PTTG1

Summary

Gene Symbol: PTTG1
Description: pituitary tumor-transforming 1
Alias: EAP1, HPTTG, PTTG, TUTR1, securin, ESP1-associated protein 1, pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 protein, tumor-transforming protein 1
Species: human
Products:     PTTG1

Top Publications

  1. Salehi F, Kovacs K, Scheithauer B, Cantelmi D, Horvath E, Lloyd R, et al. Immunohistochemical expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) in pituitary adenomas: a correlative study of tumor subtypes. Int J Surg Pathol. 2010;18:5-13 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the correlation between immunohistochemical expression of the pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) and pituitary adenoma subtype...
  2. Yu R, Lu W, Chen J, McCabe C, Melmed S. Overexpressed pituitary tumor-transforming gene causes aneuploidy in live human cells. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4991-8 pubmed
    The mammalian securin, pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG), is overexpressed in several tumors and transforms cells in vitro and in vivo...
  3. Romero F, Multon M, Ramos Morales F, Dominguez A, Bernal J, Pintor Toro J, et al. Human securin, hPTTG, is associated with Ku heterodimer, the regulatory subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:1300-7 pubmed
    We have previously isolated the hpttg proto-oncogene, which is expressed in normal tissues containing proliferating cells and in several kinds of tumors...
  4. Smith V, Franklyn J, McCabe C. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene and its binding factor in endocrine cancer. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2010;12:e38 pubmed publisher
    ..Also known as the human securin, PTTG is involved in cell cycle regulation, controlling the segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis...
  5. Tfelt Hansen J, Yano S, Bandyopadhyay S, Carroll R, Brown E, Chattopadhyay N. Expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) and its binding protein in human astrocytes and astrocytoma cells: function and regulation of PTTG in U87 astrocytoma cells. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4222-31 pubmed
    Human securin, pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG), is a protooncogene. Here we report expressions of PTTG and its interacting protein, PTTG-binding factor in human astrocytic cells...
  6. Shah P, Kakar S. Pituitary tumor transforming gene induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition by regulation of Twist, Snail, Slug, and E-cadherin. Cancer Lett. 2011;311:66-76 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) is an oncogene with its expression levels correlating with tumor development and metastasis. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step in tumor progression and metastasis...
  7. Wen C, Nakayama T, Wang A, Nakashima M, Ding Y, Ito M, et al. Expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene in human gastric carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:481-3 pubmed
    Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) is overexpressed in a variety of tumors, including carcinomas of the lung, breast, colon, as well as in leukemia, lymphoma and pituitary adenomas...
  8. Izawa D, Pines J. How APC/C-Cdc20 changes its substrate specificity in mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdc20 (cell division cycle 20), to block the degradation of metaphase substrates (for example, cyclin B1 and securin), but not others (for example, cyclin A). How this is achieved is unclear...
  9. Ramos Morales F, Dominguez A, Romero F, Luna R, Multon M, Pintor Toro J, et al. Cell cycle regulated expression and phosphorylation of hpttg proto-oncogene product. Oncogene. 2000;19:403-9 pubmed
    We recently isolated a cDNA for hpttg, the human homolog of rat pituitary tumor transforming gene. Now we have analysed the expression of hpttg as a function of cell proliferation...

More Information

Publications83

  1. Liao Y, Ruan J, Lua I, Li M, Chen W, Wang J, et al. Overexpressed hPTTG1 promotes breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis by regulating GEF-H1/RhoA signalling. Oncogene. 2012;31:3086-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these findings definitively establish a role for hPTTG1 in activating the GEF-H1/RhoA pathway as a newly identified mechanism in breast cancer metastasis. ..
  2. Lee U, Ghiassi Nejad Z, Paris A, Yea S, Narla G, Walsh M, et al. Tumor suppressor activity of KLF6 mediated by downregulation of the PTTG1 oncogene. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1006-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1), an oncogene, was the most up-regulated transcript in KLF6+/- liver...
