Gene Symbol: PTGS2
Description: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Alias: COX-2, COX2, GRIPGHS, PGG/HS, PGHS-2, PHS-2, hCox-2, prostaglandin G/H synthase 2, PGH synthase 2, PHS II, cyclooxygenase 2, cyclooxygenase 2b, prostaglandin H2 synthase 2, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)
Species: human
Products:     PTGS2

Top Publications

  1. Zhao D, Xu D, Zhang X, Wang L, Tan W, Guo Y, et al. Interaction of cyclooxygenase-2 variants and smoking in pancreatic cancer: a possible role of nucleophosmin. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1659-68 pubmed
    ..Functional COX-2 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer and tobacco smoke specifically increases -765C promoter activity, which might be mediated by p-NPM. ..
  2. Parfenova H, Parfenov V, Shlopov B, Levine V, Falkos S, Pourcyrous M, et al. Dynamics of nuclear localization sites for COX-2 in vascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C166-78 pubmed
    ..COX-2 nuclear localization sites and trafficking between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in endothelial cells may indicate a novel function of COX-2 in regulating gene expression...
  3. Balistreri C, Caruso C, Carruba G, Miceli V, Campisi I, Listi F, et al. A pilot study on prostate cancer risk and pro-inflammatory genotypes: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:718-24 pubmed
    ..and treatment of PC, we have investigated the potential role of common SNPs of a gene cluster (TLR4, TLR2, PTGS2 and 5-Lo), involved in innate and inflammatory response, in PC cases, age-matched controls and centenarians from ..
  4. Yamauchi M, Lochhead P, Imamura Y, Kuchiba A, Liao X, Qian Z, et al. Physical activity, tumor PTGS2 expression, and survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:1142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..catenin) or CDKN1B (p27) status on colon cancer prognosis, interactive effects of physical activity and tumor PTGS2 (the official symbol for COX-2) status on clinical outcome remain unknown...
  5. Huang M, Chen Q, Xiao J, Liu C, Zhao X. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:363-73 pubmed publisher
  6. Zhang H, Xu Y, Zhang Z, Li L. Meta-analysis of epidemiological studies demonstrates significant association of PTGS2 polymorphism rs689470 and no significant association of rs20417 with prostate cancer. Genet Mol Res. 2012;11:1642-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Two common polymorphisms in the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene, rs20417 and rs689470, have been found to alter the risk for prostate cancer, but the various studies are ..
  7. Dhakal H, Naume B, Synnestvedt M, Borgen E, Kaaresen R, Schlichting E, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in invasive breast carcinomas and its prognostic impact. Histol Histopathol. 2012;27:1315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, COX-2 expression in this series was associated with the presence of hormone receptors. Low COX-2 expression was observed in triple-negative breast carcinomas. ..
  8. Shao N, Feng N, Wang Y, Mi Y, Li T, Hua L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of COX-2 expression and polymorphisms in prostate cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:10997-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). COX-2 might play an important role in the progress of PCa, overexpression of COX-2 correlates with T3-T4 stages of PCa. COX-2 might be a potential therapy target for PCa and work as a prognostic factor for PCa patients. ..
  9. Bu X, Zhao C. The association between cyclooxygenase-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:1479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence from the meta-analysis supports an association between COX-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and HCC risk in Asians. Further studies with large sample and careful design are needed to identify the possible association in Caucasians. ..

More Information

Publications196 found, 100 shown here

  1. Jiao G, Ren T, Lu Q, Sun Y, Lou Z, Peng X, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in osteosarcoma: a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:2489-95 pubmed publisher
    ..741, 95 % CI 0.762-3.979, P = 0.188), but the difference was not significant. Therefore, this meta-analysis demonstrated that high COX-2 expression might be an unfavorable prognostic effect in osteosarcoma. ..
  2. Wang X, Huang M, Zhang X, Hua R, Guo W. COX-2-765G>C polymorphism increases the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73213 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the COX-2-765 C allele was related to increased cancer susceptibility, especially gastric cancer and cancer in the Asian population. ..
  3. Chen S, Wu C, Lee Y, Tam K, Tsai Y, Liou J, et al. Caveolin-1 interacts with Derlin-1 and promotes ubiquitination and degradation of cyclooxygenase-2 via collaboration with p97 complex. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:33462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified Cav-1 as a key player in Derlin-1- and p97-mediated cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) ubiquitination and degradation...
  4. Mohamed F, Hussein Y, El Deen I, Sabea M. Cyclooxygenase-2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt. Mol Biol Rep. 2014;41:1461-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been suggested to be associated with hepatocarcinogenesis...
