PTEN

Summary

Gene Symbol: PTEN
Description: phosphatase and tensin homolog
Alias: 10q23del, BZS, CWS1, DEC, GLM2, MHAM, MMAC1, PTEN1, PTENbeta, TEP1, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN, MMAC1 phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10, mitochondrial PTENalpha, mitochondrial phosphatase and tensin protein alpha, mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1, phosphatase and tensin-like protein, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN, protein tyrosine phosphatase
Species: human
Products:     PTEN

Top Publications

  1. Myers M, Pass I, Batty I, Van Der Kaay J, Stolarov J, Hemmings B, et al. The lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN is critical for its tumor supressor function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13513-8 pubmed
    ..from human chromosome 10q23, called PTEN or MMAC1, has been identified that shares homology with the protein tyrosine phosphatase family...
  2. Sakamoto K, Iwasaki K, Sugiyama H, Tsuji Y. Role of the tumor suppressor PTEN in antioxidant responsive element-mediated transcription and associated histone modifications. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1606-17 pubmed publisher
    ..regulation of PI3-kinase (PI3K) and the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) plays a pivotal role in various cell functions...
  3. Yin Y, Shen W. PTEN: a new guardian of the genome. Oncogene. 2008;27:5443-53 pubmed publisher
    The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor is a phosphatase that antagonizes the phosphoinositol-3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway and suppresses cell survival as well as cell proliferation...
  4. Bian Y, Hall B, Sun Z, Molinolo A, Chen W, Gutkind J, et al. Loss of TGF-β signaling and PTEN promotes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through cellular senescence evasion and cancer-related inflammation. Oncogene. 2012;31:3322-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditional activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway due to Pten deletion in the mouse head and neck epithelia gives rise to hyperproliferation, but only a few lesions progress to ..
  5. Palumbo T, Faucz F, Azevedo M, Xekouki P, Iliopoulos D, Stratakis C. Functional screen analysis reveals miR-26b and miR-128 as central regulators of pituitary somatomammotrophic tumor growth through activation of the PTEN-AKT pathway. Oncogene. 2013;32:1651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..that miR-26b and miR-128 affected pituitary tumor cell behavior through regulation of their direct targets, PTEN and BMI1, respectively...
  6. Huang F, Zhang L, Wu D, Yuan X, Yu Y, Zhao X, et al. PTEN regulates BCRP/ABCG2 and the side population through the PI3K/Akt pathway in chronic myeloid leukemia. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88298 pubmed publisher
    ..enhanced drug resistance along with downregulated phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome -10 (PTEN) and activated phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt)...
  7. Won H, Jung C, Chun S, Kang J, Kim Y, Sun D, et al. Difference in expression of EGFR, pAkt, and PTEN between oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2012;48:985-990 pubmed publisher
    The aims of this study were to evaluate the expression of EGFR, PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and PTEN in the oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers, and to investigate their clinical significance as prognostic markers...
  8. Huang F, Wu D, Zhang L, Yu Y, Yuan X, Li W, et al. Inactivation of PTEN increases ABCG2 expression and the side population through the PI3K/Akt pathway in adult acute leukemia. Cancer Lett. 2013;336:96-105 pubmed publisher
    ..that ABCG2 expression and SP cell ratios can be upregulated by the inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein, achieved in this study by removing inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway...
  9. Moult P, Cross A, Santos S, Carvalho A, Lindsay Y, Connolly C, et al. Leptin regulates AMPA receptor trafficking via PTEN inhibition. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4088-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, leptin enhanced phosphorylation of the lipid phosphatase PTEN which inhibits PTEN function and elevates PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) levels...

More Information

Publications173 found, 100 shown here

  1. Lacey J, Yang H, Gaudet M, Dunning A, Lissowska J, Sherman M, et al. Endometrial cancer and genetic variation in PTEN, PIK3CA, AKT1, MLH1, and MSH2 within a population-based case-control study. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;120:167-73 pubmed publisher
    We assessed whether common genetic variation in PTEN, PIK3CA, AKT1, MLH1, and MSH2-genes that reportedly are frequently altered in endometrial cancer-was associated with risk of endometrial cancer...
  2. Kavela S, Shinde S, Ratheesh R, Viswakalyan K, Bashyam M, Gowrishankar S, et al. PNUTS functions as a proto-oncogene by sequestering PTEN. Cancer Res. 2013;73:205-14 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN is a well-defined tumor suppressor gene that antagonizes the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate a multitude of cellular processes, such as survival, growth, motility, invasiveness, and angiogenesis...