  3. Zhou C, Wawrowsky K, Bannykh S, Gutman S, Melmed S. E2F1 induces pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) expression in human pituitary tumors. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:2000-12 pubmed publisher
    Rb/E2F is dysregulated in murine and human pituitary tumors. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1), a securin protein, is required for pituitary tumorigenesis, and PTTG1 deletion attenuates pituitary tumor development in Rb(+/-) mice...
  4. Dominguez A, Ramos Morales F, Romero F, Rios R, Dreyfus F, Tortolero M, et al. hpttg, a human homologue of rat pttg, is overexpressed in hematopoietic neoplasms. Evidence for a transcriptional activation function of hPTTG. Oncogene. 1998;17:2187-93 pubmed
    ..We show that the corresponding gene (hpttg) is overexpressed in Jurkat cells (a human T lymphoma cell line) and in samples from patients with different kinds ..
  5. Pfleger C, Lee E, Kirschner M. Substrate recognition by the Cdc20 and Cdh1 components of the anaphase-promoting complex. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2396-407 pubmed
    ..Thus, Cdc20 and Cdh1 act as both substrate recognition and activating modules for APC. ..
  6. Jia W, Lu R, Jia G, Ni M, Xu Z. Expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) in human pituitary macroadenomas. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:1559-67 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) and invasiveness in pituitary macroadenomas and to determine the association between PTTG and both the tumor proliferative ..
  7. Hellmuth S, Böttger F, Pan C, Mann M, Stemmann O. PP2A delays APC/C-dependent degradation of separase-associated but not free securin. EMBO J. 2014;33:1134-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior to anaphase, most separase is kept inactive by association with securin. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) constitutes another binding partner of human separase, but the functional ..
  8. Hamid T, Malik M, Kakar S. Ectopic expression of PTTG1/securin promotes tumorigenesis in human embryonic kidney cells. Mol Cancer. 2005;4:3 pubmed
    Pituitary tumor transforming gene1 (PTTG1) is a novel oncogene that is expressed in most tumors. It encodes a protein that is primarily involved in the regulation of sister chromatid separation during cell division...
  9. Kim D, Franklyn J, Stratford A, Boelaert K, Watkinson J, Eggo M, et al. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene regulates multiple downstream angiogenic genes in thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:1119-28 pubmed
    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) is a multifunctional protein involved in several tumorigenic mechanisms, including angiogenesis...
  10. Ishikawa H, Heaney A, Yu R, Horwitz G, Melmed S. Human pituitary tumor-transforming gene induces angiogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:867-74 pubmed
    ..induced by conditioned medium (CM) derived from NIH-3T3 transfectants overexpressing wild-type human PTTG (WT-hPTTG-CM). We also examined the relationship between PTTG expression and tumor vascularity in a series of human tumors...
  11. Thompson A, Kakar S. Insulin and IGF-1 regulate the expression of the pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) in breast tumor cells. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3195-200 pubmed
    The pituitary tumor transforming Gene (PTTG) is an oncogene that is highly expressed in most tumors analyzed to date. Here, we report the effects of insulin and the insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the expression of PTTG...
  12. Boelaert K, Tannahill L, Bulmer J, Kachilele S, Chan S, Kim D, et al. A potential role for PTTG/securin in the developing human fetal brain. FASEB J. 2003;17:1631-9 pubmed
    Human securin, known also as PTTG, has established oncogenic and cell cycle regulatory functions. PTTG/securin transforms cells in vitro, inhibits sister chromatid separation, and regulates secretion of fibroblast growth factor-2...
  13. Yan S, Zhou C, Lou X, Xiao Z, Zhu H, Wang Q, et al. PTTG overexpression promotes lymph node metastasis in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2009;69:3283-90 pubmed publisher
    Human pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) overexpression correlates with metastasis in multiple tumors, and yet its molecular mechanisms of action remain elusive...
  14. Zhou C, Liu S, Zhou X, Xue L, Quan L, Lu N, et al. Overexpression of human pituitary tumor transforming gene (hPTTG), is regulated by beta-catenin /TCF pathway in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2005;113:891-8 pubmed
    Overexpression of human pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is wildly detected in many tumors, including esophageal cancer...