  5. Gharib A, Karam R, Abd El Rahman T, Elsawy W. COX-2 polymorphisms -765G?C and -1195A?G and hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Gene. 2014;543:234-6 pubmed publisher
    ..37). The A allele was present significantly more often in HCC patients (OR 1.5; 95%CI, 1.05-2.14). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the -1195AA genotype and A allele have an important role in HCC risk in Egyptian patients. ..
  6. Subbaram S, Lyons S, Svenson K, Hammond S, McCabe L, Chittur S, et al. Integrin ?3?1 controls mRNA splicing that determines Cox-2 mRNA stability in breast cancer cells. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:1179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) by integrin ?3?1 in breast cancer cells can promote tumor progression...
  7. Xiang Z, Ho L, Yemul S, Zhao Z, Qing W, Pompl P, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 promotes amyloid plaque deposition in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. Gene Expr. 2002;10:271-8 pubmed
    ..Collectively these data suggest that COX-2 influences APP processing and promotes amyloidosis in the brain. ..
  8. Nuñez F, Bravo S, Cruzat F, Montecino M, De Ferrari G. Wnt/?-catenin signaling enhances cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) transcriptional activity in gastric cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18562 pubmed publisher
    Increased expression of the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX2) is one of the main characteristics of gastric cancer (GC), which is a leading cause of death in the world, particularly in Asia and South America...
  9. St Onge M, Flamand N, Biarc J, Picard S, Bouchard L, Dussault A, et al. Characterization of prostaglandin E2 generation through the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway in human neutrophils. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:1235-45 pubmed
    ..These results highlight key differences in regulatory processes of the 5-LO and COX pathways, and enhance our knowledge at several levels in the PGE2 biosynthesis in neutrophils. ..
  10. Dossus L, Kaaks R, Canzian F, Albanes D, Berndt S, Boeing H, et al. PTGS2 and IL6 genetic variation and risk of breast and prostate cancer: results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:455-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic variants in the interleukin-6 (IL6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2, encoding for the COX-2 enzyme) genes, in particular, have been related to several cancer types, including breast ..
  11. Vogel U, Christensen J, Nexø B, Wallin H, Friis S, Tjønneland A. Peroxisome proliferator-activated [corrected] receptor-gamma2 [corrected] Pro12Ala, interaction with alcohol intake and NSAID use, in relation to risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of Danes. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:427-34 pubmed
    ..03). No effects were found for IL6 G-174C, IL8 T-251A and COX2 T8473C...
  12. Young L, Moore A, Sokol L, Meisner Kober N, Dixon D. The mRNA stability factor HuR inhibits microRNA-16 targeting of COX-2. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10:167-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Along with insight into altered ARE-mediated mRNA decay observed in colorectal cancer, these findings provide a new explanation for tumor-derived loss of miR-16. ..
  13. Kuwano T, Nakao S, Yamamoto H, Tsuneyoshi M, Yamamoto T, Kuwano M, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2 is a key enzyme for inflammatory cytokine-induced angiogenesis. FASEB J. 2004;18:300-10 pubmed
    Cyclooxygenase1 (COX1) and COX2 mediate the rate-limiting step in arachidonic acid metabolism...
  14. Coskunpinar E, Eraltan I, Turna A, Agachan B. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene and lung carcinoma risk. Med Oncol. 2011;28:1436-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, individuals with -765 CC, -1195 AG genotypes and -1195 G allele of COX-2 seem to be protective from lung carcinoma. We suggest that the COX-2-765G?C and -1195A?G genotypes may be a risk factor for lung carcinoma. ..
  15. Maguire J, Thakkinstian A, Levi C, Lincz L, Bisset L, Sturm J, et al. Impact of COX-2 rs5275 and rs20417 and GPIIIa rs5918 polymorphisms on 90-day ischemic stroke functional outcome: a novel finding. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2011;20:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..96; 95% CI = 1.03-3.72; P = .040). This is the first study to demonstrate associations between stroke functional outcome and 2 COX-2 variants (rs20417 and rs5275) and a GPIIIa variant (rs5918). ..
  16. Dixon D, Balch G, Kedersha N, Anderson P, Zimmerman G, Beauchamp R, et al. Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by the translational silencer TIA-1. J Exp Med. 2003;198:475-81 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate that TIA-1 functions as a translational silencer of COX-2 expression and support the hypothesis that dysregulated RNA-binding of TIA-1 promotes COX-2 expression in neoplasia. ..