  3. Shen W, Balajee A, Wang J, Wu H, Eng C, Pandolfi P, et al. Essential role for nuclear PTEN in maintaining chromosomal integrity. Cell. 2007;128:157-70 pubmed
    A broad spectrum of mutations in PTEN, encoding a lipid phosphatase that inactivates the P13-K/AKT pathway, is found associated with primary tumors...
  4. Li H, Gao Q, Guo L, Lu S. The PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway regulates stem-like cells in primary esophageal carcinoma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011;11:950-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, PTEN, rather than mTOR, was found to be involved in SP cell regulation in primary ESCC cells...
  5. Redfern R, Daou M, Li L, Munson M, Gericke A, Ross A. A mutant form of PTEN linked to autism. Protein Sci. 2010;19:1948-56 pubmed publisher
    The tumor suppressor, phosphatase, and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), is a phosphoinositide (PI) phosphatase specific for the 3-position of the inositol ring...
  6. Pal A, Barber T, van de Bunt M, Rudge S, Zhang Q, Lachlan K, et al. PTEN mutations as a cause of constitutive insulin sensitivity and obesity. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1002-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) has roles in both cellular growth and metabolic signaling...
  7. Han S, Polizzano C, Nielsen G, Hornicek F, Rosenberg A, Ramesh V. Aberrant hyperactivation of akt and Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling in sporadic chordomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:1940-6 pubmed publisher
    ..in primary tumors/cell lines of sacral chordomas and further examined upstream of mTORC1 signaling, including the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) tumor suppressor...
  8. Korkaya H, Paulson A, Charafe Jauffret E, Ginestier C, Brown M, Dutcher J, et al. Regulation of mammary stem/progenitor cells by PTEN/Akt/beta-catenin signaling. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000121 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is inactivated in a wide range of human cancers, an alteration that is associated with a poor prognosis...
  9. Zhang B, Li J, Yu B, Zhu Z, Liu B, Yan M. microRNA-21 promotes tumor proliferation and invasion in gastric cancer by targeting PTEN. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:1019-26 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been reported that PTEN, an important tumour suppressor, is regulated by multiple miRNAs...
  10. Bar N, Dikstein R. miR-22 forms a regulatory loop in PTEN/AKT pathway and modulates signaling kinetics. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10859 pubmed publisher
    The tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is a lipid phosphatase that converts PIP3 into PIP2 and downregulates the kinase AKT and its proliferative and anti-apoptotic activities...
  11. Naguib A, Cooke J, Happerfield L, Kerr L, Gay L, Luben R, et al. Alterations in PTEN and PIK3CA in colorectal cancers in the EPIC Norfolk study: associations with clinicopathological and dietary factors. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:123 pubmed publisher
    The PTEN tumour suppressor gene and PIK3CA proto-oncogene encode proteins which contribute to regulation and propagation of signal transduction through the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway...
  12. Konopka B, Janiec Jankowska A, Paszko Z, Goluda M. The coexistence of ERBB2, INT2, and CMYC oncogene amplifications and PTEN gene mutations in endometrial carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2004;130:114-21 pubmed
    To evaluate the frequency of ERBB2, INT2 and CMYC oncogene amplifications and their coexistence with PTEN gene mutations in endometrial carcinomas...
  13. Kim R, Peters M, Jang Y, Shi W, Pintilie M, Fletcher G, et al. DJ-1, a novel regulator of the tumor suppressor PTEN. Cancer Cell. 2005;7:263-73 pubmed
    The phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3'K) pathway, which regulates cell survival, is antagonized by the PTEN tumor suppressor. The regulation of PTEN is unclear...
  14. Wishart M, Dixon J. PTEN and myotubularin phosphatases: from 3-phosphoinositide dephosphorylation to disease. Trends Cell Biol. 2002;12:579-85 pubmed
    The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and myotubularin (MTM1) represent subfamilies of protein tyrosine phosphatases whose principal physiological substrates are D3-phosphorylated inositol phospholipids...
  15. Takahashi Y, Morales F, Kreimann E, Georgescu M. PTEN tumor suppressor associates with NHERF proteins to attenuate PDGF receptor signaling. EMBO J. 2006;25:910-20 pubmed
    b>PTEN, a tumor suppressor frequently inactivated in many human cancers, directly antagonizes the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) by dephosphorylating phosphoinositides...