  15. Ito T, Shimada Y, Kan T, David S, Cheng Y, Mori Y, et al. Pituitary tumor-transforming 1 increases cell motility and promotes lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2008;68:3214-24 pubmed publisher
    Human pituitary tumor-transforming 1 (PTTG1)/securin is a putative oncoprotein that is overexpressed in various tumor types. However, the involvement of PTTG1 in gastrointestinal cancer development and progression remains unclear...
  16. Chamaon K, Kirches E, Kanakis D, Braeuninger S, Dietzmann K, Mawrin C. Regulation of the pituitary tumor transforming gene by insulin-like-growth factor-I and insulin differs between malignant and non-neoplastic astrocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;331:86-92 pubmed
    The reasons for overexpression of the oncogene pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) in tumors are still not fully understood...
  17. Zhang X, Horwitz G, Prezant T, Valentini A, Nakashima M, Bronstein M, et al. Structure, expression, and function of human pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG). Mol Endocrinol. 1999;13:156-66 pubmed
    ..Recently, we isolated a transforming gene [pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG)] from rat pituitary tumor cells...
  18. Zou H, McGarry T, Bernal T, Kirschner M. Identification of a vertebrate sister-chromatid separation inhibitor involved in transformation and tumorigenesis. Science. 1999;285:418-22 pubmed
    A vertebrate securin (vSecurin) was identified on the basis of its biochemical analogy to the Pds1p protein of budding yeast and the Cut2p protein of fission yeast...
  19. Kakar S. Assignment of the human tumor transforming gene TUTR1 to chromosome band 5q35.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;83:93-5 pubmed
  20. Mora Santos M, Limón Mortés M, Giráldez S, Herrero Ruiz J, Saez C, Japon M, et al. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) negatively regulates PTTG1/human securin protein stability, and GSK3beta inactivation correlates with securin accumulation in breast tumors. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30047-56 pubmed publisher
    PTTG1, also known as securin, is an inactivating partner of separase, the major effector for chromosome segregation during mitosis...
  21. Waizenegger I, Giménez Abián J, Wernic D, Peters J. Regulation of human separase by securin binding and autocleavage. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1368-78 pubmed
    ..Separase is activated by the degradation of its inhibitor securin and by the removal of inhibitory phosphates...
  22. Tena Suck M, Ortiz Plata A, de la Vega H. Phosphatase and tensin homologue and pituitary tumor-transforming gene in pituitary adenomas. Clinical-pathologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2008;12:275-82 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) is also known to induce angiogenesis during pituitary tumorigenesis. It has not been clarified whether PTTG functions as a cytoplasmic or a nuclear protein...
  23. Gorr I, Boos D, Stemmann O. Mutual inhibition of separase and Cdk1 by two-step complex formation. Mol Cell. 2005;19:135-41 pubmed
    ..triggered when ring-shaped cohesin is cleaved by separase, a protease regulated by association with its inhibitor securin. Dispensability of vertebrate securin strongly suggests additional means of separase regulation...
  24. Kim D, Pemberton H, Stratford A, Buelaert K, Watkinson J, Lopes V, et al. Pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG) induces genetic instability in thyroid cells. Oncogene. 2005;24:4861-6 pubmed
    ..The pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG), also known as securin, is a mitotic checkpoint protein which inhibits sister chromatid separation during mitosis...
  25. Hilioti Z, Chung Y, Mochizuki Y, Hardy C, COHEN FIX O. The anaphase inhibitor Pds1 binds to the APC/C-associated protein Cdc20 in a destruction box-dependent manner. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1347-52 pubmed
    ..One such APC/C substrate, the budding yeast anaphase inhibitor Pds1 (securin), is degraded prior to anaphase initiation in a destruction box and APC/C(Cdc20)-dependent manner [3, 7]...
  26. Hsu Y, Liao L, Yu C, Chiang C, Jhan J, Chang L, et al. Overexpression of the pituitary tumor transforming gene induces p53-dependent senescence through activating DNA damage response pathway in normal human fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:22630-8 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1, securin) is involved in cell-cycle control through inhibition of sister-chromatid separation...
  27. Chesnokova V, Melmed S. Pituitary tumour-transforming gene (PTTG) and pituitary senescence. Horm Res. 2009;71 Suppl 2:82-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in single, double or triply mutant transgenic mice with mutations of Rb, Pttg and/or p21...