  17. Wang R, Wang X, Lin F, Gao P, Dong K, Zhang H. shRNA-targeted cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibits proliferation, reduces invasion and enhances chemosensitivity in laryngeal carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;317:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..All these results suggest that knockdown of COX-2 expression can lead to potent antitumor activity and chemosensitizing activity to taxanes in human laryngeal carcinomas. ..
  18. Chiang S, Chen P, Lee C, Ko A, Lee K, Lin Y, et al. Up-regulation of inflammatory signalings by areca nut extract and role of cyclooxygenase-2 -1195G>a polymorphism reveal risk of oral cancer. Cancer Res. 2008;68:8489-98 pubmed publisher
  19. Krysan K, Merchant F, Zhu L, Dohadwala M, Luo J, Lin Y, et al. COX-2-dependent stabilization of survivin in non-small cell lung cancer. FASEB J. 2004;18:206-8 pubmed
    Elevated tumor cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression is associated with increased angiogenesis, tumor invasion and promotion of tumor cell resistance to apoptosis...
  20. Koh W, Yuan J, van den Berg D, Lee H, Yu M. Interaction between cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphism and dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on colon cancer risk: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:1760-4 pubmed
    ..38, 95% confidence interval=1.23-4.59). ..
  21. Yoshikawa R, Fujiwara Y, Koishi K, Kojima S, Matsumoto T, Yanagi H, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression after preoperative chemoradiotherapy correlates with more frequent esophageal cancer recurrence. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:2283-8 pubmed
    ..These findings support the use of anti-angiogenic COX-2 inhibitors in the treatment of ESCC. ..
  22. Pandey M, Prakash O, Santhi W, Soumithran C, Pillai R. Overexpression of COX-2 gene in oral cancer is independent of stage of disease and degree of differentiation. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37:379-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Smokeless tobacco and areca nut chewing is proposed as a possible factor. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) receptors are present on neoplastic cells and are proposed to participate in initiation, ..
  23. Pero R, Peluso S, Angrisano T, Tuccillo C, Sacchetti S, Keller S, et al. Chromatin and DNA methylation dynamics of Helicobacter pylori-induced COX-2 activation. Int J Med Microbiol. 2011;301:140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that specific chromatin and DNA methylation changes occur at COX-2 gene in the first phases of Hp exposure in cultured gastric cells as a primary response to host-parasite interaction. ..
  24. Mariani F, Sena P, Marzona L, Riccio M, Fano R, Manni P, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1alpha protein expression is related to inflammation, and up-regulated since the early steps of colorectal carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. 2009;279:221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Neutrophils are a major source of oxidants, whereas cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) protein expression levels are increased in ..
  25. Carlson M, Wilson E, Prescott S. Regulation of COX-2 transcription in a colon cancer cell line by Pontin52/TIP49a. Mol Cancer. 2003;2:42 pubmed
  26. Denkert C, Thoma A, Niesporek S, Weichert W, Koch I, Noske A, et al. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human prostate carcinoma and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-association with increased expression of Polo-like kinase-1. Prostate. 2007;67:361-9 pubmed
    ..Cyclooxygenases (COX) as well as Polo-like kinases (PLK) are involved in proliferation and cell cycle regulation and have been suggested for preventive and therapeutic approaches in prostate carcinoma...
  27. Lee T, Jeon Y, Kim J, Park N, Kang S, Lee H, et al. Lack of association of the cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with risk of cervical cancer in Korean population. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1095:134-42 pubmed
    ..Our data did not reveal an association between COX-2 and iNOS polymorphisms with cervical cancer in Korean women. ..
  28. Xu D, Zhang X, Zhao P, Cai J, Zhao D, Tan W, et al. [Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter of cyclooxygenase COX-2 gene and hereditary susceptibility to pancreatic cancer]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;88:1961-5 pubmed
    ..The SNP of -1195A > G and -765G > C in the COX -2 promoter may play an important role in mediating hereditary susceptibility to developing pancreatic cancer. ..
  29. Su J, Shih J, Yen M, Jeng Y, Chang C, Hsieh C, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 induces EP1- and HER-2/Neu-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor-C up-regulation: a novel mechanism of lymphangiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 2004;64:554-64 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results provided evidence that COX-2 up-regulated VEGF-C and promotes lymphangiogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma via the EP(1)/Src/HER-2/Neu signaling pathway. ..