  16. Liu B, Wu X, Liu B, Wang C, Liu Y, Zhou Q, et al. MiR-26a enhances metastasis potential of lung cancer cells via AKT pathway by targeting PTEN. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1822:1692-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was a direct target of miR-26a...
  17. Nogueira C, Kim K, Sung H, Paraiso K, Dannenberg J, Bosenberg M, et al. Cooperative interactions of PTEN deficiency and RAS activation in melanoma metastasis. Oncogene. 2010;29:6222-32 pubmed publisher
    ..kinases, mutations in their signaling surrogates, such as RAS and BRAF, or loss of negative regulators such as PTEN. As RAS can be a positive upstream regulator of PI3-K, it has been proposed that the loss of PTEN and the ..
  18. Tanwar P, Mohapatra G, Chiang S, Engler D, Zhang L, Kaneko Tarui T, et al. Loss of LKB1 and PTEN tumor suppressor genes in the ovarian surface epithelium induces papillary serous ovarian cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014;35:546-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We detected copy number loss and correlated lower expression levels of LKB1, TSC1, TSC2 and PTEN tumor suppressor genes for upstream regulators of mTOR activity in up to 80% in primary ovarian serous tumor ..
  19. White E, Atrasz R, Hu B, Phan S, Stambolic V, Mak T, et al. Negative regulation of myofibroblast differentiation by PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on chromosome 10). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173:112-21 pubmed
    ..To show that myofibroblast differentiation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) activity in vivo, and to identify a potential mechanism by which this occurs...
  20. Redfern R, Redfern D, Furgason M, Munson M, Ross A, Gericke A. PTEN phosphatase selectively binds phosphoinositides and undergoes structural changes. Biochemistry. 2008;47:2162-71 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) is a tumor suppressor that is mutated or deleted in a variety of human tumors, and even loss of only one PTEN gene profoundly affects carcinogenesis...
  21. Tamura M, Gu J, Danen E, Takino T, Miyamoto S, Yamada K. PTEN interactions with focal adhesion kinase and suppression of the extracellular matrix-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt cell survival pathway. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:20693-703 pubmed
    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a phosphatase with sequence homology to tensin...
  22. Raftopoulou M, Etienne Manneville S, Self A, Nicholls S, Hall A. Regulation of cell migration by the C2 domain of the tumor suppressor PTEN. Science. 2004;303:1179-81 pubmed
    b>PTEN is a tumor suppressor protein that dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate and antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling pathway...
  23. Marty B, Maire V, Gravier E, Rigaill G, Vincent Salomon A, Kappler M, et al. Frequent PTEN genomic alterations and activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in basal-like breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2008;10:R101 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to HER2+ carcinomas, no targeted therapy is currently available for the treatment of patients with BLCs. In order to discover potential therapeutic targets, we aimed to discover deregulated signalling pathways in human BLCs...
  24. Keng V, Rahrmann E, Watson A, Tschida B, Moertel C, Jessen W, et al. PTEN and NF1 inactivation in Schwann cells produces a severe phenotype in the peripheral nervous system that promotes the development and malignant progression of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Cancer Res. 2012;72:3405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) and neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1) genes recently were found to be comutated in high-grade peripheral nerve sheath ..
  25. Zheng H, Ying H, Yan H, Kimmelman A, Hiller D, Chen A, et al. p53 and Pten control neural and glioma stem/progenitor cell renewal and differentiation. Nature. 2008;455:1129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary GBM subtype presents acutely as a high-grade disease that typically harbours mutations in EGFR, PTEN and INK4A/ARF (also known as CDKN2A), and the secondary GBM subtype evolves from the slow progression of a low-..
  26. Sawai H, Yasuda A, Ochi N, Ma J, Matsuo Y, Wakasugi T, et al. Loss of PTEN expression is associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis and poor patient survival. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:56 pubmed publisher
    The tumour suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is an important negative regulator of cell-survival signaling...
  27. Wang S, Garcia A, Wu M, Lawson D, Witte O, Wu H. Pten deletion leads to the expansion of a prostatic stem/progenitor cell subpopulation and tumor initiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1480-5 pubmed
    b>PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) is a potent tumor suppressor gene frequently mutated in human prostate cancers...