  28. Espina A, Méndez Vidal C, Moreno Mateos M, Saez C, Romero Franco A, Japon M, et al. Induction of Dlk1 by PTTG1 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and correlates with malignant transformation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3353-62 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) is an oncogene highly expressed in a variety of endocrine, as well as nonendocrine-related cancers...
  29. Minematsu T, Egashira N, Kajiya H, Takei M, Takekoshi S, Itoh Y, et al. PTTG is a secretory protein in human pituitary adenomas and in mouse pituitary tumor cell lines. Endocr Pathol. 2007;18:8-15 pubmed
    The pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) is a homolog of yeast Securin, which arrests the activation of Separin to induce sister chromatid separation in the transition from metaphase to anaphase...
  30. Vodermaier H, Gieffers C, Maurer Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters J. TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1459-68 pubmed
    ..In analogy to PEX5, the different TPR subunits of the APC might function as receptors that interact with the C termini of regulatory proteins such as CDH1, CDC20, and APC10. ..
  31. Ogbagabriel S, Fernando M, Waldman F, Bose S, Heaney A. Securin is overexpressed in breast cancer. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:985-90 pubmed
    b>Securin regulates sister chromatid separation during mitosis, induces bFGF-mediated angiogenesis, and securin overexpression causes in vitro transformation and in vivo tumor formation in nude mice...
  32. Zur A, Brandeis M. Securin degradation is mediated by fzy and fzr, and is required for complete chromatid separation but not for cytokinesis. EMBO J. 2001;20:792-801 pubmed
    We have studied the ubiquitination and degradation patterns of the human securin/PTTG protein. We show that, in contrast to budding yeast pds1, securin degradation is catalyzed by both fzy (fizzy/cdc20) and fzr (fizzy-related/cdh1/hct1)...
  33. Hagting A, den Elzen N, Vodermaier H, Waizenegger I, Peters J, Pines J. Human securin proteolysis is controlled by the spindle checkpoint and reveals when the APC/C switches from activation by Cdc20 to Cdh1. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:1125-37 pubmed
    ..through mitosis is controlled by the sequential destruction of key regulators including the mitotic cyclins and securin, an inhibitor of anaphase whose destruction is required for sister chromatid separation...
  34. Gil Bernabé A, Romero F, Limón Mortés M, Tortolero M. Protein phosphatase 2A stabilizes human securin, whose phosphorylated forms are degraded via the SCF ubiquitin ligase. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:4017-27 pubmed
    ..For most of the cell cycle, separase activity is kept in check by its association with the inhibitory chaperone securin. Activation of separase occurs at anaphase onset, when securin is targeted for destruction by the anaphase-..
  35. Ishitsuka Y, Kawachi Y, Taguchi S, Maruyama H, Fujisawa Y, Furuta J, et al. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 enhances proliferation and suppresses early differentiation of keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:1775-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of cell cycle regulatory molecules, including the pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1), also known as securin, a regulator of sister chromatid separation and transition from metaphase to anaphase...
  36. Jallepalli P, Waizenegger I, Bunz F, Langer S, Speicher M, Peters J, et al. Securin is required for chromosomal stability in human cells. Cell. 2001;105:445-57 pubmed
    ..These results illuminate the function of mammalian securin and show that it is essential for the maintenance of euploidy.
  37. McCabe C, Boelaert K, Tannahill L, Heaney A, Stratford A, Khaira J, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor, its receptor KDR/Flk-1, and pituitary tumor transforming gene in pituitary tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:4238-44 pubmed
    ..The novel securin pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) disrupts cell division and stimulates fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2-..
  38. Genkai N, Homma J, Sano M, Tanaka R, Yamanaka R. Increased expression of pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG)-1 is correlated with poor prognosis in glioma patients. Oncol Rep. 2006;15:1569-74 pubmed
    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG), which is homologous to a mammalian securin, plays a pivotal role in cell transformation and is overexpressed in numerous cancer cell lines and tissues...
  39. Tfelt Hansen J, Kanuparthi D, Chattopadhyay N. The emerging role of pituitary tumor transforming gene in tumorigenesis. Clin Med Res. 2006;4:130-7 pubmed
    ..PTTG appears also to have a role in the genesis of some types of cancer. Also known as a human form of securin, PTTG is an anaphase inhibitor that prevents premature chromosome separation through inhibition of separase ..
