvillain C, Cotici V, Midiri A, et al. Prototypic long pentraxin PTX3 is present in breast milk, spreads in tissues, and protects neonate mice from Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. J Immunol. 2013;191:1873-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), the prototypic long pentraxin, is a soluble pattern recognition receptor involved in the initiation of protective ..
  80. Bastrup Birk S, Skjoedt M, Munthe Fog L, Strom J, Ma Y, Garred P. Pentraxin-3 serum levels are associated with disease severity and mortality in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73119 pubmed publisher
    The long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a key component of the humoral arm of the innate immune system. PTX3 is produced locally in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli...
  81. Alles V, Bottazzi B, Peri G, Golay J, Introna M, Mantovani A. Inducible expression of PTX3, a new member of the pentraxin family, in human mononuclear phagocytes. Blood. 1994;84:3483-93 pubmed
    ..b>PTX3 was recently cloned as an interleukin-1 (IL-1)-inducible gene in endothelial cells, with structural similarities to ..
  82. Vouret Craviari V, Matteucci C, Peri G, Poli G, Introna M, Mantovani A. Expression of a long pentraxin, PTX3, by monocytes exposed to the mycobacterial cell wall component lipoarabinomannan. Infect Immun. 1997;65:1345-50 pubmed
    b>PTX3 is a prototypic long pentraxin composed of a C-terminal domain similar to those of classical pentraxins (e.g., C reactive protein) and an unrelated N-terminal portion...
  83. Abderrahim Ferkoune A, Bezy O, Chiellini C, Maffei M, Grimaldi P, Bonino F, et al. Characterization of the long pentraxin PTX3 as a TNFalpha-induced secreted protein of adipose cells. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:994-1000 pubmed
    ..are regulated by fatty acids in preadipocytes, we performed a substractive hybridization screening and identified PTX3, a protein of the pentraxin family...
  84. Baruah P, Propato A, Dumitriu I, Rovere Querini P, Russo V, Fontana R, et al. The pattern recognition receptor PTX3 is recruited at the synapse between dying and dendritic cells, and edits the cross-presentation of self, viral, and tumor antigens. Blood. 2006;107:151-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the prototypic long pentraxin PTX3 is specifically recruited at both sides of the phagocytic synapse between dendritic cells (DCs) and dying cells and ..
  85. Inoue K, Sugiyama A, Reid P, Ito Y, Miyauchi K, Mukai S, et al. Establishment of a high sensitivity plasma assay for human pentraxin3 as a marker for unstable angina pectoris. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:161-7 pubmed
    Plasma pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels are increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction, yet its involvement in unstable angina pectoris (UAP) remains unclear...
  86. Olesen R, Wejse C, Velez D, Bisseye C, Sodemann M, Aaby P, et al. DC-SIGN (CD209), pentraxin 3 and vitamin D receptor gene variants associate with pulmonary tuberculosis risk in West Africans. Genes Immun. 2007;8:456-67 pubmed
    We investigated the role of DC-SIGN (CD209), long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in 321 TB cases and 347 healthy controls from ..
  87. Cotena A, Maina V, Sironi M, Bottazzi B, Jeannin P, Vecchi A, et al. Complement dependent amplification of the innate response to a cognate microbial ligand by the long pentraxin PTX3. J Immunol. 2007;179:6311-7 pubmed
    The long pentraxin PTX3 is a fluid-phase pattern recognition receptor, which plays a nonredundant role in resistance against selected pathogens...
  88. Chiarini M, Sabelli C, Melotti P, Garlanda C, Savoldi G, Mazza C, et al. PTX3 genetic variations affect the risk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway colonization in cystic fibrosis patients. Genes Immun. 2010;11:665-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a gene that encodes the antimicrobial protein, PTX3, which is believed to have an important role in innate ..
  89. Zanier E, Brandi G, Peri G, Longhi L, Zoerle T, Tettamanti M, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid pentraxin 3 early after subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with vasospasm. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37:302-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a prototypic long pentraxin protein induced by proinflammatory signals, in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and its relation with SAH-associated ..
  90. Savchenko A, Inoue A, Ohashi R, Jiang S, Hasegawa G, Tanaka T, et al. Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) expression and release by neutrophils in vitro and in ulcerative colitis. Pathol Int. 2011;61:290-7 pubmed publisher
    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is the first identified long pentraxin, and it is rapidly produced and released by several cell types in response to proinflammatory signals...
  91. Nishi K, Imamura T, Kitamura K, Ogawa T, Fujimoto S, Kakitsubata Y, et al. Associations of plasma pentraxin 3 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentrations with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Ren Fail. 2011;33:398-404 pubmed publisher
    Both pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) are mediators of inflammation...
  92. Matsuura Y, Hatakeyama K, Imamura T, Tsuruda T, Shibata Y, Kodama T, et al. Different distribution of pentraxin 3 and C-reactive protein in coronary atherosclerotic plaques. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19:837-45 pubmed
    To understand the differences between histopathological characteristics related to PTX3 (pentraxin 3) and CRP (C-reactive protein) in coronary atherosclerotic plaques...