Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: PTGS2
Description: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Alias: COX-2, COX2, GRIPGHS, PGG/HS, PGHS-2, PHS-2, hCox-2, prostaglandin G/H synthase 2, PGH synthase 2, PHS II, cyclooxygenase 2, cyclooxygenase 2b, prostaglandin H2 synthase 2, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)
Publications308 found, 100 shown here
- Bu X, Zhao C. The association between cyclooxygenase-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:1479-84 pubmed publisher..The evidence from the meta-analysis supports an association between COX-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and HCC risk in Asians. Further studies with large sample and careful design are needed to identify the possible association in Caucasians. ..
- Jiao G, Ren T, Lu Q, Sun Y, Lou Z, Peng X, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in osteosarcoma: a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:2489-95 pubmed publisher..741, 95 % CI 0.762-3.979, P = 0.188), but the difference was not significant. Therefore, this meta-analysis demonstrated that high COX-2 expression might be an unfavorable prognostic effect in osteosarcoma. ..
- Wang X, Huang M, Zhang X, Hua R, Guo W. COX-2-765G>C polymorphism increases the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73213 pubmed publisher..In summary, the COX-2-765 C allele was related to increased cancer susceptibility, especially gastric cancer and cancer in the Asian population. ..
- Chen S, Wu C, Lee Y, Tam K, Tsai Y, Liou J, et al. Caveolin-1 interacts with Derlin-1 and promotes ubiquitination and degradation of cyclooxygenase-2 via collaboration with p97 complex. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:33462-9 pubmed publisher..Here, we identified Cav-1 as a key player in Derlin-1- and p97-mediated cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) ubiquitination and degradation...
- Mohamed F, Hussein Y, El Deen I, Sabea M. Cyclooxygenase-2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt. Mol Biol Rep. 2014;41:1461-8 pubmed publisher..Overexpression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been suggested to be associated with hepatocarcinogenesis...
- Gharib A, Karam R, Abd El Rahman T, Elsawy W. COX-2 polymorphisms -765G?C and -1195A?G and hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Gene. 2014;543:234-6 pubmed publisher..37). The A allele was present significantly more often in HCC patients (OR 1.5; 95%CI, 1.05-2.14). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the -1195AA genotype and A allele have an important role in HCC risk in Egyptian patients. ..
- Subbaram S, Lyons S, Svenson K, Hammond S, McCabe L, Chittur S, et al. Integrin ?3?1 controls mRNA splicing that determines Cox-2 mRNA stability in breast cancer cells. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:1179-89 pubmed publisher..The induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) by integrin ?3?1 in breast cancer cells can promote tumor progression...
- Chan C, Ma B, Hui E, Wong S, Mo F, Leung S, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma--a prognostic evaluation and correlation with hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor. Oral Oncol. 2007;43:373-8 pubmed..Contrary to previous report, this study failed to demonstrate any prognostic significance of COX-2 expression alone or co-expression with HIF-1alpha or VEGF in advanced NPC. ..
- Sales K, Katz A, Howard B, Soeters R, Millar R, Jabbour H, et al. Cyclooxygenase-1 is up-regulated in cervical carcinomas: autocrine/paracrine regulation of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin e receptors, and angiogenic factors by cyclooxygenase-1. Cancer Res. 2002;62:424-32 pubmed..It is likely that similar mechanisms may act in vivo to modulate tumorigenesis of cervical carcinomas. ..
- Richardson J, Ottolini M, Pletneva L, Boukhvalova M, Zhang S, Vogel S, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection induces cyclooxygenase 2: a potential target for RSV therapy. J Immunol. 2005;174:4356-64 pubmed..Treatment of cotton rats with indomethacin significantly mitigated lung histopathology produced by RSV. The studies described in this study provide the first evidence that COX-2 is a potential therapeutic target in RSV-induced disease. ..
