PTGER2

Summary

Gene Symbol: PTGER2
Description: prostaglandin E receptor 2
Alias: EP2, prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype, PGE receptor EP2 subtype, PGE2 receptor EP2 subtype, prostaglandin E receptor 2 (subtype EP2), 53kD, prostaglandin E receptor 2 (subtype EP2), 53kDa, prostanoid EP2 receptor
Species: human
Products:     PTGER2

Top Publications

  1. Smock S, Pan L, Castleberry T, Lu B, Mather R, Owen T. Cloning, structural characterization, and chromosomal localization of the gene encoding the human prostaglandin E(2) receptor EP2 subtype. Gene. 1999;237:393-402 pubmed
    Northern blot analysis of human placental RNA using a probe to the 5' end of the human prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) EP2 receptor subtype coding region revealed the existence of a high abundance, low molecular weight transcript...
  2. Huang S, Wettlaufer S, Hogaboam C, Aronoff D, Peters Golden M. Prostaglandin E(2) inhibits collagen expression and proliferation in patient-derived normal lung fibroblasts via E prostanoid 2 receptor and cAMP signaling. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;292:L405-13 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that PGE(2) inhibits fibroblast activation in primary lung fibroblasts via binding of EP2 receptor and production of cAMP; inhibition of collagen I proceeds via activation of PKA.
  3. Sugino Y, Misawa A, Inoue J, Kitagawa M, Hosoi H, Sugimoto T, et al. Epigenetic silencing of prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) is associated with progression of neuroblastomas. Oncogene. 2007;26:7401-13 pubmed
    ..a cluster of prostanoid receptor genes, prostaglandin D2 receptor (PTGDR) and prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2), as possible targets for DNA methylation in advanced types of neuroblastoma (NB) using bacterial artificial ..
  4. Boniface K, Bak Jensen K, Li Y, Blumenschein W, McGeachy M, McClanahan T, et al. Prostaglandin E2 regulates Th17 cell differentiation and function through cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 receptor signaling. J Exp Med. 2009;206:535-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In human purified naive T cells, PGE2 acts via prostaglandin receptor EP2- and EP4-mediated signaling and cyclic AMP pathways to up-regulate IL-23 and IL-1 receptor expression...
  5. Kay L, Gilbert M, Pullen N, Skerratt S, Farrington J, Seward E, et al. Characterization of the EP receptor subtype that mediates the inhibitory effects of prostaglandin E2 on IgE-dependent secretion from human lung mast cells. Clin Exp Allergy. 2013;43:741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect of PGE2 is believed to be mediated by EP2 receptors...
  6. Takafuji V, Evans A, Lynch K, Roche J. PGE(2) receptors and synthesis in human gastric mucosa: perturbation in cancer. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002;66:71-81 pubmed
  7. Sales K, Maudsley S, Jabbour H. Elevated prostaglandin EP2 receptor in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells promotes vascular endothelial growth factor expression via cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate-mediated transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1533-45 pubmed
    Prostaglandin (PG) E(2) E-series prostanoid-2 (EP2) receptor is elevated in numerous carcinomas including the endometrium and has been implicated in mediating the effects of PGE(2) on vascular function...
  8. Abera A, Sales K, Catalano R, Katz A, Jabbour H. EP2 receptor mediated cAMP release is augmented by PGF 2 alpha activation of the FP receptor via the calcium-calmodulin pathway. Cell Signal. 2010;22:71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..that influences intracellular signaling and gene expression profiling in response to co-activation of the EP2 and FP prostanoid receptors in Ishikawa cells stably expressing both receptors (FPEP2 cells)...
  9. Andersson E, Arvidsson Y, Swärd C, Hofving T, Wängberg B, Kristiansson E, et al. Expression profiling of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors identifies subgroups with clinical relevance, prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. Mod Pathol. 2016;29:616-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathway analysis predicted the prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) as the most significantly activated regulator in tumors of higher grade, whereas Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) was the ..

More Information

Publications122 found, 100 shown here

  1. Shahnazi M, Mohammadi M, Mohaddes G, Latifi Z, Ghasemnejad T, Nouri M, et al. Dietary omega-3 and -6 fatty acids affect the expression of prostaglandin E2 synthesis enzymes and receptors in mice uteri during the window of pre-implantation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;503:1754-1760 pubmed publisher
    ..of microsomal- and cytosolic- PGE synthase (mPGES and cPGES) and protein expressions of PGE receptor 2 and 4 (EP2 and EP4) were evaluated in uterus tissues of control as well as omega 3 and omega 6 received mice at days 1-5 of ..
  2. O Sullivan M, Gabriel E, Panariti A, Park C, Ijpma G, Fredberg J, et al. Epithelial Cells Induce a Cyclo-Oxygenase-1-Dependent Endogenous Reduction in Airway Smooth Muscle Contractile Phenotype. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2017;57:683-691 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these in vitro results demonstrate that epithelial cells have the capacity to coordinately reduce ASM contraction by functional antagonism and by reduction of the expression of certain contractile proteins. ..