  30. Goodman J, Bowman E, Chanock S, Alberg A, Harris C. Arachidonate lipoxygenase (ALOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) polymorphisms and colon cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:2467-72 pubmed
    ..G-1699A and Glu254Lys in ALOX5; Gln261Arg in ALOX12; Leu237Met and Val481Ile in COX1; and C-645T and Val511Ala in COX2. Because of the significant role of arachidonic acid metabolism in colon cancer, we hypothesized that these ..
  31. Hegener H, Diehl K, Kurth T, Gaziano J, Ridker P, Zee R. Polymorphisms of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 gene, and prostaglandin-E receptor 2 gene, C-reactive protein concentrations and risk of atherothrombosis: a nested case-control approach. J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4:1718-22 pubmed
    Recent data have shown an association between polymorphisms of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 gene (PTGS2; alias COX-2), and prostaglandin-E receptor-2 gene (PTGER2) and risk of atherothrombotic disorders...
  32. Kurihara Y, Hatori M, Ando Y, Ito D, Toyoshima T, Tanaka M, et al. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 suppresses the invasiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines via down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 production and activation. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2009;26:425-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 may therefore be a beneficial strategy in the treatment of OSCC. ..
  33. Cho S, Park S, Choi Y, Seo S, Kim H, Park K, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in eutopic endometrium and ovarian endometriotic tissue in women with severe endometriosis. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2010;69:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Cox-2 expression increased in the eutopic endometrium and ovarian endometriotic tissue of the patients with endometriosis. These findings indicate that Cox-2 may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. ..
  34. Pankratz V, Sun Z, Aakre J, Li Y, Johnson C, Garces Y, et al. Systematic evaluation of genetic variants in three biological pathways on patient survival in low-stage non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2011;6:1488-95 pubmed publisher
    ..20). Gene-based analysis suggested that in addition to GSTM5 and ABCC4, variation in two other genes, PTGS2 and GSTA2, was also associated with OS...
  35. Wang D, DuBois R. Cyclooxygenase 2-derived prostaglandin E2 regulates the angiogenic switch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:415-6 pubmed
  36. Gunter M, Canzian F, Landi S, Chanock S, Sinha R, Rothman N. Inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and colorectal adenoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1126-31 pubmed
    ..IL8, TNF, and LTA) and anti-inflammatory (IL4, IL10, and IL13) cytokines and other inflammation-related genes (PTGS2 and PPARG) in a case-control study of risk factors for colorectal polyps in which all participants (ages 18-74 ..
  37. Chang E, Birmann B, Kasperzyk J, Conti D, Kraft P, Ambinder R, et al. Polymorphic variation in NFKB1 and other aspirin-related genes and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:976-86 pubmed publisher
    ..HL risk was not associated with SNPs in IKKA/CHUK, PTGS2/COX2, UDP1A6, or LTC4S. In conclusion, genetic variation in the NF-kappaB pathway seems to influence risk of HL...
  38. Kang J, Song K, Jeong K, Kim S, Choi C, Lee C, et al. Involvement of Cox-2 in the metastatic potential of chemotherapy-resistant breast cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:334 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, not only Cox-2 but also EP1 and EP3 could be important targets for chemosensitization and inhibition of metastasis in breast cancers that are resistant to chemotherapy. ..
  39. Zhang X, Miao X, Tan W, Ning B, Liu Z, Hong Y, et al. Identification of functional genetic variants in cyclooxygenase-2 and their association with risk of esophageal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2005;129:565-76 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that genetic variants in COX-2 may play a role in mediating susceptibility to esophageal cancer. ..
  40. Piranda D, Festa Vasconcellos J, Amaral L, Bergmann A, Vianna Jorge R. Polymorphisms in regulatory regions of cyclooxygenase-2 gene and breast cancer risk in Brazilians: a case-control study. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:613 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we evaluate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COX-2 gene (PTGS2) and the occurrence of breast cancer among Brazilian women...
  41. Zhang X, Zhong R, Liu L, Wang Y, Yuan J, Wang P, et al. Smoking and COX-2 functional polymorphisms interact to increase the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma in Chinese population. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21894 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to explore the interaction between smoking and functional polymorphisms of COX-2 in modulation of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) risk...
  42. Redondo S, Ruiz E, Gordillo Moscoso A, Navarro Dorado J, Ramajo M, Rodriguez E, et al. Overproduction of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the resistance to apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells from diabetic patients: a link between inflammation and apoptosis. Diabetologia. 2011;54:190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Transfection of VSMC from non-diabetic patients with a plasmid containing COX-2 (also known as PTGS2) increased basal production of COX-2 and BCL2 and mimicked the resistance to apoptosis that occurs in diabetic ..