- Eibl G, Bruemmer D, Okada Y, Duffy J, Law R, Reber H, et al. PGE(2) is generated by specific COX-2 activity and increases VEGF production in COX-2-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:887-97 pubmed..These data identify a subset of human PaCa cell lines that express functional COX-2 enzyme. PGE(2) generated by specific COX-2 activity increases VEGF secretion in human PaCa cells through an autocrine mechanism. ..
- Scoditti E, Massaro M, Carluccio M, Distante A, Storelli C, De Caterina R. PPARgamma agonists inhibit angiogenesis by suppressing PKCalpha- and CREB-mediated COX-2 expression in the human endothelium. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;86:302-10 pubmed publisher..The anti-angiogenic effect of PPARgamma agonists is due, at least in part, to an interference with the VEGF-stimulated PKCalpha-mediated activation of CREB and the related expression of COX-2. ..
- Pandey S, Mittal R, Srivastava M, Srivastava K, Mittal B. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms and risk of cervical cancer in a North Indian population. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010;20:625-30 pubmed publisher..Further studies evaluating the role of COX-2 gene polymorphisms in ethnically diverse populations and a larger cohort may help in understanding the etiopathogenesis of cervical cancer in women worldwide. ..
- Chen L, Sooranna S, Lei K, Kandola M, Bennett P, Liang Z, et al. Cyclic AMP increases COX-2 expression via mitogen-activated kinase in human myometrial cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:1447-60 pubmed publisher..These data provide further evidence in support of a dual role for cAMP in the regulation of myometrial function...
- Kranzhofer R, Ruef J. Aspirin resistance in coronary artery disease is correlated to elevated markers for oxidative stress but not to the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) 1/2, a novel COX-1 polymorphism or the PlA(1/2) polymorphism. Platelets. 2006;17:163-9 pubmed..However, a correlation exists to elevated eicosanoids generated by oxidative stress indicating COX-1-independent pathways for the generation of platelet activating molecules represent a potential cause for AR. ..
- Gao J, Ke Q, Ma H, Wang Y, Zhou Y, Hu Z, et al. Functional polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene and risk of breast cancer in a Chinese population. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007;70:908-15 pubmed..16, 95% CI 1.14-73.51 for A-1195C-765T8473) compared with the most common haplotype, G-1195G-765T8473. These findings indicate that these three variants in the regulatory regions of COX-2 may contribute to the etiology of breast cancer. ..
- Wu H, Chang C, Ke H, Chang W, Cheng H, Lin H, et al. Association of cyclooxygenase 2 polymorphic genotypes with prostate cancer in taiwan. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:221-5 pubmedThe aim of this study was to evaluate the association of polymorphic genotypes in the cyclooxygenase 2 gene (COX2), which is reported to be overexpressed in prostate tumors, with Taiwan prostate cancer patients...
- Chiang C, Cheng Y, Lin C, Lee H, Tsai F, Tseng S, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2 expression in pterygium. Mol Vis. 2007;13:635-8 pubmed..Because cyclooxygenase 2 (COX 2) was reported to exist and play an important role in UV-related cutaneous carcinogenesis, it is ..
- Zhu H, Cong J, Yu D, Bresnahan W, Shenk T. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 blocks human cytomegalovirus replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3932-7 pubmedb>Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA, protein, and activity are transiently induced after infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus...
- Fradet V, Cheng I, Casey G, Witte J. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids, cyclooxygenase-2 genetic variation, and aggressive prostate cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:2559-66 pubmed publisher..Our findings support the hypothesis that LC n-3 may impact prostate inflammation and carcinogenesis through the COX-2 enzymatic pathway. ..
- Papafili A, Hill M, Brull D, McAnulty R, Marshall R, Humphries S, et al. Common promoter variant in cyclooxygenase-2 represses gene expression: evidence of role in acute-phase inflammatory response. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:1631-6 pubmed..05 for all time points). For several acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, -765G>C may influence the variability of response observed. ..