  3. Morimoto K, Sugimoto Y, Katsuyama M, Oida H, Tsuboi K, Kishi K, et al. Cellular localization of mRNAs for prostaglandin E receptor subtypes in mouse gastrointestinal tract. Am J Physiol. 1997;272:G681-7 pubmed
    ..In the ileum, signals were only observed in the upper part of the villi. However, no or weak signals for EP2 transcripts were detected...
  4. Oba K, Hosono K, Amano H, Okizaki S, Ito Y, Shichiri M, et al. Downregulation of the proangiogenic prostaglandin E receptor EP3 and reduced angiogenesis in a mouse model of diabetes mellitus. Biomed Pharmacother. 2014;68:1125-33 pubmed publisher
    ..prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 was downregulated in sponge granulation tissues in diabetic mice, whereas EP1, EP2, and EP4 were not...
  5. Kiraly A, Soliman E, Jenkins A, van Dross R. Apigenin inhibits COX-2, PGE2, and EP1 and also initiates terminal differentiation in the epidermis of tumor bearing mice. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2016;104:44-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the non-tumor epidermis revealed that apigenin reduced COX-2, PGE2, EP1, and EP2 synthesis and also increased terminal differentiation...
  6. Hao H, Hu S, Wan Q, Xu C, Chen H, Zhu L, et al. Protective Role of mPGES-1 (Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1)-Derived PGE2 (Prostaglandin E2) and the Endothelial EP4 (Prostaglandin E Receptor) in Vascular Responses to Injury. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2018;38:1115-1124 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of EP (E prostanoid receptor) 4 (and EP2, to a lesser extent), but not of EP1 or EP3, promoted EC proliferation...
  7. Yang G, Ren Z, Mei Y. Exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field modulates GABAA currents in cerebellar granule neurons through an EP receptor-mediated PKC pathway. J Cell Mol Med. 2015;19:2413-22 pubmed publisher
    ..by application of DHA or EP1 receptor-specific (prostaglandin E receptor 1) antagonist (SC19220), but not by EP2-EP4 receptor-specific antagonists...
  8. Sugimoto Y, Namba T, Shigemoto R, Negishi M, Ichikawa A, Narumiya S. Distinct cellular localization of mRNAs for three subtypes of prostaglandin E receptor in kidney. Am J Physiol. 1994;266:F823-8 pubmed
    ..The mRNA for EP2 subtype, which is linked to stimulation of adenylate cyclase, was localized to the glomeruli...
  9. Zhang P, Bi R, Gan Y. Glial interleukin-1β upregulates neuronal sodium channel 1.7 in trigeminal ganglion contributing to temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception in rats. J Neuroinflammation. 2018;15:117 pubmed publisher
    ..We treated rat TG explants with IL-1β with or without inhibitors, including NS398 for COX-2, PF-04418948 for EP2, and H89 and PKI-(6-22)-amide for protein kinase A (PKA), or with adenylate cyclase agonist forskolin, and used ..
  10. Chang C, Li J, Ou Y, Lin S, Wang Y, Chen W, et al. Interplay of inflammatory gene expression in pericytes following Japanese encephalitis virus infection. Brain Behav Immun. 2017;66:230-243 pubmed publisher
    ..had a role in activating NF-?B and CREB DNA-binding activities and inflammatory cytokine transcription via the EP2/cAMP/PKA mechanism in an autocrine loop...
  11. Wang W, Guo C, Zhu P, Lu J, Li W, Liu C, et al. Phosphorylation of STAT3 mediates the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by cortisol in the human amnion at parturition. Sci Signal. 2015;8:ra106 pubmed publisher
    ..PGE2 activates the prostaglandin receptors EP2 and EP4, which stimulate cAMP-PKA signaling...
  12. Németh K, Leelahavanichkul A, Yuen P, Mayer B, Parmelee A, Doi K, et al. Bone marrow stromal cells attenuate sepsis via prostaglandin E(2)-dependent reprogramming of host macrophages to increase their interleukin-10 production. Nat Med. 2009;15:42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..reprogram macrophages by releasing prostaglandin E(2) that acts on the macrophages through the prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 receptors...
  13. Schumacher Y, Aparicio T, Ourabah S, Baraille F, Martin A, Wind P, et al. Dysregulated CRTC1 activity is a novel component of PGE2 signaling that contributes to colon cancer growth. Oncogene. 2016;35:2602-14 pubmed publisher
    ..and parallel nuclear translocation, resulting in enhanced CRTC1 transcriptional activity, through EP1 and EP2 receptors signaling and consecutive calcineurin and protein kinase A activation...
  14. Walusimbi S, Wetzel L, Townson D, Pate J. Isolation of luteal endothelial cells and functional interactions with T lymphocytes. Reproduction. 2017;153:519-533 pubmed publisher
    ..LEC expressed mRNA for progesterone receptor (PGR), prostaglandin receptors (PTGFR, PTGER2 and 4, and PTGIR), tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRSF1A&B) and interleukin (IL) 1B receptors (IL1R1&2)..
