PTCH1

Summary

Gene Symbol: PTCH1
Description: patched 1
Alias: BCNS, NBCCS, PTC, PTC1, PTCH, protein patched homolog 1
Species: human
Products:     PTCH1

Top Publications

  1. Ming J, Kaupas M, Roessler E, Brunner H, Golabi M, Tekin M, et al. Mutations in PATCHED-1, the receptor for SONIC HEDGEHOG, are associated with holoprosencephaly. Hum Genet. 2002;110:297-301 pubmed
    ..PATCHED-1 (PTCH), the receptor for SHH, normally acts to repress SHH signaling. This repression is relieved when SHH binds to PTCH...
  2. Gailani M, Ståhle Bäckdahl M, Leffell D, Glynn M, Zaphiropoulos P, Pressman C, et al. The role of the human homologue of Drosophila patched in sporadic basal cell carcinomas. Nat Genet. 1996;14:78-81 pubmed
    ..The gene for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple BCCs, maps to the same region and is presumed to be the ..
  3. Pastorino L, Pollio A, Pellacani G, Guarneri C, Ghiorzo P, Longo C, et al. Novel PTCH1 mutations in patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumors screened for nevoid basal cell carcinoma (NBCC) syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43827 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PTCH1 mutation can be found both in sporadic or NBCCS associated KCOTs...
  4. Wolf I, Bose S, Desmond J, Lin B, Williamson E, Karlan B, et al. Unmasking of epigenetically silenced genes reveals DNA promoter methylation and reduced expression of PTCH in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;105:139-55 pubmed
    ..Eighteen genes were studied for methylation and/or expression in breast cancer; PTCH, the receptor for the hedgehog (Hh) pathway and a known tumor suppressor gene, was selected for further analysis...
  5. Nagao K, Toyoda M, Takeuchi Inoue K, Fujii K, Yamada M, Miyashita T. Identification and characterization of multiple isoforms of a murine and human tumor suppressor, patched, having distinct first exons. Genomics. 2005;85:462-71 pubmed
    Mutations in mouse and human patched (PTCH) genes are associated with birth defects and cancer. PTCH, a 12-pass transmembrane protein, is a receptor for Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling proteins...
  6. Johnson R, Rothman A, Xie J, Goodrich L, Bare J, Bonifas J, et al. Human homolog of patched, a candidate gene for the basal cell nevus syndrome. Science. 1996;272:1668-71 pubmed
    The basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) is characterized by developmental abnormalities and by the postnatal occurrence of cancers, especially basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), the most common human cancer...
  7. Hahn H, Wicking C, Zaphiropoulous P, Gailani M, Shanley S, Chidambaram A, et al. Mutations of the human homolog of Drosophila patched in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Cell. 1996;85:841-51 pubmed
    The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), pits of the palms and soles, jaw keratocysts, a variety of other tumors, and developmental ..
  8. Yan T, Angelini M, Alman B, Andrulis I, Wunder J. Patched-one or smoothened gene mutations are infrequent in chondrosarcoma. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:2184-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Some tumors exhibiting hedgehog pathway activation such as basal cell cancer frequently harbor PATCHED-ONE (PTCH-1) or SMOOTHENED (SMO) gene mutations...
  9. Ma X, Chen K, Huang S, Zhang X, Adegboyega P, Evers B, et al. Frequent activation of the hedgehog pathway in advanced gastric adenocarcinomas. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:1698-705 pubmed
    ..Here, we report our findings that the elevated expression of hedgehog target genes human patched gene 1 (PTCH1) or Gli1 occurs in 63 of the 99 primary gastric cancers...

More Information

Publications81

  1. Aszterbaum M, Rothman A, Johnson R, Fisher M, Xie J, Bonifas J, et al. Identification of mutations in the human PATCHED gene in sporadic basal cell carcinomas and in patients with the basal cell nevus syndrome. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110:885-8 pubmed
    Mutations in PATCHED (PTC), the human homolog of the Drosophila patched gene, have been identified in most exons of the gene in patients with the basal cell nevus syndrome and in sporadic basal cell carcinomas...