- Langsenlehner U, Yazdani Biuki B, Eder T, Renner W, Wascher T, Paulweber B, et al. The cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2) 8473T>C polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:1392-4 pubmed..The gene for COX-2, designated as PTGS2, carries a common polymorphism at position 8473 in the 3'-untranslated region (PTGS2 8473T>C), which has been ..
- Shahedi K, Lindstrom S, Zheng S, Wiklund F, Adolfsson J, Sun J, et al. Genetic variation in the COX-2 gene and the association with prostate cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:668-72 pubmed..036, global simulated p-value=0.046). This study supports the hypothesis that inflammation is involved in prostate carcinogenesis and that sequence variation within the COX-2 gene influence the risk of prostate cancer. ..
- Athanassiadou P, Grapsa D, Athanassiades P, Gonidi M, Athanassiadou A, Tsipis A, et al. The prognostic significance of COX-2 and survivin expression in ovarian cancer. Pathol Res Pract. 2008;204:241-9 pubmed publisher..Further investigations of the exact prognostic and therapeutic implications of COX-2 and survivin expression are strongly warranted. ..
- Maitra A, Ashfaq R, Gunn C, Rahman A, Yeo C, Sohn T, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2 expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: an immunohistochemical analysis with automated cellular imaging. Am J Clin Pathol. 2002;118:194-201 pubmed..30 lesions; pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia [PanIN], 65; normal pancreatic ducts, 30) for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) with an automated platform...
- Cipollone F, Toniato E, Martinotti S, Fazia M, Iezzi A, Cuccurullo C, et al. A polymorphism in the cyclooxygenase 2 gene as an inherited protective factor against myocardial infarction and stroke. JAMA. 2004;291:2221-8 pubmed..Production of macrophage MMP-2 and MMP-9 is induced by cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E(2) synthesis...
- Saxena A, Prasad K, Ghoshal U, Bhagat M, Krishnani N, Husain N. Polymorphism of -765G > C COX-2 is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcer disease in addition to H pylori infection: a study from northern India. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:1498-503 pubmed..34). -765G > C COX-2 polymorphism with or without H pylori could be a marker for genetic susceptibility to gastric adenocarcinoma. COX-2 polymorphism in presence of H pylori infection might be useful in predicting the risk of PUD. ..
- Fernandez P, de Beer P, van der Merwe L, Heyns C. COX-2 promoter polymorphisms and the association with prostate cancer risk in South African men. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:2347-50 pubmed publisher..54 versus ACC; CI = 2.12-5.92; P < 0.0001). These findings in conjunction with findings in other populations of African descent might suggest a common causal variant for prostate cancer in COX-2, or a variant in a nearby gene. ..
- Srivastava K, Srivastava A, Pandey S, Kumar A, Mittal B. Functional polymorphisms of the cyclooxygenase (PTGS2) gene and risk for gallbladder cancer in a North Indian population. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:774-80 pubmed publisherCyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2) overexpression has been implicated in various cancers...
- Cha J, Li S, Cha I. Association between expression of embryonic lethal abnormal vision-like protein HuR and cyclooxygenase-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2011;33:627-37 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that the cytoplasmic expression of HuR is associated with COX-2 expression in OSCCs and HuR can regulate COX-2 expression in oral cancer cell lines. ..
- Onguru O, Scheithauer B, Kovacs K, Vidal S, Jin L, Zhang S, et al. Analysis of Cox-2 and thromboxane synthase expression in pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. Endocr Pathol. 2004;15:17-27 pubmed..In summary, TBXAS appears to be one of the up-regulated downstream enzymes of Cox metabolism in pituitary tumors. Both Cox-2 and TBXAS may play an important role in pituitary tumor development and progression. ..
- Ladetto M, Vallet S, Trojan A, Dell Aquila M, Monitillo L, Rosato R, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently expressed in multiple myeloma and is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Blood. 2005;105:4784-91 pubmedb>Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an inflammation-associated enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of many solid tumors, but little is known about its presence and role in hematologic neoplasms...