  15. Schmidt A, Sinnett Smith J, Young S, Chang H, Hines O, Dawson D, et al. Direct growth-inhibitory effects of prostaglandin E2 in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro through an EP4/PKA-mediated mechanism. Surgery. 2017;161:1570-1578 pubmed publisher
    ..PKA/CREB and decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which was reversed by an EP4 receptor antagonist, while an EP2 receptor antagonist had no effect...
  16. Braga D, Barcella M, D Avila F, Lupoli S, Tagliaferri F, Santamaria M, et al. Preliminary profiling of blood transcriptome in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017;242:1462-1470 pubmed publisher
    ..functions (Mt2A, Mt1), tissue injury and repair pathways (Gpnmb, Trim72) and lipid mediators (Alox5ap, Ltb4r, Ptger2) compared with control animals...
  17. Wang Y, Han C, Cui D, Luo T, Li Y, Zhang Y, et al. Immunomodulatory Effects of CP-25 on Splenic T Cells of Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis. Inflammation. 2018;41:1049-1063 pubmed publisher
    ..The co-expression of GRK2 and EP2 as well as GRK2 and EP4 was measured by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation...
  18. Ziecik A, Przygrodzka E, Jalali B, Kaczmarek M. Regulation of the porcine corpus luteum during pregnancy. Reproduction. 2018;156:R57-R67 pubmed publisher
    ..The 'rescue switch' initiated by embryonic signals - estradiol 17? and PGE2 - induces post PTGER2/4 pathway, turning the 'luteolytic switch' off and triggering activity of genes responsible for CL maintenance...
  19. Fan Y, Wang Y, Wang K. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates normal bronchial epithelial cell growth through induction of c-Jun and PDK1, a kinase implicated in oncogenesis. Respir Res. 2015;16:149 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that PGE2 stimulated lung cancer cell growth and progression through PGE2 receptor EP2/EP4-mediated kinase signaling pathways...
  20. Martínez Colón G, Taylor Q, Wilke C, Podsiad A, Moore B. Elevated prostaglandin E2 post-bone marrow transplant mediates interleukin-1?-related lung injury. Mucosal Immunol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..BMT) model, we show that overexpression of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) post-BMT signals via EP2 or EP4 to induce cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which activates protein kinase A or the exchange protein ..
  21. Maeda S, Tomiyasu H, Tsuboi M, Inoue A, Ishihara G, Uchikai T, et al. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of canine invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma by RNA-Seq. BMC Cancer. 2018;18:472 pubmed publisher
    ..IPA revealed that the most activated upstream regulator was PTGER2 (encoding the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2), which is consistent with the therapeutic efficiency of ..
  22. Guo Y, Lei W, Wang J, Hu X, Wei Y, Ji C, et al. Misoprostol Reverse Hippocampal Neuron Cyclooxygenase-2 Downstream Signaling Imbalance in Aluminum-Overload Rats. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2016;13:1006-16 pubmed
    ..the administration of misoprostol resulted in a decrease in the PGE2 level and down-regulation of the mPGES-1, EP2 and EP4 expression levels, while there was a dosedependent up-regulation of EP3 expression...
  23. Wang R, Zhang W, Dong Z, Qi Y, Hultström M, Zhou X, et al. c-Jun N-terminal Kinase mediates prostaglandin-induced sympathoexcitation in rats with chronic heart failure by reducing GAD1 and GABRA1 expression. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2017;219:494-509 pubmed publisher
    ..PVN infusion of EP1 receptor antagonist SC-19220, EP2 receptor antagonist AH6809 or EP4 receptor antagonist L-161982 had no effect on sympathoexcitation...
  24. Sokolova E, Hartig R, Reiser G. Downregulation of protease-activated receptor-1 in human lung fibroblasts is specifically mediated by the prostaglandin E receptor EP2 through cAMP elevation and protein kinase A. FEBS J. 2008;275:3669-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the selective prostaglandin EP2 receptor agonist butaprost and cAMP-elevating agents, we show here that prostaglandin (PG)E(2), via the prostanoid ..
  25. Lin D, Ren R, Tan Q, Wu Q, Li F, Li L, et al. A facile and dynamic assay for the detection of peptide aggregation. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016;408:1609-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, by choosing a tryptophan-containing peptide of EP2, we investigated its fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics in the process of PAs...
  26. Liu C, Zhu P, Wang W, Li W, Shu Q, Chen Z, et al. Inhibition of lysyl oxidase by prostaglandin E2 via EP2/EP4 receptors in human amnion fibroblasts: Implications for parturition. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;424:118-27 pubmed publisher
    ..we showed that addition of PGE2 decreased LOX mRNA and protein levels, which were blocked by inhibition of EP2/EP4 receptors and the receptor-coupled cAMP/PKA pathway...
  27. Hooper K, Yen J, Kong W, Rahbari K, Kuo P, Gamero A, et al. Prostaglandin E2 Inhibition of IL-27 Production in Murine Dendritic Cells: A Novel Mechanism That Involves IRF1. J Immunol. 2017;198:1521-1530 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-27 production in macrophages and in splenic cDC, and we identify a novel pathway consisting of signaling through EP2/EP4→induction of cAMP→downregulation of IFN regulatory factor 1 expression and binding to the p28 IFN-..