  2. Pritchard J, Olson J. Methylation of PTCH1, the Patched-1 gene, in a panel of primary medulloblastomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2008;180:47-50 pubmed
    ..Shh pathway activity is measured by expression of the target genes in the GLI family, MYCN and PTCH1, a tumor suppressor and negative regulator of the pathway...
  3. Hafner C, Schmiemann V, Ruetten A, Coras B, Landthaler M, Reifenberger J, et al. PTCH mutations are not mainly involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic trichoblastomas. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:1496-500 pubmed
    ..Both basal cell carcinoma and trichoepithelioma reveal alterations of PTCH, the human homolog of the Drosophila segment polarity patched gene...
  4. Kim M, Park H, Baek S, Byun D, Houh D. Mutations of the p53 and PTCH gene in basal cell carcinomas: UV mutation signature and strand bias. J Dermatol Sci. 2002;29:1-9 pubmed
    Mutations of p53 and PTCH gene, two candidate tumor suppressor genes for basal cell carcinoma (BCC), were screened in 15 cases of sporadic BCCs that developed in sun-exposed skin region in a Korean population...
  5. Kogerman P, Krause D, Rahnama F, Kogerman L, Unden A, Zaphiropoulos P, et al. Alternative first exons of PTCH1 are differentially regulated in vivo and may confer different functions to the PTCH1 protein. Oncogene. 2002;21:6007-16 pubmed
    The PTCH1 gene is a human tumour suppressor gene frequently mutated in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and several other tumour types. It encodes a receptor for soluble factors of the hedgehog family...
  6. Chang Claude J, Dunning A, Schnitzbauer U, Galmbacher P, Tee L, Wjst M, et al. The patched polymorphism Pro1315Leu (C3944T) may modulate the association between use of oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2003;103:779-83 pubmed
    The gene coding for the human homologue of the Drosophila segment polarity gene patched (PTCH1) is mutated in several common human tumors...
  7. Bosanac I, Maun H, Scales S, Wen X, Lingel A, Bazan J, et al. The structure of SHH in complex with HHIP reveals a recognition role for the Shh pseudo active site in signaling. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:691-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, sequence comparisons of this SHH binding loop with the Hh receptor Patched (Ptc1) ectodomains and HHIP- and PTC1-peptide binding studies suggest a 'patch for Patched' at the Shh pseudo active site;..
  8. De Rivoyre M, Ruel L, Varjosalo M, Loubat A, Bidet M, Therond P, et al. Human receptors patched and smoothened partially transduce hedgehog signal when expressed in Drosophila cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28584-95 pubmed
  9. Gailani M, Bale S, Leffell D, DiGiovanna J, Peck G, Poliak S, et al. Developmental defects in Gorlin syndrome related to a putative tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 9. Cell. 1992;69:111-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast, hemizygous germline mutations lead to multiple congenital anomalies...
  10. Hahn H, Christiansen J, Wicking C, Zaphiropoulos P, Chidambaram A, Gerrard B, et al. A mammalian patched homolog is expressed in target tissues of sonic hedgehog and maps to a region associated with developmental abnormalities. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:12125-8 pubmed
    ..Human PATCHED maps to human chromosome 9q22.3, the candidate region for the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Patched expression is compatible with the congenital defects observed in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. ..
  11. Li T, Yuan J, Gu X, Sun L, Zhao H. PTCH germline mutations in Chinese nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome patients. Oral Dis. 2008;14:174-9 pubmed publisher
    b>PTCH, the human homologue of the Drosophila segment polarity gene, patched, has been identified as the gene responsible for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome...