- Takai T, Kanaoka S, Yoshida K, Hamaya Y, Ikuma M, Miura N, et al. Fecal cyclooxygenase 2 plus matrix metalloproteinase 7 mRNA assays as a marker for colorectal cancer screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:1888-93 pubmed publisherWe previously reported that fecal cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA assay, detecting COX-2 mRNA in feces, is useful for identifying subjects with colorectal cancer (CRC)...
- Barisik N, Bozkurt S, Gumus M, Kaygusuz I, Karadayi N, Bas E, et al. Expression and prognostic significance of Cox-2 and p-53 in Hodgkin lymphomas: a retrospective study. Diagn Pathol. 2010;5:19 pubmed publisher..However the difference between these two subtypes was not significant. This submission must be advocated by studies with large series. ..
- Vogel U, Christensen J, Wallin H, Friis S, Nexø B, Tjønneland A. Polymorphisms in COX-2, NSAID use and risk of basal cell carcinoma in a prospective study of Danes. Mutat Res. 2007;617:138-46 pubmed..While it cannot be ruled out that the present findings are due to chance, the results indicate that high COX-2 expression may increase risk of BCC while NSAID use may be protective. ..
- Ferrandina G, Ranelletti F, Legge F, Gessi M, Salutari V, Distefano M, et al. Prognostic role of the ratio between cyclooxygenase-2 in tumor and stroma compartments in cervical cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:3117-23 pubmed..The assessment of COX-2 status in both tumor and stroma compartment could provide valuable information to identify cervical cancer patients endowed with a very poor chance of response to neoadjuvant treatment and unfavorable prognosis. ..
- Surowiak P, Materna V, Matkowski R, Szczuraszek K, Kornafel J, Wojnar A, et al. Relationship between the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and MDR1/P-glycoprotein in invasive breast cancers and their prognostic significance. Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7:R862-70 pubmedRecent reports suggest that expression of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme may up-regulate expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), an exponent of resistance to cytostatic drugs...
- Timoshenko A, Chakraborty C, Wagner G, Lala P. COX-2-mediated stimulation of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C in human breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:1154-63 pubmed..These results, for the first time, demonstrate a regulatory role of COX-2 in VEGF-C synthesis (and thereby lymphangiogenesis) in human breast cancer, which is mediated at least in part by EP1/EP4 receptors. ..
- Antonacopoulou A, Tsamandas A, Petsas T, Liava A, Scopa C, Papavassiliou A, et al. EGFR, HER-2 and COX-2 levels in colorectal cancer. Histopathology. 2008;53:698-706 pubmed..Further investigation is required to evaluate the impact of these markers on the management of patients with colorectal cancer. ..
- Koki A, Khan N, Woerner B, Seibert K, Harmon J, Dannenberg A, et al. Characterization of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) during tumorigenesis in human epithelial cancers: evidence for potential clinical utility of COX-2 inhibitors in epithelial cancers. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002;66:13-8 pubmed..These data collectively imply COX-2 may play an important role during premalignant hyperproliferation, as well as the later stages of invasive carcinoma and metastasis in various human epithelial cancers. ..
- N Guessan P, Hippenstiel S, Etouem M, Zahlten J, Beermann W, Lindner D, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae induced p38 MAPK- and NF-kappaB-dependent COX-2 expression in human lung epithelium. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;290:L1131-8 pubmed..In addition, recruitment of NF-kappaB subunit p65/RelA and RNA polymerase II to the cox2 promoter depended on p38 MAPK but not on JNK activity...
- Li F, Liu Y, Chen H, Liao D, Shen Y, Xu F, et al. EGFR and COX-2 protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer and the correlation with clinical features. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011;30:27 pubmed publisher..555). COX-2 and EGFR are over-expressed in NSCLC. EGFR is an independent prognostic factor and a predictive factor for radiotherapy response in NSCLC. ..