  28. Park H, Shin E, Lee J, Kim S, Kim S, Chang Y, et al. Association between genetic variations in prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP3 gene (Ptger3) and asthma in the Korean population. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:1609-15 pubmed
    ..034; mild vs. severe). However, no association was found between any genetic variation in Ptger1, Ptger2, or Ptger4 and asthma...
  29. Ikawa Y, Fujino H, Otake S, Murayama T. Indomethacin antagonizes EP(2) prostanoid receptor activation in LS174T human colon cancer cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;680:16-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe this study raises the reasons to use indomethacin as a lead-compound for setting up another EP(2) receptor-specific antagonist as a relatively cost-efficient strategy for anti-cancer medication in the future. ..
  30. Chang H, Young S, Sinnett Smith J, Chou C, Moro A, Hertzer K, et al. Prostaglandin E2 activates the mTORC1 pathway through an EP4/cAMP/PKA- and EP1/Ca2+-mediated mechanism in the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2015;309:C639-49 pubmed publisher
    ..combined pharmacological blockade, and the coexistence of highly expressed EP1 (mediating the Ca(2+) response) and EP2 or EP4 (mediating the cAMP/PKA pathway) in PANC-1 cells and in the prostate cancer line PC-3, which also robustly ..
  31. Przybysz J, Chrostowska M, Ziółkowski H, Jaroszewski J, Maslanka T. The influence of prostaglandin E2 on the production of IFN-? by bovine CD4(+), CD8(+) and WC1(+) T cells. Res Vet Sci. 2016;105:31-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The blockade of EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptors did not prevent PGE2-induced reduction of IFN-? production by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, ..
  32. Gonzalez A, Salinas Parra N, Leach D, Navar L, Prieto M. PGE2 upregulates renin through E-prostanoid receptor 1 via PKC/cAMP/CREB pathway in M-1 cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;313:F1038-F1049 pubmed publisher
    ..The M-1 CD cell line expressed EP1, EP3, and EP4 but not EP2. Dose-response experiments, in the presence of ANG II type 1 receptor blockade with candesartan, demonstrated that ..
  33. Cantaut Belarif Y, Antri M, Pizzarelli R, Colasse S, Vaccari I, Soares S, et al. Microglia control the glycinergic but not the GABAergic synapses via prostaglandin E2 in the spinal cord. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2979-2989 pubmed publisher
    ..cross talk requires production of prostaglandin E2 by microglia, leading to the activation of neuronal EP2 receptors and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase...
  34. Machado Carvalho L, Martín M, Torres R, Gabasa M, Alobid I, Mullol J, et al. Low E-prostanoid 2 receptor levels and deficient induction of the IL-1β/IL-1 type I receptor/COX-2 pathway: Vicious circle in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137:99-107.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with NM-C fibroblasts, basal expression levels of IL-1RI and EP2 receptor were lower in NP-AERD fibroblasts...
  35. Tsuji T, Yamaguchi K, Kikuchi R, Nakamura H, Misaka R, Nagai A, et al. Improvement of metabolic disorders by an EP2 receptor agonist via restoration of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in pulmonary emphysema. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2017;130:16-22 pubmed publisher
    ..g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the capacity for storage of surplus energy in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. ..
  36. Kinoshita A, Higashino M, Yoshida K, Aratani Y, Kakuuchi A, Hanada K, et al. Synthesis and evaluation of a potent, well-balanced EP2/EP3 dual agonist. Bioorg Med Chem. 2018;26:200-214 pubmed publisher
    ..01?mg/kg, po, bid) in rats, and dose-dependently improved voiding dysfunction in a monkey model of underactive bladder (UAB). ONO-8055 is expected to be a novel and highly promising drug for UAB. ..
  37. Penn R, Pascual R, Kim Y, Mundell S, Krymskaya V, Panettieri R, et al. Arrestin specificity for G protein-coupled receptors in human airway smooth muscle. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32648-56 pubmed
    ..The pharmacological profile of various selective EP receptor ligands suggested a predominantly EP2 receptor population in HASM...
  38. DU M, Shi F, Zhang H, Xia S, Zhang M, Ma J, et al. Prostaglandin E2 promotes human cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion through the upregulation of β-catenin expression via EP3-4 receptor. Oncol Rep. 2015;34:715-26 pubmed publisher
    ..in cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion through E prostanoid receptors, including EP1, EP2 and EP4...
  39. Hoang K, Allison S, Murray M, Petrovic N. Prostanoids regulate angiogenesis acting primarily on IP and EP4 receptors. Microvasc Res. 2015;101:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Both of these prostanoids activate G-protein coupled receptors: EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 by PGE2 and IP by prostacyclin...
  40. Wang J, Woodward D, Martos J, Cornell C, Carling R, Kingsley P, et al. Multitargeting of selected prostanoid receptors provides agents with enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages. FASEB J. 2016;30:394-404 pubmed publisher
    ..266) and EP4 (117), prostaglandin F2α receptor (FP) (61), and thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) (11) while sparing EP2, EP3, and prostaglandin I2 receptors (IPs); Kb values (in nanomoles) are given in parentheses...