  43. Gong Z, Bostick R, Xie D, Hurley T, Deng Z, Dixon D, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 genes and risk of colorectal adenoma. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2009;24:647-54 pubmed publisher
    Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, COX1 and COX2, are key in converting arachidonic acid (AA) into prostaglandins that have been associated with colorectal carcinogenesis...
  44. Gallo O, Schiavone N, Papucci L, Sardi I, Magnelli L, Franchi A, et al. Down-regulation of nitric oxide synthase-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 pathways by p53 in squamous cell carcinoma. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:723-32 pubmed
  45. Dong J, Dai J, Zhang M, Hu Z, Shen H. Potentially functional COX-2-1195G>A polymorphism increases the risk of digestive system cancers: a meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:1042-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between these three polymorphisms and the risk of cancer in diverse populations...
  46. Byeon J, Jung H, Lee Y, Lee D, Lee G, Myung S, et al. Clinicopathological significance of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and cyclooxygenase-2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;19:648-54 pubmed
    ..Thus the investigation of VEGF-C expression in ESCC may assist in management planning. ..
  47. Lin Y, Huang H, Wang L, Tsai C, Lung O, Dai C, et al. Polymorphisms of COX-2 -765G>C and p53 codon 72 and risks of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Taiwan population. Oral Oncol. 2008;44:798-804 pubmed publisher
    ..94) and OL (OR=6.73, 95%CI=2.84-19.87). We suggest that COX-2 -765G>C polymorphisms play a different role in OSCC development than in malignant potential of OSF and OL. However, p53 codon 72 polymorphisms show no such correlation. ..
  48. Sooranna S, Engineer N, Loudon J, Terzidou V, Bennett P, Johnson M. The mitogen-activated protein kinase dependent expression of prostaglandin H synthase-2 and interleukin-8 messenger ribonucleic acid by myometrial cells: the differential effect of stretch and interleukin-1{beta}. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:3517-27 pubmed
    ..We found no evidence of a synergistic effect of IL-1beta and stretch on myometrial expression of PGHS-2 and IL-8 mRNA. ..
  49. Pereira C, Medeiros R, Dinis Ribeiro M. Cyclooxygenase polymorphisms in gastric and colorectal carcinogenesis: are conclusive results available?. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;21:76-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-two studies were retrieved reporting a total of 26 COX polymorphisms (nine in COX1 and 17 in COX2 genes)...
  50. Bi N, Yang M, Zhang L, Chen X, Ji W, Ou G, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 genetic variants are associated with survival in unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:2383-90 pubmed publisher
    ..008; HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.87). COX-2 -1195G/A polymorphism is a potential predictive marker of survival in locally advanced NSCLC patients treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. ..
  51. Cui J, Salehi Rad S, Rogaeva E, Lukiw W. Characterization of a cyclooxygenase-2-765G-->C promoter polymorphism in human neural cells. Neuroreport. 2005;16:575-9 pubmed
  52. Park J, Choi J, Chae M, Lee W, Cha S, Son J, et al. Relationship between cyclooxygenase 8473T>C polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer: a case-control study. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:70 pubmed
    ..33-0.93, P = 0.03; and adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.37-0.87, P = 0.01, respectively). These findings suggest that the COX-2 8473T>C polymorphism could be used as a marker for the genetic susceptibility to adenocarcinoma of the lung. ..
  53. Rieker R, Joos S, Mechtersheimer G, Blaeker H, Schnabel P, Morresi Hauf A, et al. COX-2 upregulation in thymomas and thymic carcinomas. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:2063-70 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed in order to determine whether a combined therapy using COX-2 inhibitors in addition to the evolving anti-EGFR antibody therapy may be considered as a treatment option. ..
  54. Hou L, Grillo P, Zhu Z, Lissowska J, Yeager M, Zatonski W, et al. COX1 and COX2 polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk in a Polish population. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:4243-7 pubmed
    Although a number of studies on the polymorphisms in COX1 and COX2 genes in association with risks for a number of cancers have been conducted, their relation to gastric cancer has not been well studied...
  55. Tsujii M, Kawano S, Tsuji S, Sawaoka H, Hori M, DuBois R. Cyclooxygenase regulates angiogenesis induced by colon cancer cells. Cell. 1998;93:705-16 pubmed
    ..Cyclooxygenase regulates colon carcinoma-induced angiogenesis by two mechanisms: COX-2 can modulate production of angiogenic factors by colon cancer cells, while COX-1 regulates angiogenesis in endothelial cells. ..