Gene Symbol: PTGS2
Description: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Alias: COX-2, COX2, GRIPGHS, PGG/HS, PGHS-2, PHS-2, hCox-2, prostaglandin G/H synthase 2, PGH synthase 2, PHS II, cyclooxygenase 2, cyclooxygenase 2b, prostaglandin H2 synthase 2, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)
Species: human
Products:     PTGS2

Top Publications

  1. Chang W, Yang M, Tsai C, Cheng L, Jeng L, Lo W, et al. Association of cyclooxygenase 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan. Chin J Physiol. 2012;55:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been suggested to be associated with hepatocarcinogenesis...
  2. Andersen V, Nimmo E, Krarup H, Drummond H, Christensen J, Ho G, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) polymorphisms and risk of inflammatory bowel disease in a Scottish and Danish case-control study. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17:937-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotypes of the COX-2/PTGS2/PGHS2 A-1195G (rs689466), G-765C (rs20417), and T8473C (rs5275) polymorphisms were assessed in a Scottish and ..
  3. Zhao D, Xu D, Zhang X, Wang L, Tan W, Guo Y, et al. Interaction of cyclooxygenase-2 variants and smoking in pancreatic cancer: a possible role of nucleophosmin. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1659-68 pubmed
    ..Functional COX-2 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer and tobacco smoke specifically increases -765C promoter activity, which might be mediated by p-NPM. ..
  4. Parfenova H, Parfenov V, Shlopov B, Levine V, Falkos S, Pourcyrous M, et al. Dynamics of nuclear localization sites for COX-2 in vascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C166-78 pubmed
    ..COX-2 nuclear localization sites and trafficking between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in endothelial cells may indicate a novel function of COX-2 in regulating gene expression...
  5. Pandey S, Mittal R, Srivastava M, Srivastava K, Mittal B. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms and risk of cervical cancer in a North Indian population. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010;20:625-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies evaluating the role of COX-2 gene polymorphisms in ethnically diverse populations and a larger cohort may help in understanding the etiopathogenesis of cervical cancer in women worldwide. ..
  6. Balistreri C, Caruso C, Carruba G, Miceli V, Campisi I, Listi F, et al. A pilot study on prostate cancer risk and pro-inflammatory genotypes: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:718-24 pubmed
    ..and treatment of PC, we have investigated the potential role of common SNPs of a gene cluster (TLR4, TLR2, PTGS2 and 5-Lo), involved in innate and inflammatory response, in PC cases, age-matched controls and centenarians from ..
  7. Agachan Cakmakoglu B, Attar R, Kahraman O, Dalan A, Iyibozkurt A, Karateke A, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene and epithelial ovarian carcinoma risk. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:3481-6 pubmed publisher
    ..048). We state that there appears to be a modulating role for the COX-2 -1195A→G and -765G→C polymorphisms in the development of EOC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show such an association. ..
  8. Yamauchi M, Lochhead P, Imamura Y, Kuchiba A, Liao X, Qian Z, et al. Physical activity, tumor PTGS2 expression, and survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:1142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..catenin) or CDKN1B (p27) status on colon cancer prognosis, interactive effects of physical activity and tumor PTGS2 (the official symbol for COX-2) status on clinical outcome remain unknown...
  9. Huang M, Chen Q, Xiao J, Liu C, Zhao X. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:363-73 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications345 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zhang H, Xu Y, Zhang Z, Li L. Meta-analysis of epidemiological studies demonstrates significant association of PTGS2 polymorphism rs689470 and no significant association of rs20417 with prostate cancer. Genet Mol Res. 2012;11:1642-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Two common polymorphisms in the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene, rs20417 and rs689470, have been found to alter the risk for prostate cancer, but the various studies are ..
  2. Dhakal H, Naume B, Synnestvedt M, Borgen E, Kaaresen R, Schlichting E, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in invasive breast carcinomas and its prognostic impact. Histol Histopathol. 2012;27:1315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, COX-2 expression in this series was associated with the presence of hormone receptors. Low COX-2 expression was observed in triple-negative breast carcinomas. ..
  3. Shao N, Feng N, Wang Y, Mi Y, Li T, Hua L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of COX-2 expression and polymorphisms in prostate cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:10997-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). COX-2 might play an important role in the progress of PCa, overexpression of COX-2 correlates with T3-T4 stages of PCa. COX-2 might be a potential therapy target for PCa and work as a prognostic factor for PCa patients. ..