  41. Kinoshita A, Higashino M, Aratani Y, Kakuuchi A, Matsuya H, Ohmoto K. Discovery of highly potent dual EP(2) and EP(3) agonists with subtype selectivity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016;26:1016-1019 pubmed publisher
    ..acid (7) were identified as the first potent dual EP2 and EP3 agonists with selectivity against the EP1 and EP4 subtypes...
  42. Liu M, Gong Y, Wei J, Xie D, Wang J, Yu Y, et al. [Media of rat macrophage NR8383 cells with prostaglandins E2-induced VEGF over-expression promotes migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2016;36:936-40 pubmed
    ..of VEGF protein and mRNAs in rat macrophage cell line NR8383 stimulated by PGE2 in the presence or absence of EP2 receptor inhibitor (AH6809) and EP4 receptor inhibitor (AH23848)...
  43. Zasłona Z, Palsson McDermott E, Menon D, Haneklaus M, Flis E, Prendeville H, et al. The Induction of Pro-IL-1? by Lipopolysaccharide Requires Endogenous Prostaglandin E2 Production. J Immunol. 2017;198:3558-3564 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of endogenous PGE2 was mediated by EP2 receptor...
  44. Chen W, Wang Y, Tang J, Hu P, Bao J, Wu L. Morin inhibits interleukin-1?-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in human chondrocytes. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;12:447-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo study, morin exerted anti-inflammatory properties in an IL-1?-induced rat OA model. Our data suggest that morin possess potential value in the treatment of OA. ..
  45. Edwards T, Shrubsole M, Cai Q, Li G, Dai Q, Rex D, et al. A study of prostaglandin pathway genes and interactions with current nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in colorectal adenoma. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012;5:855-63 pubmed publisher
    ..the previously reported effects and effect modification in PG-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), PGE receptor 2 (PTGER2), or PGE receptor 4 (PTGER4), although we did observe a single nucleotide polymorphism in PTGER2 associated with ..
  46. O Brien A, Fullerton J, Massey K, Auld G, Sewell G, James S, et al. Immunosuppression in acutely decompensated cirrhosis is mediated by prostaglandin E2. Nat Med. 2014;20:518-23 pubmed publisher
    ..cytokine secretion and bacterial killing in vitro in a PGE2-dependent manner via the prostanoid type E receptor-2 (EP2), effects not seen with plasma from patients with stable cirrhosis (Child-Pugh score grade A)...
  47. Liu S, Jemiolo B, Lavin K, Lester B, Trappe S, Trappe T. Prostaglandin E2/cyclooxygenase pathway in human skeletal muscle: influence of muscle fiber type and age. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016;120:546-51 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins [COX enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2), PGE2 synthases (cPGES, mPGES-1, and mPGES-2), and PGE2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4)] were quantified via Western blot...
  48. Wu H, Wu T, Han X, Wan J, Jiang C, Chen W, et al. Cerebroprotection by the neuronal PGE2 receptor EP2 after intracerebral hemorrhage in middle-aged mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017;37:39-51 pubmed
    ..However, the cell-specific signaling by PGE2 receptor EP2 differs depending on whether the neuropathic insult is acute or chronic...
  49. Srivastava T, Dai H, Heruth D, Alon U, Garola R, Zhou J, et al. Mechanotransduction Signaling in Podocytes from Fluid Flow Shear Stress. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;:ajprenal.00325.2017 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous work suggests that COX2-PGE2-EP2 axis plays an important role in mechanoperception of FFSS in podocyte (Srivastava et al...
  50. Mawhin M, Tilly P, Fabre J. The receptor EP3 to PGE2: A rational target to prevent atherothrombosis without inducing bleeding. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2015;121:4-16 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor EP3, PGE2 sensitizes platelets to their agonists but also inhibits them through its two other receptors, EP2 and EP4...
  51. Malty R, Hudmon A, Fehrenbacher J, Vasko M. Long-term exposure to PGE2 causes homologous desensitization of receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase A. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:181 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensitizing actions of PGE2 after acute and long-term exposure were attenuated by EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptor antagonists, but not by an EP1 antagonist...
  52. Minatani A, Uchida K, Inoue G, Takano S, Aikawa J, Miyagi M, et al. Activation of calcitonin gene-related peptide signaling through the prostaglandin E2-EP1/EP2/EP4 receptor pathway in synovium of knee osteoarthritis patients. J Orthop Surg Res. 2016;11:117 pubmed
    ..treatment, whereas RAMP1 gene expression increased significantly in the presence of exogenously added EP1 and EP2 agonists...
  53. Li H, Chen H, Liu W, Jia X, Zhang J, Ma C, et al. Prostaglandin E2 restrains human Treg cell differentiation via E prostanoid receptor 2-protein kinase A signaling. Immunol Lett. 2017;191:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..b>EP2 receptors may mediate the inhibitory role of PGE2, since PGE2 actions were mimicked by EP2 ..