  12. Brellier F, Bergoglio V, Valin A, Barnay S, Chevallier Lagente O, Vielh P, et al. Heterozygous mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PATCHED provoke basal cell carcinoma-like features in human organotypic skin cultures. Oncogene. 2008;27:6601-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show for the first time the physiological impact of constitutive heterozygous PATCHED mutations in primary human keratinocytes and strongly argue for a yet elusive mechanism of haploinsufficiency leading to cancer proneness. ..
  13. Kijima C, Miyashita T, Suzuki M, Oka H, Fujii K. Two cases of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome associated with meningioma caused by a PTCH1 or SUFU germline mutation. Fam Cancer. 2012;11:565-70 pubmed publisher
    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental defects and tumorigenesis. The gene responsible for NBCCS is PTCH1...
  14. Barnes E, Kong M, Ollendorff V, Donoghue D. Patched1 interacts with cyclin B1 to regulate cell cycle progression. EMBO J. 2001;20:2214-23 pubmed
    ..a bait protein to mimic phosphorylated cyclin B1, we identified a novel interaction between cyclin B1 and patched1 (ptc1), a tumor suppressor associated with basal cell carcinoma (BCC)...
  15. Tanioka M, Takahashi K, Kawabata T, Kosugi S, Murakami K, Miyachi Y, et al. Germline mutations of the PTCH gene in Japanese patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Arch Dermatol Res. 2005;296:303-8 pubmed
    ..mutations of the PTCH gene in eight unrelated Japanese patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS)...
  16. Lindström E, Shimokawa T, Toftgard R, Zaphiropoulos P. PTCH mutations: distribution and analyses. Hum Mutat. 2006;27:215-9 pubmed
    Mutations in the PTCH (PTCH1) gene are the underlying cause of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), and are also found in many different sporadic tumors in which PTCH is thought to act as a tumor suppressor gene...
  17. Huang Y, Bu D, Li X, Ma Z, Yang Y, Lin Z, et al. Unique features of PTCH1 mutation spectrum in Chinese sporadic basal cell carcinoma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013;27:235-41 pubmed publisher
    Alterations of the PTCH1 gene have been found to contribute to both familial and sporadic basal cell carcinoma (BCC), especially in Caucasian patients...
  18. Stone D, Hynes M, Armanini M, Swanson T, Gu Q, Johnson R, et al. The tumour-suppressor gene patched encodes a candidate receptor for Sonic hedgehog. Nature. 1996;384:129-34 pubmed
    ..We show that Ptc can form a physical complex with a newly cloned vertebrate homologue of the Drosophila protein Smoothened (vSmo), ..
  19. Savino M, D Apolito M, Formica V, Baorda F, Mari F, Renieri A, et al. Spectrum of PTCH mutations in Italian nevoid basal cell-carcinoma syndrome patients: identification of thirteen novel alleles. Hum Mutat. 2004;24:441 pubmed
    The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by numerous basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, palmar and plantal pits, skeletal abnormalities, and ..
  20. Boutet N, Bignon Y, Drouin Garraud V, Sarda P, Longy M, Lacombe D, et al. Spectrum of PTCH1 mutations in French patients with Gorlin syndrome. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;121:478-81 pubmed
    ..The responsible gene for this syndrome is the PTCH tumor suppressor gene encoding for the Sonic Hedgehog receptor...
  21. Fu X, Wang Q, Chen X, Huang X, Cao L, Tan H, et al. Expression patterns and polymorphisms of PTCH in Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Exp Mol Pathol. 2008;84:195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..PTCH (PTCH1), the receptor of Hedgehog pathway, is reported to function as a gatekeeper in tumor formation...
  22. Pan S, Li T. PTCH1 mutations in odontogenic keratocysts: are they related to epithelial cell proliferation?. Oral Oncol. 2009;45:861-5 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in PTCH1 gene are responsible for majority of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) as well as for some related sporadic neoplasms...