  4. Bu X, Zhao C. The association between cyclooxygenase-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:1479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence from the meta-analysis supports an association between COX-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and HCC risk in Asians. Further studies with large sample and careful design are needed to identify the possible association in Caucasians. ..
  5. Jiao G, Ren T, Lu Q, Sun Y, Lou Z, Peng X, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in osteosarcoma: a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:2489-95 pubmed publisher
    ..741, 95 % CI 0.762-3.979, P = 0.188), but the difference was not significant. Therefore, this meta-analysis demonstrated that high COX-2 expression might be an unfavorable prognostic effect in osteosarcoma. ..
  6. Wang X, Huang M, Zhang X, Hua R, Guo W. COX-2-765G>C polymorphism increases the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73213 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the COX-2-765 C allele was related to increased cancer susceptibility, especially gastric cancer and cancer in the Asian population. ..
  7. Chen S, Wu C, Lee Y, Tam K, Tsai Y, Liou J, et al. Caveolin-1 interacts with Derlin-1 and promotes ubiquitination and degradation of cyclooxygenase-2 via collaboration with p97 complex. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:33462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified Cav-1 as a key player in Derlin-1- and p97-mediated cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) ubiquitination and degradation...
  8. Mohamed F, Hussein Y, El Deen I, Sabea M. Cyclooxygenase-2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt. Mol Biol Rep. 2014;41:1461-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been suggested to be associated with hepatocarcinogenesis...
  9. Gharib A, Karam R, Abd El Rahman T, Elsawy W. COX-2 polymorphisms -765G?C and -1195A?G and hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Gene. 2014;543:234-6 pubmed publisher
    ..37). The A allele was present significantly more often in HCC patients (OR 1.5; 95%CI, 1.05-2.14). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the -1195AA genotype and A allele have an important role in HCC risk in Egyptian patients. ..
  10. Subbaram S, Lyons S, Svenson K, Hammond S, McCabe L, Chittur S, et al. Integrin ?3?1 controls mRNA splicing that determines Cox-2 mRNA stability in breast cancer cells. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:1179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) by integrin ?3?1 in breast cancer cells can promote tumor progression...
  11. Rodriguez N, Hoots W, Koshkina N, Morales Arias J, ARNDT C, Inwards C, et al. COX-2 expression correlates with survival in patients with osteosarcoma lung metastases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008;30:507-12 pubmed publisher
    ..However, COX-2 expression correlated inversely with disease-specific survival in patients with osteosarcoma lung metastases. Our data indicate that COX-2 expression in metastatic osteosarcoma may have prognostic significance. ..
  12. Choi E, Heo J, Oh J, Kim Y, Ha K, Kim J, et al. COX-2 regulates p53 activity and inhibits DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;328:1107-12 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest a novel function of COX-2 that inhibits DNA damage-induced apoptosis through direct regulation of p53 function. ..
  13. Ghosh M, Wang H, Ai Y, Romeo E, Luyendyk J, Peters J, et al. COX-2 suppresses tissue factor expression via endocannabinoid-directed PPARdelta activation. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2053-61 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, PPARdelta agonists may be used therapeutically to suppress coxib-induced cardiovascular side effects. ..
  14. Xie C, Xiao L, Fan W, Xuan D, Zhang J. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms in cyclooxygenase-2 and risk of severe chronic periodontitis in a Chinese population. J Clin Periodontol. 2009;36:198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..91, 95% CI=1.32-2.76, p(c)<0.001). It suggests the -1195A variant is associated with an increased risk for severe CP. ..
  15. Lin H, Lakkides K, Keku T, Reddy S, Louie A, Kau I, et al. Prostaglandin H synthase 2 variant (Val511Ala) in African Americans may reduce the risk for colorectal neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11:1305-15 pubmed
    ..28-1.56; 138 cases and 258 controls). Consistency of the results across all three of the studies is potentially compatible with a protective effect of the polymorphism, mimicking aspirin. ..