  54. Bradbury D, Newton R, Zhu Y, El Haroun H, Corbett L, Knox A. Cyclooxygenase-2 induction by bradykinin in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells is mediated by the cyclic AMP response element through a novel autocrine loop involving endogenous prostaglandin E2, E-prostanoid 2 (EP2), and EP4 receptors. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:49954-64 pubmed
    ..Exogenous PGE2 and EP2 (ONO-AE1 259) and EP4 (ONO-AE1 329) PGE2 receptor agonists mimicked the effect of BK...
  55. ADKINS D, Khachane A, McClay J, Aberg K, Bukszar J, Sullivan P, et al. SNP-based analysis of neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways implicates PGE2 as a novel mediator of antipsychotic treatment response: data from the CATIE study. Schizophr Res. 2012;135:200-1 pubmed publisher
  56. Wildenhain S, Ingenhag D, Ruckert C, Degistirici O, Dugas M, Meisel R, et al. Homeobox protein HB9 binds to the prostaglandin E receptor 2 promoter and inhibits intracellular cAMP mobilization in leukemic cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40703-12 pubmed publisher
    HB9 is highly expressed in translocation t(7;12) positive infant AML. HB9 binds to the PTGER2 promoter, down-regulates PTGER2 gene expression and subsequently represses cAMP synthesis in hematopoietic cells...
  57. Al Alam N, Kreydiyyeh S. Signaling pathway involved in the inhibitory effect of FTY720P on the Na+/K+ ATPase in HepG2 cells. J Cell Commun Signal. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of FTY720P and PGE2 disappeared completely in presence of PF-04418948, a blocker of EP2 receptors, RpcAMP, an inhibitor of PKA, PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK, as well as in presence of PTIO, a nitric ..
  58. Mohan S, Narumiya S, Doré S. Neuroprotective role of prostaglandin PGE2 EP2 receptor in hemin-mediated toxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2015;46:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-EP2 receptor in hemin neurotoxicity remains unclear...
  59. Olesen E, Moeller H, Assentoft M, MacAulay N, Fenton R. The vasopressin type 2 receptor and prostaglandin receptors EP2 and EP4 can increase aquaporin-2 plasma membrane targeting through a cAMP-independent pathway. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016;311:F935-F944 pubmed publisher
    ..by Gs coupled 7-transmembrane receptors such as the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) and the prostanoid receptors EP2 and EP4, it is believed to be cAMP dependent...
  60. Kowalczyk Zieba I, Boruszewska D, Sinderewicz E, Grycmacher K, Woclawek Potocka I. Lysophosphatidic acid modulates prostaglandin signalling in bovine steroidogenic luteal cells. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2015;121:218-26 pubmed publisher
    ..mPGES-1, cPGES, mPGES-2, PGFS and 9-KPR), prostaglandin transporter (PGT), and prostaglandin receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, EP4 and FP) in bovine steroidogenic luteal cells...
  61. Kyveris A, Maruscak E, Senchyna M. Optimization of RNA isolation from human ocular tissues and analysis of prostanoid receptor mRNA expression using RT-PCR. Mol Vis. 2002;8:51-8 pubmed
  62. Burris H, Baccarelli A, Motta V, Byun H, Just A, Mercado Garcia A, et al. Association between length of gestation and cervical DNA methylation of PTGER2 and LINE 1-HS. Epigenetics. 2014;9:1083-91 pubmed publisher
    ..exposure and education, were associated with cervical DNA methylation in the prostaglandin E receptor 2 gene (PTGER2) and a repetitive element, long interspersed nuclear element-1 Homo sapiens-specific (LINE 1-HS)...
  63. Fernández Martínez A, Lucio Cazaña J. Intracellular EP2 prostanoid receptor promotes cancer-related phenotypes in PC3 cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015;72:3355-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The selective blockade of PGE2-EP2 signaling pathway in PC3 cells results in inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and invasion...
  64. Blikslager A, Pell S, Young K. PGE2 triggers recovery of transmucosal resistance via EP receptor cross talk in porcine ischemia-injured ileum. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;281:G375-81 pubmed
    ..PGE2) may interact with one of four prostaglandin type E (EP) receptors, which signal via cAMP (via EP2 or EP4 receptors) or intracellular Ca(2+) (via EP1 receptors)...
  65. Patwardhan A, Vela J, Farugia J, Vela K, Hargreaves K. Trigeminal nociceptors express prostaglandin receptors. J Dent Res. 2008;87:262-6 pubmed
    ..We next evaluated the effects of specific EP2 and EP3 agonists (butaprost and sulprostone) in cultured trigeminal ganglia neurons...
  66. Pan M, Hou M, Chang H, Hung W. Cyclooxygenase-2 up-regulates CCR7 via EP2/EP4 receptor signaling pathways to enhance lymphatic invasion of breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11155-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that COX-2 increased CCR7 expression via the EP2 and EP4 receptor in breast cancer cells...
  67. Hu S, Sun W, Wei W, Wang D, Jin J, Wu J, et al. Involvement of the prostaglandin E receptor EP2 in paeoniflorin-induced human hepatoma cell apoptosis. Anticancer Drugs. 2013;24:140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to determine the role of the EP2 receptor during the proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell lines and the effect of ..