  28. Adey N, Huang L, Ormonde P, Baumgard M, Pero R, Byreddy D, et al. Threonine phosphorylation of the MMAC1/PTEN PDZ binding domain both inhibits and stimulates PDZ binding. Cancer Res. 2000;60:35-7 pubmed
    Two-hybrid searches with the tumor suppressor MMAC1/PTEN isolated the proteins hDLG and hMAST205...
  29. Velasco A, Bussaglia E, Pallares J, Dolcet X, Llobet D, Encinas M, et al. PIK3CA gene mutations in endometrial carcinoma: correlation with PTEN and K-RAS alterations. Hum Pathol. 2006;37:1465-72 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN leads to a constitutively active PI3K pathway, which plays a role in the early steps of endometrial tumorigenesis...
  30. Pollack I, Hamilton R, James C, Finkelstein S, Burnham J, Yates A, et al. Rarity of PTEN deletions and EGFR amplification in malignant gliomas of childhood: results from the Children's Cancer Group 945 cohort. J Neurosurg. 2006;105:418-24 pubmed
    In reporting on molecular studies involving malignant gliomas in adults, authors have noted that deletions of PTEN and amplification of EGFR are common and may contribute to tumor development, providing a rationale for a number of ..
  31. Ma J, Zhang J, Ning T, Chen Z, Xu C. Association of genetic polymorphisms in MDM2, PTEN and P53 with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Hum Genet. 2012;57:261-4 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variations in MDM2, PTEN and P53 might be involved in cancer susceptibility...
  32. Ahmed S, Deb S, Paul I, Chatterjee A, Mandal T, Chatterjee U, et al. The chaperone-assisted E3 ligase C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) targets PTEN for proteasomal degradation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:15996-6006 pubmed publisher
    The tumor suppressor, PTEN is key to the regulation of diverse cellular processes, making it a prime candidate to be tightly regulated...
  33. Wikman H, Lamszus K, Detels N, Uslar L, Wrage M, Benner C, et al. Relevance of PTEN loss in brain metastasis formation in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res. 2012;14:R49 pubmed
    ..AI at PTEN loci was found significantly more often in brain metastases (52%) and primary tumors with a brain relapse (59%) ..
  34. Karapetis C, Jonker D, Daneshmand M, Hanson J, O Callaghan C, Marginean C, et al. PIK3CA, BRAF, and PTEN status and benefit from cetuximab in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer--results from NCIC CTG/AGITG CO.17. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20:744-53 pubmed publisher
    ..predictive and prognostic significance of additional biomarkers in this setting, in particular BRAF, PIK3CA, and PTEN. Available colorectal tumor samples were analyzed from the CO.17 study...
  35. Kovács K, Lengyel F, Vértes Z, Környei J, Gocze P, Sumegi B, et al. Phosphorylation of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) protein is enhanced in human fibromyomatous uteri. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;103:196-9 pubmed
    b>PTEN phosphatase, a product of PTEN tumor suppressor gene, exists in cells in phosphorylated and unphosphorylated form and has a central role in regulation of PI3K/Akt signalling which is involved in non-genomic action of estradiol...
  36. Saal L, Johansson P, Holm K, Gruvberger Saal S, She Q, Maurer M, et al. Poor prognosis in carcinoma is associated with a gene expression signature of aberrant PTEN tumor suppressor pathway activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7564-9 pubmed
    ..Taking advantage of the observation that loss of PTEN, the negative regulator of PI3K, results in robust activation of this pathway, we developed and validated a ..
  37. Zhang S, Yu D. PI(3)king apart PTEN's role in cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:4325-30 pubmed publisher
    The tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a nonredundant phosphatase, counteracting one of the most critical cancer-promoting pathways: the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway...
  38. Krohn A, Diedler T, Burkhardt L, Mayer P, De Silva C, Meyer Kornblum M, et al. Genomic deletion of PTEN is associated with tumor progression and early PSA recurrence in ERG fusion-positive and fusion-negative prostate cancer. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:401-12 pubmed publisher
    The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) gene is often altered in prostate cancer...
  39. Garcia J, Silva J, Peña C, Garcia V, Rodriguez R, Cruz M, et al. Promoter methylation of the PTEN gene is a common molecular change in breast cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2004;41:117-24 pubmed
    About 25-50% of women with Cowden disease, a syndrome associated with germ-line mutations of the PTEN gene (at 10q23), develop breast cancer (BC), but PTEN mutations have been found in only 5% of sporadic BCs...