  16. Gee J, Montoya R, Khaled H, Sabichi A, Grossman H. Cytokeratin 20, AN43, PGDH, and COX-2 expression in transitional and squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urol Oncol. 2003;21:266-70 pubmed
    ..CK20, AN43 and PGDH decreased but COX-2 expression increased in higher stage tumors. The histologic phenotype of these cancers is reflected in their expression of these proteins and is modified further as tumors progress in stage. ..
  17. Zhang J, Bowden G. UVB irradiation regulates Cox-2 mRNA stability through AMPK and HuR in human keratinocytes. Mol Carcinog. 2008;47:974-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we propose a novel model in which UVB regulates Cox-2 mRNA stability through the LKB1/AMPK pathway. ..
  18. Cocos R, Schipor S, Nicolae I, Thomescu C, Raicu F. Role of COX-2 activity and CRP levels in patients with non-melanoma skin cancer. -765G>C PTGS2 polymorphism and NMSC risk. Arch Dermatol Res. 2012;304:335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PTGS2 -765C allele coding for COX-2 has been found to be associated with lower plasma levels of CRP...
  19. Thiel A, Heinonen M, Rintahaka J, Hallikainen T, Hemmes A, Dixon D, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is regulated by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in gastric cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4564-9 pubmed
    ..Our data show that inhibition of GSK-3beta stimulates COX-2 expression in gastric cancer cells, which seems to be primarily facilitated via an increase in mRNA stability and to a lesser extent through enhanced transcription. ..
  20. Barnett J, Chow J, Ives D, Chiou M, Mackenzie R, Osen E, et al. Purification, characterization and selective inhibition of human prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 and 2 expressed in the baculovirus system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1209:130-9 pubmed
    ..The recombinant enzymes are invaluable in developing potent PGHS-2 selective inhibitors that may be efficacious anti-inflammatory drugs with no or low levels of toxicity. ..
  21. Cao Z, Liu L, Dixon D, Zheng J, Chandran B, Jiang B. Insulin-like growth factor-I induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression via PI3K, MAPK and PKC signaling pathways in human ovarian cancer cells. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1542-53 pubmed
  22. Ol K, Agachan B, Gormus U, Toptas B, Isbir T. Cox-2 gene polymorphism and IL-6 levels in coronary artery disease. Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:810-6 pubmed publisher
    ..78-fold higher risk of coronary artery disease. We also found that the Cox-2 (-765G > C) polymorphism is associated with lower interleukin-6 levels, which decreased in the order: GG > GC > CC. ..
  23. Huuskonen K, Kunnas T, Tanner M, Mikkelsson J, Ilveskoski E, Karhunen P, et al. COX-2 gene promoter polymorphism and coronary artery disease in middle-aged men: the Helsinki sudden death study. Mediators Inflamm. 2008;2008:289453 pubmed publisher
    ..036) compared to men representing the common GG genotype. The COX-2 polymorphism was not associated with MI. Our data suggest that COX-2 may be involved in plaque growth...
  24. Benoit V, Relic B, Leval Xd X, Chariot A, Merville M, Bours V. Regulation of HER-2 oncogene expression by cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. Oncogene. 2004;23:1631-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose an original model where HER-2 and COX-2 transcriptionally regulate each other in a positive loop. ..
  25. Jing Q, Huang S, Guth S, Zarubin T, Motoyama A, Chen J, et al. Involvement of microRNA in AU-rich element-mediated mRNA instability. Cell. 2005;120:623-34 pubmed
    ..miRNA targeting of ARE, therefore, appears to be an essential step in ARE-mediated mRNA degradation. ..
  26. Chang K, Shen M, Lee M, Wang W, Su W, Chang W, et al. Epidermal growth factor-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator/HIF-1{beta} signal pathway up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression associated with squamous cell carcinoma. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9908-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results revealed that ARNT plays an important role in EGF-regulated COX-2 gene expression and may thus be related to either a cause or a consequence of tumorigenesis in cervical cancer. ..
  27. Shim V, Gauthier M, Sudilovsky D, Mantei K, Chew K, Moore D, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is related to nuclear grade in ductal carcinoma in situ and is increased in its normal adjacent epithelium. Cancer Res. 2003;63:2347-50 pubmed
    ..Our observations demonstrate that COX-2 is up-regulated in the normal adjacent epithelium and supports the hypothesis that the surrounding epithelial tissue is part of the disease process in DCIS. ..