  23. Reifenberger J, Arnold N, Kiechle M, Reifenberger G, Hauschild A. Coincident PTCH and BRCA1 germline mutations in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and familial breast cancer. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;116:472-4 pubmed
  24. Wicking C, Shanley S, Smyth I, Gillies S, Negus K, Graham S, et al. Most germ-line mutations in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome lead to a premature termination of the PATCHED protein, and no genotype-phenotype correlations are evident. Am J Hum Genet. 1997;60:21-6 pubmed
    ..Drosophila segment polarity gene patched is implicated in the development of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) and in the genesis of sporadic basal cell carcinomas...
  25. Pan S, Dong Q, Sun L, Li T. Mechanisms of inactivation of PTCH1 gene in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: modification of the two-hit hypothesis. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:442-50 pubmed publisher
    PTCH1 has been identified as the gene responsible for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) are aggressive jaw lesions that may occur in isolation or in association with NBCCS...
  26. Peng L, Hu J, Li S, Wang Z, Xia B, Jiang B, et al. Aberrant methylation of the PTCH1 gene promoter region in aberrant crypt foci. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:E18-25 pubmed publisher
    Patched homolog 1 (PTCH1) is a known tumor suppressor that regulates the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway and has been implicated in tumorigenesis. The role of PTCH1 in colon carcinogenesis, however, is controversial...
  27. Shahi M, Afzal M, Sinha S, Eberhart C, Rey J, Fan X, et al. Regulation of sonic hedgehog-GLI1 downstream target genes PTCH1, Cyclin D2, Plakoglobin, PAX6 and NKX2.2 and their epigenetic status in medulloblastoma and astrocytoma. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:614 pubmed publisher
    ..roles of GLI1, the immediate downstream activator of the Shh signaling pathway on its downstream target genes PTCH1, Cyclin D2, Plakoglobin, NKX2.2 and PAX6 in medulloblastoma and astrocytic tumors...
  28. Li Y, Zhang D, Chen C, Ruan Z, Li Y, Huang Y. MicroRNA-212 displays tumor-promoting properties in non-small cell lung cancer cells and targets the hedgehog pathway receptor PTCH1. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1423-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we report microRNA-212 (miR-212) playing a role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and targeting PTCH1, a receptor of the Hh pathway...
  29. Heitzer E, Lassacher A, Quehenberger F, Kerl H, Wolf P. UV fingerprints predominate in the PTCH mutation spectra of basal cell carcinomas independent of clinical phenotype. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:2872-81 pubmed
    ..To determine whether certain tumorigenic fingerprints and potentially predisposing patched (PTCH) tumor suppressor single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are distributed differently among sporadic BCC patients, ..
  30. Scott A, Strouthidis N, Robson A, Forsyth J, Maher E, Schlottmann P, et al. Bilateral epiretinal membranes in Gorlin syndrome associated with a novel PTCH mutation. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:346-8 pubmed
    ..syndrome (GS) (basal cell nevus syndrome; OMIM 109400) and to undertake mutation screening of the gene Patched (PTCH). Interventional case report...
  31. Taipale J, Cooper M, Maiti T, Beachy P. Patched acts catalytically to suppress the activity of Smoothened. Nature. 2002;418:892-7 pubmed
    Mutations affecting the transmembrane proteins Patched (Ptc) or Smoothened (Smo) that trigger ligand-independent activity of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway are associated with human tumours such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and ..
  32. Asplund A, Gustafsson A, Wikonkal N, Sela A, Leffell D, Kidd K, et al. PTCH codon 1315 polymorphism and risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer. Br J Dermatol. 2005;152:868-73 pubmed
    The PTCH tumour suppressor gene is involved in the development of nearly all basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) of the skin and a fraction of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs)...
  33. Mizuno T, Tokuoka S, Kishikawa M, Nakashima E, Mabuchi K, Iwamoto K. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinogenesis in the atomic-bomb survivor population: p53 and PTCH gene alterations. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:2286-94 pubmed
    ..BCCs have been associated with PTCH and/or p53 tumor suppressor gene alterations...