  68. Verma A, Panigrahi M, Baba N, Sulabh S, Sadam A, Parida S, et al. Differential expression of ten candidate genes regulating prostaglandin action in reproductive tissues of buffalo during estrous cycle and pregnancy. Theriogenology. 2018;105:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, EP2 and EP3 genes were highly upregulated in pregnancy stage II...
  69. Yang L, Zhang Y, Wang H, Ma B, Xu L, Wang J, et al. Identification of B-cell linear epitopes in domains 1-3 of pyolysin of Trueperella pyogenes using polyclonal antibodies. Vet Microbiol. 2017;210:24-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of six B cell linear epitopes have been found in domain 1 of PLO. Two of the six epitopes (EP1 and EP2) were used to immunize mice and chicken...
  70. Regan J, Bailey T, Pepperl D, Pierce K, Bogardus A, Donello J, et al. Cloning of a novel human prostaglandin receptor with characteristics of the pharmacologically defined EP2 subtype. Mol Pharmacol. 1994;46:213-20 pubmed
    A cDNA that when expressed has the binding and functional characteristics of the pharmacologically defined EP2 prostaglandin (PG) receptor [Cardiovasc. Drug Rev. 11:165-179 (1993)] has been cloned from a human placenta library...
  71. Donnini S, Finetti F, Solito R, Terzuoli E, Sacchetti A, Morbidelli L, et al. EP2 prostanoid receptor promotes squamous cell carcinoma growth through epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation and iNOS and ERK1/2 pathways. FASEB J. 2007;21:2418-30 pubmed
    ..PGE2 effects were confined to the selective stimulation of the EP2 receptor subtype, leading to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation via protein kinase A (PKA) and ..
  72. Colombe L, Michelet J, Bernard B. Prostanoid receptors in anagen human hair follicles. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:63-72 pubmed
    ..Although extracting a clear functional significance from this intricate network remains open challenge, FP labelling, i.e. could explain the biological effect of PGF(2alpha) on hair regrowth, by directly modulating DP function. ..
  73. Szczeklik W, Sanak M, Rostoff P, Piwowarska W, Jakiela B, Szczeklik A. Common polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptor and increased risk for acute coronary syndrome in coronary artery disease. Thromb Haemost. 2008;100:893-8 pubmed
    ..We assessed two common genetic polymorphisms: of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (COX2.8473, rs5275) and prostaglandin EP2 receptor gene (uS5, rs708494) in patients with CAD...
  74. Poole E, Hsu L, Xiao L, Kulmacz R, Carlson C, Rabinovitch P, et al. Genetic variation in prostaglandin E2 synthesis and signaling, prostaglandin dehydrogenase, and the risk of colorectal adenoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:547-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated candidate and tagSNPs in PGE2 synthase (PGES), PGE2 receptors (EP2 and EP4), and prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) in a case-control study of adenomas (n = 483) versus polyp-free ..
  75. Muto A, Nishibe T, Miyauchi Y, Kondo Y, Yamamoto Y, Dardik A, et al. Prostaglandin receptors EP2 and IP are detectable in atherosclerotic arteries and plaques. Int Angiol. 2010;29:43-8 pubmed
    ..In particular, the PG receptors EP2 and IP stimulate vasodilation and inhibit platelet aggregation, biological processes thought to be protective ..
  76. Huang S, Fisher A, Scruggs A, White E, Hogaboam C, Richardson B, et al. Hypermethylation of PTGER2 confers prostaglandin E2 resistance in fibrotic fibroblasts from humans and mice. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:2245-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Bisulfite sequencing of the prostaglandin E receptor 2 gene (PTGER2) promoter revealed that fibrotic fibroblasts exhibit greater PTGER2 methylation than nonfibrotic control cells...
  77. Wang X, Docanto M, Sasano H, Lo C, Simpson E, Brown K. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits p53 in human breast adipose stromal cells: a novel mechanism for the regulation of aromatase in obesity and breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2015;75:645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results demonstrate that p53 is a negative regulator of aromatase in the breast and its inhibition by PGE2 provides a novel mechanism for aromatase regulation in obesity and breast cancer. ..
  78. Yang L, Wei Y, Luo Y, Yang Q, Li H, Hu C, et al. Effect of PGE2-EPs pathway on primary cultured rat neuron injury caused by aluminum. Oncotarget. 2017;8:92004-92017 pubmed publisher
    ..aluminum-overload neurons were treated with the agonists of EP1 (17-phenyl trinor Prostaglandin E2 ethyl amide), EP2 (Butaprost), EP3 (Sulprostone) and EP4 (CAY10598) and antagonists of EP1 (SC-19220), EP2 (AH6809) and EP4 (L-161982)..
  79. Yousif N, de Oliveira A, Brioschi S, Huell M, Biber K, Fiebich B. Activation of EP2 receptor suppresses poly(I: C) and LPS-mediated inflammation in primary microglia and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures: Contributing role for MAPKs. Glia. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data identify an anti-inflammatory function for EP2 signaling in diverse innate immune responses, through a mechanism that involves the mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway...