- Chan M, Wong C, Cheng A, Chan V, Chan K, To K, et al. Targeted inhibition of COX-2 expression by RNA interference suppresses tumor growth and potentiates chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human gastric cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:1557-62 pubmed..RNA interference may be a promising alternative to specific COX-2 inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer. ..
- Jiang W, Douglas Jones A, Mansel R. Levels of expression of lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenase-2 in human breast cancer. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003;69:275-81 pubmed
- Sørensen M, Autrup H, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Raaschou Nielsen O. A genetic polymorphism in prostaglandin synthase 2 (8473, T-->C) and the risk of lung cancer. Cancer Lett. 2005;226:49-54 pubmedProstaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) mediated production of prostaglandins is an important step in the inflammatory response...
- Colaizzo D, Fofi L, Tiscia G, Guglielmi R, Cocomazzi N, Prencipe M, et al. The COX-2 G/C -765 polymorphism may modulate the occurrence of cerebrovascular ischemia. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2006;17:93-6 pubmed..07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.61). Our data show an association between the COX-2 G/C-765 gene polymorphism and cerebrovascular ischemia, suggesting that the COX-2 gene is a susceptibility locus for the risk of cerebrovascular ischemic disease. ..
- Ulrich C, Whitton J, Yu J, Sibert J, Sparks R, Potter J, et al. PTGS2 (COX-2) -765G > C promoter variant reduces risk of colorectal adenoma among nonusers of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:616-9 pubmedProstaglandin H synthase 2 (PTGS2) or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of inflammation, and its inhibition is associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer...
- Sakaki M, Makino R, Hiroishi K, Ueda K, Eguchi J, Hiraide A, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene promoter polymorphisms affect susceptibility to hepatitis C virus infection and disease progression. Hepatol Res. 2010;40:1219-26 pubmed publisher..However, once chronic infection is established, the -443TT genotype of the OPN promoter region and the -1195GG genotype of the COX-2 promoter are thought to promote inflammation and contribute to the progression of liver disease. ..
- Denkert C, Winzer K, Müller B, Weichert W, Pest S, Köbel M, et al. Elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is a negative prognostic factor for disease free survival and overall survival in patients with breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2003;97:2978-87 pubmed..It remains to be investigated whether treatment with selective inhibitors of COX-2 may be an additional therapeutic option for patients with breast carcinoma. ..
- Boland G, Butt I, Prasad R, Knox W, Bundred N. COX-2 expression is associated with an aggressive phenotype in ductal carcinoma in situ. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:423-9 pubmed..Cyclooxygenase type-2 inhibition may potentially prevent the development of ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. ..
- Talar Wojnarowska R, Gasiorowska A, Olakowski M, Lampe P, Smolarz B, Romanowicz Makowska H, et al. Role of cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms in pancreatic carcinogenesis. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:4113-7 pubmed publisher..These preliminary results indicate that the -1195G/A COX-2 polymorphism may play an important role in PC prognosis and carcinogenesis. ..
- Saukkonen K, Rintahaka J, Sivula A, Buskens C, van Rees B, Rio M, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 and gastric carcinogenesis. APMIS. 2003;111:915-25 pubmed..Taken together these data support efforts to initiate clinical studies to investigate the effect of Cox-2 inhibitors as chemotherapeutic agents and as adjuvant treatment modalities against gastric neoplasias. ..
- Wang W, Bergh A, Damber J. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression correlates with local chronic inflammation and tumor neovascularization in human prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:3250-6 pubmed..These findings suggest that COX-2 may be an effective therapeutic target in prostate cancer treatment. ..
- Kwagyan J, Apprey V, Ashktorab H. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis of COX-2 and risk of colorectal adenoma development. Clin Transl Sci. 2012;5:60-4 pubmed publisher..Besides, these variations should be taken into account for disease-based association studies in which the COX-2 polymorphism is considered as a candidate gene. Clin Trans Sci 2012; Volume 5: 60-64...