  34. Rahnama F, Shimokawa T, Lauth M, Finta C, Kogerman P, Teglund S, et al. Inhibition of GLI1 gene activation by Patched1. Biochem J. 2006;394:19-26 pubmed
    Patched1 (PTCH1) is a human tumour suppressor that acts as an HH (Hedgehog) receptor protein and is important for embryonic patterning...
  35. Handkiewicz Junak D, Swierniak M, Rusinek D, Oczko Wojciechowska M, Dom G, Maenhaut C, et al. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43:1267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation ..
  36. Huq A, Walsh M, Rajagopalan B, Finlay M, Trainer A, Bonnet F, et al. Mutations in SUFU and PTCH1 genes may cause different cutaneous cancer predisposition syndromes: similar, but not the same. Fam Cancer. 2018;17:601-606 pubmed publisher
    ..in addition to various developmental abnormalities; the majority of cases are due to mutations in the PTCH1 gene. Approximately 5% of cases have been attributed to a mutation in the SUFU gene...
  37. Huang L, Low A, Damle S, KEENAN M, Kuntz S, Murray S, et al. Antisense suppression of the nonsense mediated decay factor Upf3b as a potential treatment for diseases caused by nonsense mutations. Genome Biol. 2018;19:4 pubmed publisher
    ..While minimally impacting the normal transcriptome, Upf3b-ASO treatment significantly stabilizes the PTC-containing dystrophin mRNA in mdx mice and coagulation factor IX mRNA in a hemophilia mouse model...
  38. Sato Y, Kawasaki T, Yamano M, Honda S, Harimoto K, Miki S, et al. Unusual clinical course after surgical repair of unruptured aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva. J Med Ultrason (2001). 2016;43:523-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The present case highlights that non-invasive follow-up can be an alternative option when carried out with caution in selected patients with incomplete closure of Valsalva aneurysm. ..
  39. Chen S, Telinius N, Lin H, Huang M, Lin C, Chou C, et al. Use of Fish Scale-Derived BioCornea to Seal Full-Thickness Corneal Perforations in Pig Models. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0143511 pubmed publisher
    ..BioCornea seems to be a safe and effective alternative for emergency treatment of corneal perforations. ..
  40. Shao J, Zhang L, Gao J, Li Z, Chen Z. Aberrant expression of PTCH (patched gene) and Smo (smoothened gene) in human pancreatic cancerous tissues and its association with hyperglycemia. Pancreas. 2006;33:38-44 pubmed
    To investigate the prevalence of PTCH (patched gene) and Smo (smoothened gene) expression in human pancreatic cancerous tissues and its association with clinical characteristics.
  41. Wang J, Peng Y, Liu Y, Yang J, Ding N, Tan W. Berberine, a natural compound, suppresses Hedgehog signaling pathway activity and cancer growth. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:595 pubmed publisher
    ..The growth inhibition of BBR on medulloblastoma which was obtained from ptch+/-;p53-/- mice was analyzed by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (Brdu) assays and by allografting the medulloblastoma into ..
  42. Parhar R, Zou M, Al Mohanna F, Baitei E, Assiri A, Meyer B, et al. IL-12 immunotherapy of Braf(V600E)-induced papillary thyroid cancer in a mouse model. Lab Invest. 2016;96:89-97 pubmed publisher
    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) accounts for >80% thyroid malignancies, and BRAF(V600E) mutation is frequently found in >40% PTC. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a proinflammatory heterodimeric cytokine with strong antitumor activity...
  43. Kartal K, Onder S, Kosemehmetoglu K, Kilickap S, Tezel Y, Kaynaroglu V. Methylation status of TSHr in well-differentiated thyroid cancer by using cytologic material. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:824 pubmed publisher
    ..groups were composed according to cytological and pathological diagnoses: Benign (B), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), atypia of unknown significance (AUS) and follicular neoplasia (FN)...