  80. Duncan A, Anderson L, Funk C, Abramovitz M, Adam M. Chromosomal localization of the human prostanoid receptor gene family. Genomics. 1995;25:740-2 pubmed
    ..study, we have mapped the chromosomal positions of the human genes that encode the PGE2 receptor subtypes (PTGER1, PTGER2, and PTGER3), the PGF2 alpha receptor (PTGFR), the PGI2 receptor (PTGIR), and the TXA2 receptor (TBXA2R) using in ..
  81. Duckworth N, Marshall K, Clayton J. An investigation of the effect of the prostaglandin EP2 receptor agonist, butaprost, on the human isolated myometrium from pregnant and non-pregnant women. J Endocrinol. 2002;172:263-9 pubmed
    ..and the stable thromboxane receptor mimetic, U46619, on human myometrium treated with the prostaglandin E receptor (EP2) agonist, butaprost (selective for the EP2 receptor)...
  82. Moreland R, Kim N, Nehra A, Goldstein I, Traish A. Functional prostaglandin E (EP) receptors in human penile corpus cavernosum. Int J Impot Res. 2003;15:362-8 pubmed
    ..Using RNase protection assays, we determined expression of EP2, EP3I and EP3II receptor mRNA...
  83. Horita H, Kuroda E, Hachisuga T, Kashimura M, Yamashita U. Induction of prostaglandin E2 production by leukemia inhibitory factor promotes migration of first trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:1801-9 pubmed
    ..Agonists to PGE2 receptors, EP1, EP2 and EP4, promoted the migration of HTR-8/SVneo cells...
  84. Hattori R, Shimizu S, Majima Y, Shimizu T. EP4 agonist inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced mucus secretion in airway epithelial cells. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008;117:51-8 pubmed
    We examined the in vivo effects of agonists for prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) on mucus hypersecretion. We also examined the in vitro effects of EP agonists on airway epithelial cells...
  85. Sagana R, Yan M, Cornett A, Tsui J, Stephenson D, Huang S, et al. Phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (PTEN) directs prostaglandin E2-mediated fibroblast responses via regulation of E prostanoid 2 receptor expression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32264-71 pubmed publisher
    ..acid metabolite that counters transforming growth factor-beta-induced fibroblast activation via E prostanoid 2 (EP2) receptor binding...
  86. Sales K, Grant V, Catalano R, Jabbour H. Chorionic gonadotrophin regulates CXCR4 expression in human endometrium via E-series prostanoid receptor 2 signalling to PI3K-ERK1/2: implications for fetal-maternal crosstalk for embryo implantation. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:22-32 pubmed publisher
    ..co-culture studies have identified prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) 2, prostaglandin (PG) E receptor 2 (PTGER2) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 as important regulators of early pregnancy events...
  87. Li Z, Zhang Y, Kim W, Daaka Y. PGE2 promotes renal carcinoma cell invasion through activated RalA. Oncogene. 2013;32:1408-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The PGE2 increases SN12C cell invasion through a signal pathway that encompasses EP2 and EP4, Akt, small GTPase RalA and Ral·GTP inactivator RGC2...
  88. Yokoyama U, Minamisawa S, Shioda A, Ishiwata R, Jin M, Masuda M, et al. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits elastogenesis in the ductus arteriosus via EP4 signaling. Circulation. 2014;129:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that PGE? signaling inhibits elastogenesis in the DA, but not in the aorta, through degrading LOX protein. Elastogenesis is spatially regulated by PGE?-EP4 signaling in the DA. ..
  89. Zhang S, Liu B, Mao W, Li Q, Fu C, Zhang N, et al. The effect of prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER2) activation on growth factor expression and cell proliferation in bovine endometrial explants. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2017;122:16-23 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the PGE2 receptors (PTGER2) is present in endometrium and its increased expression accompanies with endometrial growth in above processes...
  90. Kang X, Qiu J, Li Q, Bell K, Du Y, Jung D, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 contributes to oxidopamine-mediated neuronal inflammation and injury via the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9459 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with PGE2 or EP2 selective agonist butaprost, but not EP4 agonist CAY10598, increased cAMP response in both cell lines...
  91. Gao L, Liu B, Mao W, Gao R, Zhang S, Duritahala -, et al. PTGER2 activation induces PTGS-2 and growth factor gene expression in endometrial epithelial cells of cattle. Anim Reprod Sci. 2017;187:54-63 pubmed publisher
    The prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (PTGER2) is present in the endometrium and its gene expression is accompanied with endometrial growth, however, it is unknown whether there is endometrial repair through stimulation of growth ..
  92. Aoyagi T, Newstead M, Zeng X, Nanjo Y, Peters Golden M, Kaku M, et al. Interleukin-36? and IL-36 receptor signaling mediate impaired host immunity and lung injury in cytotoxic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection: Role of prostaglandin E2. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006737 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of PMs with recombinant IL-36? resulted in impaired bacterial killing via PGE2 and its receptor; EP2. P...