  40. Butler M, Dasouki M, Zhou X, Talebizadeh Z, Brown M, Takahashi T, et al. Subset of individuals with autism spectrum disorders and extreme macrocephaly associated with germline PTEN tumour suppressor gene mutations. J Med Genet. 2005;42:318-21 pubmed
    ..as Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, Proteus syndrome, and Proteus-like conditions, are characterised by germline PTEN mutations, and may have neurobehavioural features resembling autism as well as overgrowth and macrocephaly...
  41. Morales F, Takahashi Y, Momin S, Adams H, Chen X, Georgescu M. NHERF1/EBP50 head-to-tail intramolecular interaction masks association with PDZ domain ligands. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2527-37 pubmed
    ..head-to-tail conformation masked the interaction of both PDZ domains with PDZ domain-specific ligands, such as PTEN and beta-catenin...
  42. Liu F, Wagner S, Campbell R, Nickerson J, Schiffer C, Ross A. PTEN enters the nucleus by diffusion. J Cell Biochem. 2005;96:221-34 pubmed
    ..step to elucidating this problem, we determined whether phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) enters the nucleus by passive diffusion or active transport...
  43. Shen Y, Zhang L, Gan Y, Wang X, Wang J, LeMaire S, et al. Up-regulation of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) mediates p38 MAPK stress signal-induced inhibition of insulin signaling. A cross-talk between stress signaling and insulin signaling in resistin-treated human endothelia. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:7727-36 pubmed
    ..Up-regulation of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) expression by resistin may mediate the inhibitory ..
  44. Davidson B, Hadar R, Schlossberg A, Sternlicht T, Slipicevic A, Skrede M, et al. Expression and clinical role of DJ-1, a negative regulator of PTEN, in ovarian carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:87-95 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to analyze the expression and clinical role of DJ-1, a negative regulator of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10), in ovarian carcinoma, and investigate the putative association between ..
  45. Chen J, Li T, Liu Q, Jiao H, Yang W, Liu X, et al. Clinical and prognostic significance of HIF-1?, PTEN, CD44v6, and survivin for gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e91842 pubmed publisher
    ..Seventeen studies evaluated HIF-1?, 20 studies evaluated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), 20 studies evaluated Survivin, and 16 studies evaluated CD44v6...
  46. Bai Z, Zhang Z, Ye Y, Wang S. Sodium butyrate induces differentiation of gastric cancer cells to intestinal cells via the PTEN/phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. Cell Biol Int. 2010;34:1141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..determine whether NaB induced differentiation and regulated the expression of the mucosal factor MUC2 through the PTEN/PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathway...
  47. Choi B, Pagano M, Dai W. Plk1 protein phosphorylates phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and regulates its mitotic activity during the cell cycle. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:14066-74 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN is a well known tumor suppressor through the negative regulation of the PI3K signaling pathway...
  48. Okumura K, Zhao M, Depinho R, Furnari F, Cavenee W. Cellular transformation by the MSP58 oncogene is inhibited by its physical interaction with the PTEN tumor suppressor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2703-6 pubmed
    The PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) tumor suppressor protein contains a single catalytic domain with both lipid and protein phosphatase activities...
  49. Chetram M, Odero Marah V, Hinton C. Loss of PTEN permits CXCR4-mediated tumorigenesis through ERK1/2 in prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:90-102 pubmed publisher
    Loss of PTEN is frequently observed in androgen-independent prostate cancer, resulting in the deregulation of metastatic events...
  50. Canbay E, Kahraman O, Bugra D, Caykara B, Seyhan M, Bulut T, et al. Increased gastric cancer risk with PTEN IVS4 polymorphism in a Turkish population. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2013;17:249-53 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to investigate the association of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) IVS4 polymorphism with a gastric cancer (GC) risk in the Turkish population...
  51. Hayes M, Wang H, Espinal Witter R, Douglas W, Solomon G, Baker S, et al. PIK3CA and PTEN mutations in uterine endometrioid carcinoma and complex atypical hyperplasia. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:5932-5 pubmed
    The tumor suppressor PTEN gene and the PIK3CA oncogene are frequently mutated in uterine endometrioid carcinoma (UEC). PTEN mutations are also common in complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH), the precursor lesion of UEC...
  52. Garofalo M, Di Leva G, Romano G, Nuovo G, Suh S, Ngankeu A, et al. miR-221&222 regulate TRAIL resistance and enhance tumorigenicity through PTEN and TIMP3 downregulation. Cancer Cell. 2009;16:498-509 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that miR-221&222, by targeting PTEN and TIMP3 tumor suppressors, induce TRAIL resistance and enhance cellular migration through the activation of the ..