  28. Yoshinaga M, Taki K, Somada S, Sakiyama Y, Kubo N, Kaku T, et al. The expression of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta and cyclooxygenase-2 in tissues is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:1194-200 pubmed publisher
    ..01). The expression of both PPAR ? and COX-2 in tissues may lead to liver metastasis and consequent poor prognosis in CRC patients. ..
  29. Yuan A, Yu C, Shun C, Luh K, Kuo S, Lee Y, et al. Total cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA levels correlate with vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels, tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2005;115:545-55 pubmed
  30. Shao J, Jung C, Liu C, Sheng H. Prostaglandin E2 Stimulates the beta-catenin/T cell factor-dependent transcription in colon cancer. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26565-72 pubmed
  31. Spencer A, Woods J, Arakawa T, Singer I, Smith W. Subcellular localization of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases-1 and -2 by immunoelectron microscopy. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:9886-93 pubmed
  32. Cheng A, Yu J, Lai P, Chan H, Sung J. COX-2 mediates hepatitis B virus X protein abrogation of p53-induced apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;374:175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Over-expression of HBx and COX-2 may provide a selective clonal advantage for preneoplastic or neoplastic hepatocytes and contribute to the initiation and progression of HCC. ..
  33. Gustafsson A, Andersson M, Lagerstedt K, Lönnroth C, Nordgren S, Lundholm K. Receptor and enzyme expression for prostanoid metabolism in colorectal cancer related to tumor tissue PGE2. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:469-78 pubmed
    ..Increased prostanoid activity in colon cancer tissue is related to cross-talk between tumor and stroma cells. ..
  34. Maloberti P, Duarte A, Orlando U, Pasqualini M, Solano A, Lopez Otin C, et al. Functional interaction between acyl-CoA synthetase 4, lipooxygenases and cyclooxygenase-2 in the aggressive phenotype of breast cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15540 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the development of combinatory therapies that profit from the ACSL4, lipooxygenase and COX-2 synergistic action may allow for lower medication doses and avoidance of side effects. ..
  35. Cox D, Pontes C, Guino E, Navarro M, Osorio A, Canzian F, et al. Polymorphisms in prostaglandin synthase 2/cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2/COX2) and risk of colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2004;91:339-43 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the relationship between PTGS2 (COX2) polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk in a hospital based case-control study...
  36. Bartchewsky W, Martini M, Masiero M, Squassoni A, Alvarez M, Ladeira M, et al. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on IL-8, IL-1beta and COX-2 expression in patients with chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:153-61 pubmed publisher
  37. van Nes J, de Kruijf E, Faratian D, Van De Velde C, Putter H, Falconer C, et al. COX2 expression in prognosis and in prediction to endocrine therapy in early breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;125:671-85 pubmed publisher
    In breast cancer, the prognostic impact of COX2 expression varies widely between studies...
  38. Shimizu K, Hirami Y, Saisho S, Yukawa T, Maeda A, Yasuda K, et al. Maximal standardized uptake value on FDG-PET is correlated with cyclooxygenase-2 expression in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93:398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the SUVmax of primary tumors might reflect the biological malignant potential in lung adenocarcinomas. ..
  39. Bradbury D, Newton R, Zhu Y, El Haroun H, Corbett L, Knox A. Cyclooxygenase-2 induction by bradykinin in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells is mediated by the cyclic AMP response element through a novel autocrine loop involving endogenous prostaglandin E2, E-prostanoid 2 (EP2), and EP4 receptors. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:49954-64 pubmed
    ..Collectively these studies indicate that COX-2 induction by BK in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells is mediated by the CRE through a novel autocrine loop involving endogenous PGE2. ..
  40. Liu J, Wang Y, Zuo L, Li F, Wang Y, Liu J. [Expression and clinical significance of COX-2, p-Stat3, and p-Stat5 in esophageal carcinoma]. Ai Zheng. 2007;26:458-62 pubmed
    ..The up-regulation of COX-2, p-Stat3, and p-Stat5 may be correlated to the carcinogenesis of ESCC. The activation of Stat3 is correlated to the aggressive behavior of ESCC. ..
  41. Kosaka T, Miyata A, Ihara H, Hara S, Sugimoto T, Takeda O, et al. Characterization of the human gene (PTGS2) encoding prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2. Eur J Biochem. 1994;221:889-97 pubmed
    The human gene (PTGS2) encoding an inducible isozyme of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) that is distinct from the well-characterized and constitutive isozyme (prostaglandin-endoperoxide ..