  40. Salehi F, Kovacs K, Scheithauer B, Lloyd R, Cusimano M. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene in endocrine and other neoplasms: a review and update. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2008;15:721-43 pubmed publisher
    ..It affects tumor invasiveness and recurrence in several systems, functions as a securin during cell cycle progression, and inhibits premature sister chromatid separation...
  41. Hunter J, Skelly R, Aylwin S, Geddes J, Evanson J, Besser G, et al. The relationship between pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG) expression and in vitro hormone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion from human pituitary adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003;148:203-11 pubmed
    Pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG) is a recently identified protooncogene, ubiquitously expressed in pituitary tumours at levels higher than those detected in normal pituitary...
  42. Gmachl M, Gieffers C, Podtelejnikov A, Mann M, Peters J. The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:8973-8 pubmed
    The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase that targets cyclin B, securin and other destruction box containing proteins for proteolysis...
  43. Shah P, Fong M, Kakar S. PTTG induces EMT through integrin ?V?3-focal adhesion kinase signaling in lung cancer cells. Oncogene. 2012;31:3124-35 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is a well-studied oncogene for its role in tumorigenesis and serves as a marker of malignancy in several cancer types including lung...
  44. Bernal J, Roche M, Mendez Vidal C, Espina A, Tortolero M, Pintor Toro J. Proliferative potential after DNA damage and non-homologous end joining are affected by loss of securin. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:202-12 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that securin interacts with the Ku70/80 heterodimer of the DSB non-homologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) repair machinery...
  45. Kim D, Franklyn J, Smith V, Stratford A, Pemberton H, Warfield A, et al. Securin induces genetic instability in colorectal cancer by inhibiting double-stranded DNA repair activity. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:749-59 pubmed
    Genetic instability (GI) is a hallmark feature of tumor development. Securin, also known as pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG), is a mitotic checkpoint protein which is highly expressed in numerous cancers, is associated with tumor ..
  46. Talvinen K, Tuikkala J, Nevalainen O, Rantanen A, Hirsimäki P, Sundstrom J, et al. Proliferation marker securin identifies favourable outcome in invasive ductal breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:335-40 pubmed publisher
    We introduce a new proliferation marker, securin (pituitary tumour-transforming 1 (PTTG1)), analysed in invasive ductal breast carcinomas by cDNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry...
  47. Zhang X, Horwitz G, Heaney A, Nakashima M, Prezant T, Bronstein M, et al. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) expression in pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:761-7 pubmed
    We recently cloned a novel pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG). Here we report PTTG expression in human pituitary adenomas and in normal pituitary tissue...
  48. Eytan E, Moshe Y, Braunstein I, Hershko A. Roles of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and of its activator Cdc20 in functional substrate binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2081-6 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with models in which interaction of substrate with specific binding sites on both APC/C and Cdc20 is involved in selective and productive substrate binding. ..
  49. Tang Z, Li B, Bharadwaj R, Zhu H, Ozkan E, Hakala K, et al. APC2 Cullin protein and APC11 RING protein comprise the minimal ubiquitin ligase module of the anaphase-promoting complex. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:3839-51 pubmed
    ..onset of sister-chromatid separation and exit from mitosis by mediating the ubiquitination and degradation of the securin protein and mitotic cyclins...
  50. Tong Y, Tan Y, Zhou C, Melmed S. Pituitary tumor transforming gene interacts with Sp1 to modulate G1/S cell phase transition. Oncogene. 2007;26:5596-605 pubmed
    ..tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) was isolated from rat pituitary tumor cells, and subsequently identified as a securin protein as well as a transcription factor...
  51. Bernal J, Luna R, Espina A, Lázaro I, Ramos Morales F, Romero F, et al. Human securin interacts with p53 and modulates p53-mediated transcriptional activity and apoptosis. Nat Genet. 2002;32:306-11 pubmed
    ..The PTTG1 protein is cell-cycle regulated and was identified as the human securin (a category of proteins involved in the regulation of sister-chromatid separation) on the basis of biochemical ..