- Koch A, Gustafsson B, Fohlin H, Sörenson S. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in lung cancer cells evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Diagn Cytopathol. 2011;39:188-93 pubmed publisher..There is a great variation in the proportion of COX-2-positive cells among patients and in the intensity of staining among individual cells in many single cases. ..
- Ballif B, Mincek N, Barratt J, Wilson M, Simmons D. Interaction of cyclooxygenases with an apoptosis- and autoimmunity-associated protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5544-9 pubmed..It also identifies Nuc as a potential regulator of COXs through this interaction. ..
- Denkert C, Weichert W, Pest S, Koch I, Licht D, Köbel M, et al. Overexpression of the embryonic-lethal abnormal vision-like protein HuR in ovarian carcinoma is a prognostic factor and is associated with increased cyclooxygenase 2 expression. Cancer Res. 2004;64:189-95 pubmed..In addition, it would be interesting to investigate the prognostic role of increased cytoplasmic expression of HuR in prospective studies. ..
- Hedelin M, Chang E, Wiklund F, Bellocco R, Klint A, Adolfsson J, et al. Association of frequent consumption of fatty fish with prostate cancer risk is modified by COX-2 polymorphism. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:398-405 pubmed..Frequent consumption of fatty fish and marine fatty acids appears to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, and this association is modified by genetic variation in the COX-2 gene. ..
- Sitarz R, Leguit R, de Leng W, Polak M, Morsink F, Bakker O, et al. The COX-2 promoter polymorphism -765 G>C is associated with early-onset, conventional and stump gastric cancers. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:685-90 pubmed publisher..Although early-onset gastric cancers appear to have a unique COX-2 expression pattern when compared with conventional gastric cancer, the exact mechanism by which this occurs is yet to be elucidated. ..
- Hamaya Y, Yoshida K, Takai T, Ikuma M, Hishida A, Kanaoka S. Factors that contribute to faecal cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression in subjects with colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:916-21 pubmed publisher..COX-2 mRNA expression in faeces seems to originate from tumour lesion and to be affected by factors such as the number of exfoliated cells, exfoliation of inflammatory cells, COX-2 mRNA expression in tumour, and tumour size. ..
- Kyzas P, Stefanou D, Agnantis N. COX-2 expression correlates with VEGF-C and lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:153-60 pubmed..Also, the predictive ability for mortality of regional lymph node metastasis can be improved with the combined evaluation of the immunohistochemical expression of these two proteins. ..
- Cressey R, Pimpa S, Tontrong W, Watananupong O, Leartprasertsuke N. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in colorectal adenocarcinoma is associated with p53 accumulation and hdm2 overexpression. Cancer Lett. 2006;233:232-9 pubmed..Although mutation of p53 has been previously reported to be associated with COX-2 induction, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show the relationship between HDM2 overexpression and COX-2 overexpression. ..
- Loukanov T, Kirilov M, Furstenberger G, Muller Decker K. Localization of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in human recurrent colorectal cancer. Clin Invest Med. 2010;33:E22-9 pubmed..These observations give additional information about the possibility that COX-2 could be involved in tumor promotion during colorectal cancer progression. ..
- Glynn S, Prueitt R, Ridnour L, Boersma B, Dorsey T, Wink D, et al. COX-2 activation is associated with Akt phosphorylation and poor survival in ER-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:626 pubmed publisher..The findings suggest that COX-2-specific inhibitors and inhibitors of the Akt pathway may act synergistically as anticancer drugs in the ER-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer subtype. ..
- Sinicrope F, Gill S. Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in colorectal cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2004;23:63-75 pubmed..Additionally, evidence supporting the role of NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of human colorectal cancer is reviewed. ..