  42. Tamura M, Sebastian S, Yang S, Gurates B, Fang Z, Okamura K, et al. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in human endometrial stromal cells by malignant endometrial epithelial cells: evidence for the involvement of extracellularly regulated kinases and CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins. J Mol Endocrinol. 2003;31:95-104 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that the basal and MECM-induced transcription of the COX-2 gene in ESC is regulated through a combination of the CRE and the NF-IL6 site by functional interactions of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta. ..
  43. Sureban S, Murmu N, Rodriguez P, May R, Maheshwari R, Dieckgraefe B, et al. Functional antagonism between RNA binding proteins HuR and CUGBP2 determines the fate of COX-2 mRNA translation. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:1055-65 pubmed
    ..CUGBP2 overrides HuR and suppresses COX-2 mRNA translation. ..
  44. Chan C, Ma B, Hui E, Wong S, Mo F, Leung S, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma--a prognostic evaluation and correlation with hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor. Oral Oncol. 2007;43:373-8 pubmed
    ..Contrary to previous report, this study failed to demonstrate any prognostic significance of COX-2 expression alone or co-expression with HIF-1alpha or VEGF in advanced NPC. ..
  45. Kim E, Na H, Kim D, Park S, Kim H, Song N, et al. 15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 induces COX-2 expression through Akt-driven AP-1 activation in human breast cancer cells: a potential role of ROS. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:688-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations suggest that 15d-PGJ(2) produced by COX-2 overexpression may function as a positive regulator of COX-2 in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. ..
  46. Sales K, Katz A, Howard B, Soeters R, Millar R, Jabbour H, et al. Cyclooxygenase-1 is up-regulated in cervical carcinomas: autocrine/paracrine regulation of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin e receptors, and angiogenic factors by cyclooxygenase-1. Cancer Res. 2002;62:424-32 pubmed
    ..It is likely that similar mechanisms may act in vivo to modulate tumorigenesis of cervical carcinomas. ..
  47. Richardson J, Ottolini M, Pletneva L, Boukhvalova M, Zhang S, Vogel S, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection induces cyclooxygenase 2: a potential target for RSV therapy. J Immunol. 2005;174:4356-64 pubmed
    ..Treatment of cotton rats with indomethacin significantly mitigated lung histopathology produced by RSV. The studies described in this study provide the first evidence that COX-2 is a potential therapeutic target in RSV-induced disease. ..
  48. Eibl G, Bruemmer D, Okada Y, Duffy J, Law R, Reber H, et al. PGE(2) is generated by specific COX-2 activity and increases VEGF production in COX-2-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:887-97 pubmed
    ..These data identify a subset of human PaCa cell lines that express functional COX-2 enzyme. PGE(2) generated by specific COX-2 activity increases VEGF secretion in human PaCa cells through an autocrine mechanism. ..
  49. Scoditti E, Massaro M, Carluccio M, Distante A, Storelli C, De Caterina R. PPARgamma agonists inhibit angiogenesis by suppressing PKCalpha- and CREB-mediated COX-2 expression in the human endothelium. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;86:302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-angiogenic effect of PPARgamma agonists is due, at least in part, to an interference with the VEGF-stimulated PKCalpha-mediated activation of CREB and the related expression of COX-2. ..
  50. Chen L, Sooranna S, Lei K, Kandola M, Bennett P, Liang Z, et al. Cyclic AMP increases COX-2 expression via mitogen-activated kinase in human myometrial cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:1447-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide further evidence in support of a dual role for cAMP in the regulation of myometrial function...
  51. Kranzhofer R, Ruef J. Aspirin resistance in coronary artery disease is correlated to elevated markers for oxidative stress but not to the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) 1/2, a novel COX-1 polymorphism or the PlA(1/2) polymorphism. Platelets. 2006;17:163-9 pubmed
    ..However, a correlation exists to elevated eicosanoids generated by oxidative stress indicating COX-1-independent pathways for the generation of platelet activating molecules represent a potential cause for AR. ..