  52. Hlubek F, Pfeiffer S, Budczies J, Spaderna S, Jung A, Kirchner T, et al. Securin (hPTTG1) expression is regulated by beta-catenin/TCF in human colorectal carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:1672-7 pubmed
    ..b>Securin is a regulator of chromosome separation and its overexpression has been shown to be involved in different tumour-..
  53. Zhou C, Tong Y, Wawrowsky K, Bannykh S, Donangelo I, Melmed S. Oct-1 induces pituitary tumor transforming gene expression in endocrine tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2008;15:817-31 pubmed publisher
    ..05) respectively. The results show that Oct-1 transactivates hPTTG1, and both proteins are concordantly overexpressed in endocrine tumors, thus offering a mechanism for endocrine tumor hPTTG1 abundance...
  54. Molina Jiménez F, Benedicto I, Murata M, Martín Vílchez S, Seki T, Antonio Pintor Toro J, et al. Expression of pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1)/securin in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated liver diseases: evidence for an HBV X protein-mediated inhibition of PTTG1 ubiquitination and degradation. Hepatology. 2010;51:777-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the protooncogene pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is overexpressed in HCC, we investigated the regulation of this protein by HBx...
  55. Saez C, Pereda T, Borrero J, Espina A, Romero F, Tortolero M, et al. Expression of hpttg proto-oncogene in lymphoid neoplasias. Oncogene. 2002;21:8173-7 pubmed
    ..Impairment of PTTG regulated functions is expected to lead to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy. Human pttg (hpttg) is abundantly expressed in Jurkat T lymphoblastic lymphoma cells but not in normal peripheral blood leukocytes...
  56. Romero F, Gil Bernabé A, Saez C, Japon M, Pintor Toro J, Tortolero M. Securin is a target of the UV response pathway in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2720-33 pubmed
    ..b>Securin is an inhibitory protein that is bound to a protease called Separase to inhibit sister chromatid separation until ..
  57. Kraft C, Vodermaier H, Maurer Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters J. The WD40 propeller domain of Cdh1 functions as a destruction box receptor for APC/C substrates. Mol Cell. 2005;18:543-53 pubmed
    ..of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) by Cdc20 and Cdh1 leads to ubiquitin-dependent degradation of securin and cyclin B and thereby promotes the initiation of anaphase and exit from mitosis...
  58. Mu Y, Oba K, Yanase T, Ito T, Ashida K, Goto K, et al. Human pituitary tumor transforming gene (hPTTG) inhibits human lung cancer A549 cell growth through activation of p21(WAF1/CIP1 ). Endocr J. 2003;50:771-81 pubmed
    ..In this study, we cloned human PTTG (hPTTG) from a pituitary tumor and then stably transfected the hPTTG into HeLa and A549 cells...
  59. Miller J, Summers M, Hansen D, Nachury M, Lehman N, Loktev A, et al. Emi1 stably binds and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome as a pseudosubstrate inhibitor. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2410-20 pubmed
    ..The combination of a degron/E3 recognition site and an anti-ligase function in Emi1 suggests a general model for how E3 substrates evolve to become pseudosubstrate inhibitors. ..
  60. Kakar S, Jennes L. Molecular cloning and characterization of the tumor transforming gene (TUTR1): a novel gene in human tumorigenesis. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1999;84:211-6 pubmed
    We cloned and sequenced the cDNA of a potent tumor transforming gene (TUTR1) from human testis and determined its primary structure. The TUTR1 cDNA is composed of 656 nucleotides and encodes a novel protein of 202 amino acids...
  61. Boelaert K, McCabe C, Tannahill L, Gittoes N, Holder R, Watkinson J, et al. Pituitary tumor transforming gene and fibroblast growth factor-2 expression: potential prognostic indicators in differentiated thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:2341-7 pubmed
    ..Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) plays several potential roles in tumor initiation and progression, including regulating mitosis and stimulating ..
  62. Zhou Y, Mehta K, Choi A, Scolavino S, Zhang X. DNA damage-induced inhibition of securin expression is mediated by p53. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:462-70 pubmed
    ..The human securin is an anaphase inhibitor, preventing premature chromosome separation through inhibition of separase activity...