  53. Martins F, De S, Almendro V, Gonen M, Park S, Blum J, et al. Evolutionary pathways in BRCA1-associated breast tumors. Cancer Discov. 2012;2:503-11 pubmed publisher
    BRCA1-associated breast tumors display loss of BRCA1 and frequent somatic mutations of PTEN and TP53...
  54. Moon S, Kim D, Cha Y, Jeon I, Song J, Park K. PI3K/Akt and Stat3 signaling regulated by PTEN control of the cancer stem cell population, proliferation and senescence in a glioblastoma cell line. Int J Oncol. 2013;42:921-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of genes have been implicated in glioblastoma including mutation and deletion of PTEN. PTEN is a regulator of PI3K-mediated Akt signaling pathways and has been recognized as a therapeutic target in ..
  55. Chung M, Jung S, Lee B, Kang M, Lee D. Inactivation of the PTEN gene protein product is associated with the invasiveness and metastasis, but not angiogenesis, of breast cancer. Pathol Int. 2004;54:10-5 pubmed
    b>PTEN is a novel tumor-suppressor gene located on chromosomal band 10q23...
  56. Olaussen K, Soria J, Morat L, Martin A, Sabatier L, Morere J, et al. Loss of PTEN expression is not uncommon, but lacks prognostic value in stage I NSCLC. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:4885-90 pubmed
    The PTEN gene is a tumor-suppressor gene that is inactivated in several types of human tumors. The loss of PTEN expression has been supported as a prognostic marker...
  57. Li Z, Dong X, Dong X, Wang Z, Liu W, Deng N, et al. Regulation of PTEN by Rho small GTPases. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:399-404 pubmed
    b>PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) is a phosphatase that dephosphorylates both protein and phosphoinositide substrates...
  58. Bandyopadhyay S, Pai S, Watabe M, Gross S, Hirota S, Hosobe S, et al. FAS expression inversely correlates with PTEN level in prostate cancer and a PI 3-kinase inhibitor synergizes with FAS siRNA to induce apoptosis. Oncogene. 2005;24:5389-95 pubmed
    ..In this report, we demonstrate that the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN has a significant inverse correlation with FAS expression in the case of prostate cancer in the clinical setting, ..
  59. Hoeflich K, O Brien C, Boyd Z, Cavet G, Guerrero S, Jung K, et al. In vivo antitumor activity of MEK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors in basal-like breast cancer models. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:4649-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We also showed that loss of PTEN is a negative predictor of response to MEK inhibition, that treatment with a selective MEK inhibitor caused up-..
  60. Yamamoto C, Basaki Y, Kawahara A, Nakashima K, Kage M, Izumi H, et al. Loss of PTEN expression by blocking nuclear translocation of EGR1 in gefitinib-resistant lung cancer cells harboring epidermal growth factor receptor-activating mutations. Cancer Res. 2010;70:8715-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Gefitinib-resistant PC-9/GEFs cell lines showed a marked downregulation of PTEN expression and increased Akt phosphorylation...
  61. Luo L, Gong Y, Qi X, Lai W, Lan H, Luo Y. Effect of tumor suppressor PTEN gene on apoptosis and cell cycle of human airway smooth muscle cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;375:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumor suppressor PTEN gene with phosphatase activity plays an important regulatory role in embryonic development, cell proliferation, and ..
  62. Koide S, Okazaki M, Tamura M, Ozumi K, Takatsu H, Kamezaki F, et al. PTEN reduces cuff-induced neointima formation and proinflammatory cytokines. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H2824-31 pubmed
    ..the effects of adenovirus-mediated overexpression of phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) on neointima formation and the proinflammatory response...
  63. Guenard F, Labrie Y, Ouellette G, Beauparlant C, Bessette P, Chiquette J, et al. Germline mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene PTEN are rare in high-risk non-BRCA1/2 French Canadian breast cancer families. Fam Cancer. 2007;6:483-90 pubmed
    Cowden syndrome is a disease associated with an increase in breast cancer susceptibility. Alleles in PTEN and other breast cancer susceptibility genes would be responsible for approximately 25% of the familial component of breast cancer ..