  52. Gao J, Ke Q, Ma H, Wang Y, Zhou Y, Hu Z, et al. Functional polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene and risk of breast cancer in a Chinese population. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007;70:908-15 pubmed
    ..16, 95% CI 1.14-73.51 for A-1195C-765T8473) compared with the most common haplotype, G-1195G-765T8473. These findings indicate that these three variants in the regulatory regions of COX-2 may contribute to the etiology of breast cancer. ..
  53. Wu H, Chang C, Ke H, Chang W, Cheng H, Lin H, et al. Association of cyclooxygenase 2 polymorphic genotypes with prostate cancer in taiwan. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:221-5 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of polymorphic genotypes in the cyclooxygenase 2 gene (COX2), which is reported to be overexpressed in prostate tumors, with Taiwan prostate cancer patients...
  54. Chiang C, Cheng Y, Lin C, Lee H, Tsai F, Tseng S, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2 expression in pterygium. Mol Vis. 2007;13:635-8 pubmed
    ..Because cyclooxygenase 2 (COX 2) was reported to exist and play an important role in UV-related cutaneous carcinogenesis, it is ..
  55. Zhu H, Cong J, Yu D, Bresnahan W, Shenk T. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 blocks human cytomegalovirus replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3932-7 pubmed
    b>Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA, protein, and activity are transiently induced after infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus...
  56. Fradet V, Cheng I, Casey G, Witte J. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids, cyclooxygenase-2 genetic variation, and aggressive prostate cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:2559-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the hypothesis that LC n-3 may impact prostate inflammation and carcinogenesis through the COX-2 enzymatic pathway. ..
  57. Pereira C, Pimentel Nunes P, Brandão C, Moreira Dias L, Medeiros R, Dinis Ribeiro M. COX-2 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk: a strategy for chemoprevention. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22:607-13 pubmed publisher
  58. Papafili A, Hill M, Brull D, McAnulty R, Marshall R, Humphries S, et al. Common promoter variant in cyclooxygenase-2 represses gene expression: evidence of role in acute-phase inflammatory response. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:1631-6 pubmed
    ..05 for all time points). For several acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, -765G>C may influence the variability of response observed. ..
  59. Langsenlehner U, Yazdani Biuki B, Eder T, Renner W, Wascher T, Paulweber B, et al. The cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2) 8473T>C polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:1392-4 pubmed
    ..The gene for COX-2, designated as PTGS2, carries a common polymorphism at position 8473 in the 3'-untranslated region (PTGS2 8473T>C), which has been ..
  60. Shahedi K, Lindstrom S, Zheng S, Wiklund F, Adolfsson J, Sun J, et al. Genetic variation in the COX-2 gene and the association with prostate cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:668-72 pubmed
    ..036, global simulated p-value=0.046). This study supports the hypothesis that inflammation is involved in prostate carcinogenesis and that sequence variation within the COX-2 gene influence the risk of prostate cancer. ..
  61. Athanassiadou P, Grapsa D, Athanassiades P, Gonidi M, Athanassiadou A, Tsipis A, et al. The prognostic significance of COX-2 and survivin expression in ovarian cancer. Pathol Res Pract. 2008;204:241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations of the exact prognostic and therapeutic implications of COX-2 and survivin expression are strongly warranted. ..
  62. Maitra A, Ashfaq R, Gunn C, Rahman A, Yeo C, Sohn T, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2 expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: an immunohistochemical analysis with automated cellular imaging. Am J Clin Pathol. 2002;118:194-201 pubmed
    ..30 lesions; pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia [PanIN], 65; normal pancreatic ducts, 30) for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) with an automated platform...
  63. Cipollone F, Toniato E, Martinotti S, Fazia M, Iezzi A, Cuccurullo C, et al. A polymorphism in the cyclooxygenase 2 gene as an inherited protective factor against myocardial infarction and stroke. JAMA. 2004;291:2221-8 pubmed
    ..Production of macrophage MMP-2 and MMP-9 is induced by cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E(2) synthesis...
  64. Saxena A, Prasad K, Ghoshal U, Bhagat M, Krishnani N, Husain N. Polymorphism of -765G > C COX-2 is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcer disease in addition to H pylori infection: a study from northern India. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:1498-503 pubmed
    ..34). -765G > C COX-2 polymorphism with or without H pylori could be a marker for genetic susceptibility to gastric adenocarcinoma. COX-2 polymorphism in presence of H pylori infection might be useful in predicting the risk of PUD. ..