- Sansbury L, Millikan R, Schroeder J, North K, Moorman P, Keku T, et al. COX-2 polymorphism, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and risk of colon cancer in African Americans (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17:257-66 pubmed
- Strillacci A, Griffoni C, Sansone P, Paterini P, Piazzi G, Lazzarini G, et al. MiR-101 downregulation is involved in cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression in human colon cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:1439-47 pubmed publisher..An impairment of miR-101 levels could represent one of the leading causes of COX-2 overexpression in colon cancer cells. ..
- Schwartzbaum J, Ahlbom A, Malmer B, Lonn S, Brookes A, Doss H, et al. Polymorphisms associated with asthma are inversely related to glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6459-65 pubmed..However, our findings are also consistent with associations between IL-4RA, IL-13, and GBM that are independent of their role in allergic conditions. ..
- Mohan A, Sooranna S, Lindstrom T, Johnson M, Bennett P. The effect of mechanical stretch on cyclooxygenase type 2 expression and activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB activity in human amnion cells. Endocrinology. 2007;148:1850-7 pubmed..Stretch of the amnion may contribute to increased expression of COX-2- and other AP-1- and NF-kappaB-regulated genes with the onset of labor in the human. ..
- Ogino S, Kirkner G, Nosho K, Irahara N, Kure S, Shima K, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:8221-7 pubmed publisherCyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; PTGS2) is considered to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis and is often up-regulated in colon cancers...
- Wild P, Kunz Schughart L, Stoehr R, Burger M, Blaszyk H, Simon R, et al. High-throughput tissue microarray analysis of COX2 expression in urinary bladder cancer. Int J Oncol. 2005;27:385-91 pubmedTo investigate whether protein expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) is associated with tumor phenotype, immunohistochemical alterations, and clinical outcome in urinary bladder cancer (BC)...
- Ferrandina G, Lauriola L, Distefano M, Zannoni G, Gessi M, Legge F, et al. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression is associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor survival in cervical cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:973-81 pubmed..The assessment of COX-2 status could provide additional information to identify patients with cervical cancer with a poor chance of response to neoadjuvant treatment and unfavorable prognosis. ..
- Grimminger P, Stöhlmacher J, Vallbohmer D, Schneider P, Holscher A, Metzger R, et al. Prognostic Significance and Clinicopathological Associations of COX-2 SNP in Patients with Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer. J Oncol. 2009;2009:139590 pubmed publisher..The results suggest COX-2 926G>C SNP as a molecular marker for lymph node involvement in this disease. ..
- Brosens L, Iacobuzio Donahue C, Keller J, Hustinx S, Carvalho R, Morsink F, et al. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression in duodenal compared with colonic tissues in familial adenomatous polyposis and relationship to the -765G -> C COX-2 polymorphism. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:4090-6 pubmed..As a result, duodenal adenocarcinoma has become a leading cause of death in patients with FAP. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition is effective against colorectal polyposis in FAP, but is less effective in treating ..
- Polydorides A, Kalish R, Witkin S, Baergen R. A fetal cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphism is associated with placental malperfusion. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2007;26:284-90 pubmed..Thus, a fetal polymorphism in the COX-2 gene influences the occurrence of placental malperfusion and ischemia, which may be of sufficient severity to promote or allow the development of IUGR. ..
- Xu K, Shu H. EGFR activation results in enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent activation of the Sp1/Sp3 transcription factors in human gliomas. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6121-9 pubmed
- Badawi A, Habib S, Mohammed M, Abadi A, Michael M. Influence of cigarette smoking on prostaglandin synthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in human urinary bladder cancer. Cancer Invest. 2002;20:651-6 pubmed
- Sawaoka H, Dixon D, Oates J, Boutaud O. Tristetraprolin binds to the 3'-untranslated region of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA. A polyadenylation variant in a cancer cell line lacks the binding site. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:13928-35 pubmed..However, the truncated transcript escaped tristetraprolin binding and downregulation. ..