  64. Ahn Y, Hwang C, Lee S, Kwon K, Lee C. The tumour suppressor PTEN mediates a negative regulation of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Nedd4. Biochem J. 2008;412:331-8 pubmed publisher
    The tumour suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10; a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphatase) is a multifunctional protein deregulated in many types of cancer...
  65. Khan S, Kumagai T, Vora J, Bose N, Sehgal I, Koeffler P, et al. PTEN promoter is methylated in a proportion of invasive breast cancers. Int J Cancer. 2004;112:407-10 pubmed
    The PTEN protein is a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, leading to suppression of apoptosis and increased cell survival...
  66. Gregorian C, Nakashima J, Dry S, Nghiemphu P, Smith K, Ao Y, et al. PTEN dosage is essential for neurofibroma development and malignant transformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In a series of genetically engineered murine models, we perturbed RAS/RAF/MAPK or/and PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway, individually or simultaneously, via conditional activation of K-ras oncogene or deletion of Nf1 ..
  67. McBride K, Varga E, Pastore M, Prior T, Manickam K, Atkin J, et al. Confirmation study of PTEN mutations among individuals with autism or developmental delays/mental retardation and macrocephaly. Autism Res. 2010;3:137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated PTEN mutations in a sizable proportion of individuals with ASD or mental retardation/developmental delays (MR/DD) and ..
  68. Hong S, Moon J, Kim J, Shin J, Jung K, Lee W, et al. p34 is a novel regulator of the oncogenic behavior of NEDD4-1 and PTEN. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:146-60 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated or deleted tumor suppressors in human cancers...
  69. Liang H, He S, Yang J, Jia X, Wang P, Chen X, et al. PTEN?, a PTEN isoform translated through alternative initiation, regulates mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. Cell Metab. 2014;19:836-48 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. It is known that PTEN has a wide range of biological functions beyond tumor suppression...
  70. Song M, Carracedo A, Salmena L, Song S, Egia A, Malumbres M, et al. Nuclear PTEN regulates the APC-CDH1 tumor-suppressive complex in a phosphatase-independent manner. Cell. 2011;144:187-99 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN is a frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene that opposes the PI3K/AKT pathway through dephosphorylation of phosphoinositide-3,4,5-triphosphate...
  71. Reid A, Attard G, Brewer D, Miranda S, Riisnaes R, Clark J, et al. Novel, gross chromosomal alterations involving PTEN cooperate with allelic loss in prostate cancer. Mod Pathol. 2012;25:902-10 pubmed publisher
    There is increasing evidence that multiple chromosomal rearrangements occur in prostate cancer. PTEN loss is considered to be a key event in prostate carcinogenesis but the mechanisms of loss remain to be fully elucidated...
  72. De Vivo I, Gertig D, Nagase S, Hankinson S, O Brien R, Speizer F, et al. Novel germline mutations in the PTEN tumour suppressor gene found in women with multiple cancers. J Med Genet. 2000;37:336-41 pubmed
    Germline mutations in PTEN can predispose people to Cowden syndrome (CS) and Bannayan-Ruvalcaba-Riley (BRR) syndrome, rare, autosomal dominantly inherited neoplastic disorders...
  73. Shin K, Park Y, Park J. PTEN gene mutations in colorectal cancers displaying microsatellite instability. Cancer Lett. 2001;174:189-94 pubmed
    To determine the relationship between the mutation of the PTEN gene and genomic instability in human colorectal cancer, we screened the PTEN gene in 32 colorectal cancers (eight cell lines and 24 tissues) displaying microsatellite ..
  74. Lin H, Hu Y, Lee D, Chang C. Regulation of androgen receptor signaling by PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) tumor suppressor through distinct mechanisms in prostate cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:2409-23 pubmed
    Defects in the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) tumor suppressor gene have been found in many human cancers including breast and prostate...
  75. Al Khouri A, Ma Y, Togo S, Williams S, Mustelin T. Cooperative phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) by casein kinases and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35195-202 pubmed
    The phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) tumor suppressor is a phosphatidylinositol D3-phosphatase that counteracts the effects of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and negatively regulates cell growth and survival...
  76. Ge H, Cao Y, Chen L, Wang Y, Chen Z, Wen D, et al. PTEN polymorphisms and the risk of esophageal carcinoma and gastric cardiac carcinoma in a high incidence region of China. Dis Esophagus. 2008;21:409-15 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN, as a tumor suppressor gene, plays an important role in regulating cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. Two common polymorphisms, -9C/G and IVS4 (-/+), may alter susceptibility to the disease...