  65. Fernandez P, de Beer P, van der Merwe L, Heyns C. COX-2 promoter polymorphisms and the association with prostate cancer risk in South African men. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:2347-50 pubmed publisher
    ..54 versus ACC; CI = 2.12-5.92; P < 0.0001). These findings in conjunction with findings in other populations of African descent might suggest a common causal variant for prostate cancer in COX-2, or a variant in a nearby gene. ..
  66. Srivastava K, Srivastava A, Pandey S, Kumar A, Mittal B. Functional polymorphisms of the cyclooxygenase (PTGS2) gene and risk for gallbladder cancer in a North Indian population. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:774-80 pubmed publisher
    Cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2) overexpression has been implicated in various cancers...
  67. Cha J, Li S, Cha I. Association between expression of embryonic lethal abnormal vision-like protein HuR and cyclooxygenase-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2011;33:627-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the cytoplasmic expression of HuR is associated with COX-2 expression in OSCCs and HuR can regulate COX-2 expression in oral cancer cell lines. ..
  68. Onguru O, Scheithauer B, Kovacs K, Vidal S, Jin L, Zhang S, et al. Analysis of Cox-2 and thromboxane synthase expression in pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. Endocr Pathol. 2004;15:17-27 pubmed
    ..In summary, TBXAS appears to be one of the up-regulated downstream enzymes of Cox metabolism in pituitary tumors. Both Cox-2 and TBXAS may play an important role in pituitary tumor development and progression. ..
  69. Ladetto M, Vallet S, Trojan A, Dell Aquila M, Monitillo L, Rosato R, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently expressed in multiple myeloma and is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Blood. 2005;105:4784-91 pubmed
    b>Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an inflammation-associated enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of many solid tumors, but little is known about its presence and role in hematologic neoplasms...
  70. Takai T, Kanaoka S, Yoshida K, Hamaya Y, Ikuma M, Miura N, et al. Fecal cyclooxygenase 2 plus matrix metalloproteinase 7 mRNA assays as a marker for colorectal cancer screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:1888-93 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that fecal cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA assay, detecting COX-2 mRNA in feces, is useful for identifying subjects with colorectal cancer (CRC)...
  71. Sharma Walia N, Paul A, Bottero V, Sadagopan S, Veettil M, Kerur N, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV) induced COX-2: a key factor in latency, inflammation, angiogenesis, cell survival and invasion. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000777 pubmed publisher
  72. Barisik N, Bozkurt S, Gumus M, Kaygusuz I, Karadayi N, Bas E, et al. Expression and prognostic significance of Cox-2 and p-53 in Hodgkin lymphomas: a retrospective study. Diagn Pathol. 2010;5:19 pubmed publisher
    ..However the difference between these two subtypes was not significant. This submission must be advocated by studies with large series. ..
  73. Vogel U, Christensen J, Wallin H, Friis S, Nexø B, Tjønneland A. Polymorphisms in COX-2, NSAID use and risk of basal cell carcinoma in a prospective study of Danes. Mutat Res. 2007;617:138-46 pubmed
    ..While it cannot be ruled out that the present findings are due to chance, the results indicate that high COX-2 expression may increase risk of BCC while NSAID use may be protective. ..
  74. Ferrandina G, Ranelletti F, Legge F, Gessi M, Salutari V, Distefano M, et al. Prognostic role of the ratio between cyclooxygenase-2 in tumor and stroma compartments in cervical cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:3117-23 pubmed
    ..The assessment of COX-2 status in both tumor and stroma compartment could provide valuable information to identify cervical cancer patients endowed with a very poor chance of response to neoadjuvant treatment and unfavorable prognosis. ..
  75. Surowiak P, Materna V, Matkowski R, Szczuraszek K, Kornafel J, Wojnar A, et al. Relationship between the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and MDR1/P-glycoprotein in invasive breast cancers and their prognostic significance. Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7:R862-70 pubmed
    Recent reports suggest that expression of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme may up-regulate expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), an exponent of resistance to cytostatic drugs...
  76. Timoshenko A, Chakraborty C, Wagner G, Lala P. COX-2-mediated stimulation of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C in human breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:1154-63 pubmed
    ..These results, for the first time, demonstrate a regulatory role of COX-2 in VEGF-C synthesis (and thereby lymphangiogenesis) in human breast cancer, which is mediated at least in part by EP1/EP4 receptors. ..