  63. Kakar S. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and identification of the promoter for the human pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG). Gene. 1999;240:317-24 pubmed
    Recently, we cloned and sequenced cDNA of a potent pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) from human testis and showed that this gene is expressed highly in various human tumors, including tumors of the pituitary and adrenal glands, and ..
  64. Chien W, Pei L. A novel binding factor facilitates nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation function of the pituitary tumor-transforming gene product. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:19422-7 pubmed
    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) is a recently characterized oncogene whose expression product contains a transcriptional activation domain at the C terminus...
  65. Shibata Y, Haruki N, Kuwabara Y, Nishiwaki T, Kato J, Shinoda N, et al. Expression of PTTG (pituitary tumor transforming gene) in esophageal cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2002;32:233-7 pubmed
    Recently, a vertebrate securin [pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) in humans] has been identified that inhibits sister chromatid separation and is involved in malignant transformation and tumorigenesis...
  66. Tsai S, Lin S, Cheng Y, Chen H, Wing L. Expression and functional analysis of pituitary tumor transforming gene-1 [corrected] in uterine leiomyomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:3715-23 pubmed
    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG-1) is a novel protooncogene overexpressed in numerous cancer cell lines and cancers...
  67. Ghayad S, Vendrell J, Bieche I, Spyratos F, Dumontet C, Treilleux I, et al. Identification of TACC1, NOV, and PTTG1 as new candidate genes associated with endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. J Mol Endocrinol. 2009;42:87-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight genes (TACC1, NOV, PTTG1, MAD2L1, BAK1, TGFB2, BIRC5, and CCNE2) were significantly overexpressed in samples from ER-positive breast cancer ..
  68. Kakar S, Malik M. Suppression of lung cancer with siRNA targeting PTTG. Int J Oncol. 2006;29:387-95 pubmed
    Pituitary transforming gene (PTTG) is frequently expressed at high levels in malignant tumors. We report high levels of expression of PTTG in various lung tumors and tumor-derived cell lines...
  69. Li H, Yin C, Zhang B, Sun Y, Shi L, Liu N, et al. PTTG1 promotes migration and invasion of human non-small cell lung cancer cells and is modulated by miR-186. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:2145-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) expression was associated with lymph node and distant metastasis in patients with NSCLC and was correlated with ..
  70. Yoon C, Kim M, Lee H, Kim R, Lim E, Yoo K, et al. PTTG1 oncogene promotes tumor malignancy via epithelial to mesenchymal transition and expansion of cancer stem cell population. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:19516-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyzed expression levels of pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1), a relatively uncharacterized oncoprotein, in patient-derived breast cancer tissues with corresponding normal ..
  71. Tian W, Li B, Warrington R, Tomchick D, Yu H, Luo X. Structural analysis of human Cdc20 supports multisite degron recognition by APC/C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18419-24 pubmed publisher
    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) promotes anaphase onset and mitotic exit through ubiquitinating securin and cyclin B1...
  72. Tong Y, Ben Shlomo A, Zhou C, Wawrowsky K, Melmed S. Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 regulates Aurora kinase A activity. Oncogene. 2008;27:6385-95 pubmed publisher
    ..tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1), a transforming gene highly expressed in several cancers, is a mammalian securin protein regulating both G1/S and G2/M phases...
  73. Wu T, Merbl Y, Huo Y, Gallop J, Tzur A, Kirschner M. UBE2S drives elongation of K11-linked ubiquitin chains by the anaphase-promoting complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1355-60 pubmed publisher
    ..UBE2S copurifies with APC; dominant-negative Ube2S slows down APC substrate degradation in functional cell-cycle extracts. We propose that Ube2S is a critical, unique component of the APC ubiquitination pathway. ..
  74. Kim D, Franklyn J, Boelaert K, Eggo M, Watkinson J, McCabe C. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) stimulates thyroid cell proliferation via a vascular endothelial growth factor/kinase insert domain receptor/inhibitor of DNA binding-3 autocrine pathway. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:4603-11 pubmed
    ..We recently reported that the proangiogenic pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) stimulates VEGF and up-regulates inhibitor of DNA binding-3 (ID3), an important gene in VEGF-dependent ..