- Matsubayashi H, Infante J, Winter J, Klein A, Schulick R, Hruban R, et al. Tumor COX-2 expression and prognosis of patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007;6:1569-75 pubmed..52 (95% CI 1.04-2.22) versus 1.11 (95% CI 0.75-1.67) in cancers <3 cm. Tumor COX-2 expression portends a poor prognosis for patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, particularly in tumors > or =3 cm. ..
- Upadhyay R, Jain M, Kumar S, Ghoshal U, Mittal B. Functional polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene and risk for esophageal squmaous cell carcinoma. Mutat Res. 2009;663:52-9 pubmed publisher..Interaction of COX-2 -1195GA and -765C carrier genotypes also modulates ESCC risk. ..
- Andersen V, Ostergaard M, Christensen J, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Vogel U. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:407 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that MDR1 polymorphisms affect the relationship between meat and CRC risk. ..
- Liu F, He Y, Peng X, Wang W, Yang X. Association of the 8473T>C cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene polymorphism with lung cancer risk in Asians. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11:1257-62 pubmed..54, 95% CI=0.31 to 0.95) stratified by pathological type. Our results suggest the COX-2 gene is a factor for suffering from lung cancer, especially of small cell type among Asians. ..
- Sackett M, Bairati I, Meyer F, Jobin E, Lussier S, Fortin A, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression in glottic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:67-73 pubmed publisher..Future studies are needed to explain observed effects on SPC. COX-2 expression may prove helpful in defining an individual patient's prognosis. ..
- Niesporek S, Kristiansen G, Thoma A, Weichert W, Noske A, Buckendahl A, et al. Expression of the ELAV-like protein HuR in human prostate carcinoma is an indicator of disease relapse and linked to COX-2 expression. Int J Oncol. 2008;32:341-7 pubmed..Our results point to a potential prognostic role of HuR expression in prostate cancer diagnostics and propose HuR as a future therapeutic target in prostate cancer therapy. ..
- Kim E, Raval A, Perez Pinzon M. Preconditioning mediated by sublethal oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 phosphorylation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28:1329-40 pubmed publisher..Therefore, our findings suggest that PC signaling cascade involves STAT3 activation after varepsilonPKC and ERK1/2 activation. Finally, we show that STAT3 activation mediates COX-2 expression and ischemic tolerance. ..
- Sonoda R, Naomoto Y, Shirakawa Y, Fujiwara Y, Yamatsuji T, Noma K, et al. Preferential up-regulation of heparanase and cyclooxygenase-2 in carcinogenesis of Barrett's oesophagus and intestinal-type gastric carcinoma. Histopathology. 2010;57:90-100 pubmed publisher..HPSE and COX-2 are preferentially up-regulated in Barrett's oesophagus and intestinal-type GC. These molecules may play an important role during the development of inflammation-related adenocarcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. ..
- Miladi Abdennadher I, Abdelmaksoud Dammak R, Ayed Guerfali D, Ayadi L, Khabir A, Amouri A, et al. Expression of COX-2 and E-cadherin in Tunisian patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Acta Histochem. 2012;114:577-81 pubmed publisher..006), and in an advanced stage (P=0.001). Survival analysis showed that COX-2 over-expression confers a reduced overall survival rate (Plog rank=0.036) and is an independent factor predictive for prognosis. ..
- He J, Zhang Q, Ren Z, Li Y, Li X, Zhou W, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 -765 G/C polymorphisms and susceptibility to hepatitis B-related liver cancer in Han Chinese population. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:4163-8 pubmed publisher..COX-2 -765 C allele genotype, drinking history and family history of liver cancer may increase the susceptibility to hepatitis B-related liver cancer in Gansu province, China. ..
- Kang S, Kim Y, Kim M, Yoon K, Kim J, Park N, et al. Polymorphism in the nuclear factor kappa-B binding promoter region of cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Cancer Lett. 2005;217:11-6 pubmed..Further research is needed to investigate the functional implications of the polymorphisms of the COX-2 promoter gene in human cancer. ..