  77. Antonacopoulou A, Tsamandas A, Petsas T, Liava A, Scopa C, Papavassiliou A, et al. EGFR, HER-2 and COX-2 levels in colorectal cancer. Histopathology. 2008;53:698-706 pubmed
    ..Further investigation is required to evaluate the impact of these markers on the management of patients with colorectal cancer. ..
  78. Koki A, Khan N, Woerner B, Seibert K, Harmon J, Dannenberg A, et al. Characterization of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) during tumorigenesis in human epithelial cancers: evidence for potential clinical utility of COX-2 inhibitors in epithelial cancers. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002;66:13-8 pubmed
    ..These data collectively imply COX-2 may play an important role during premalignant hyperproliferation, as well as the later stages of invasive carcinoma and metastasis in various human epithelial cancers. ..
  79. N Guessan P, Hippenstiel S, Etouem M, Zahlten J, Beermann W, Lindner D, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae induced p38 MAPK- and NF-kappaB-dependent COX-2 expression in human lung epithelium. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;290:L1131-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, recruitment of NF-kappaB subunit p65/RelA and RNA polymerase II to the cox2 promoter depended on p38 MAPK but not on JNK activity...
  80. Li F, Liu Y, Chen H, Liao D, Shen Y, Xu F, et al. EGFR and COX-2 protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer and the correlation with clinical features. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011;30:27 pubmed publisher
    ..555). COX-2 and EGFR are over-expressed in NSCLC. EGFR is an independent prognostic factor and a predictive factor for radiotherapy response in NSCLC. ..
  81. Chan M, Wong C, Cheng A, Chan V, Chan K, To K, et al. Targeted inhibition of COX-2 expression by RNA interference suppresses tumor growth and potentiates chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human gastric cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:1557-62 pubmed
    ..RNA interference may be a promising alternative to specific COX-2 inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer. ..
  82. Jiang W, Douglas Jones A, Mansel R. Levels of expression of lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenase-2 in human breast cancer. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003;69:275-81 pubmed
  83. Sørensen M, Autrup H, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Raaschou Nielsen O. A genetic polymorphism in prostaglandin synthase 2 (8473, T-->C) and the risk of lung cancer. Cancer Lett. 2005;226:49-54 pubmed
    Prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) mediated production of prostaglandins is an important step in the inflammatory response...
  84. Colaizzo D, Fofi L, Tiscia G, Guglielmi R, Cocomazzi N, Prencipe M, et al. The COX-2 G/C -765 polymorphism may modulate the occurrence of cerebrovascular ischemia. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2006;17:93-6 pubmed
    ..07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.61). Our data show an association between the COX-2 G/C-765 gene polymorphism and cerebrovascular ischemia, suggesting that the COX-2 gene is a susceptibility locus for the risk of cerebrovascular ischemic disease. ..
  85. Ulrich C, Whitton J, Yu J, Sibert J, Sparks R, Potter J, et al. PTGS2 (COX-2) -765G > C promoter variant reduces risk of colorectal adenoma among nonusers of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:616-9 pubmed
    Prostaglandin H synthase 2 (PTGS2) or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of inflammation, and its inhibition is associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer...
  86. Sakaki M, Makino R, Hiroishi K, Ueda K, Eguchi J, Hiraide A, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene promoter polymorphisms affect susceptibility to hepatitis C virus infection and disease progression. Hepatol Res. 2010;40:1219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, once chronic infection is established, the -443TT genotype of the OPN promoter region and the -1195GG genotype of the COX-2 promoter are thought to promote inflammation and contribute to the progression of liver disease. ..
  87. Denkert C, Winzer K, Müller B, Weichert W, Pest S, Köbel M, et al. Elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is a negative prognostic factor for disease free survival and overall survival in patients with breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2003;97:2978-87 pubmed
    ..It remains to be investigated whether treatment with selective inhibitors of COX-2 may be an additional therapeutic option for patients with breast carcinoma. ..
  88. Boland G, Butt I, Prasad R, Knox W, Bundred N. COX-2 expression is associated with an aggressive phenotype in ductal carcinoma in situ. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:423-9 pubmed
    ..Cyclooxygenase type-2 inhibition may potentially prevent the development of ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. ..