  44. Zou M, Baitei E, BinEssa H, Al Mohanna F, Parhar R, St Arnaud R, et al. Cyp24a1 Attenuation Limits Progression of BrafV600E -Induced Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells and Sensitizes Them to BRAFV600E Inhibitor PLX4720. Cancer Res. 2017;77:2161-2172 pubmed publisher
    ..on malignant progression of a murine model of BrafV600E -induced papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Mice harboring wild-type Cyp24a1 (BVECyp24a1-wt) developed PTC at 5 weeks of age...
  45. Xie J, Fan Y, Zhang X. Molecular mechanisms in differentiated thyroid cancer. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2016;21:119-29 pubmed
    ..The previously identified thyroid oncogenes, BRAF, RET/PTC and Ras, play important roles in regulating the metastatic process...
  46. Pan J, Qin Y, Zhang M. HPIP promotes non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion through regulation of the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;77:176-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, knockdown of HPIP obviously inhibits the protein expression of Shh as well as Smo, Ptc and Gli-1 in A549 cells...
  47. Maggi U, Paone G, Lauro R, Fornoni G, Chierici A, Nencioni M, et al. Holmium Intraductal Laser Lithotripsy of Biliary Stones in Liver Grafts. Transplant Proc. 2016;48:380-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) was ineffective and a HILL was performed, clearing the right common bile duct but leaving residual stones in the ..
  48. Linde L, Kerem B. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and cystic fibrosis. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;741:137-54 pubmed publisher
    ..approaches for mutations generating in-frame PTCs are aimed at promoting translational readthrough of the PTC, to enable the synthesis and expression of full-length functional proteins...
  49. Na K, Choi H. Immune landscape of papillary thyroid cancer and immunotherapeutic implications. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2018;25:523-531 pubmed publisher
    Although papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is curable with excellent survival rate, patients with dedifferentiated PTC suffer the recurrence or death...
  50. Vuong H, Duong U, Pham T, Tran H, Oishi N, Mochizuki K, et al. Clinicopathological Risk Factors for Distant Metastasis in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis. World J Surg. 2018;42:1005-1017 pubmed publisher
    ..factors such as age ?45 years, VI, ETE, and LNM were shown to be significant risk factors for DM in both PTC and FTC subgroups...
  51. Giordano D, Frasoldati A, Gabrielli E, Pernice C, Zini M, Castellucci A, et al. Long-term outcomes of central neck dissection for cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol. 2017;38:576-581 pubmed publisher
    The risk-benefit ratio of central neck dissection (CND) in patients affected by papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) without clinical or ultrasonographic (US) evidence of neck lymph node metastasis (cN0) is currently debated...
  52. Nabhan F, Porter K, Senter L, Ringel M. Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies do not significantly increase the risk of finding iodine avid metastases on post-radioactive iodine ablation scan in low-risk thyroid cancer patients. J Endocrinol Invest. 2017;40:1015-1021 pubmed publisher
    ..Each group included 37 patients. In group A: Median age was 40 years, 86% female and 76% PTC. Median tumor size was 2 cm (0.2-3.8), 32% had multifocal disease, 16% were N1a and 4% had vascular invasion...
  53. Iliadou P, Effraimidis G, Konstantinos M, Grigorios P, Mitsakis P, Patakiouta F, et al. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is associated with invasive characteristics of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents. Eur J Endocrinol. 2015;173:827-33 pubmed publisher
    ..2% vs 48.1% respectively, P=0.024). Familial papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was more frequent in patients with CLT compared to those without CLT (20.7% vs 2.8% respectively, P=0.009)...
  54. Sharma S, Lichtenstein A. Aberrant splicing of the E-cadherin transcript is a novel mechanism of gene silencing in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Blood. 2009;114:4179-85 pubmed publisher
    Premature termination codon (PTC) mutations are due to insertion or deletion of nucleotides causing a frameshift and premature termination codon in RNA...
  55. Jenkins D, Winyard P, Woolf A. Immunohistochemical analysis of Sonic hedgehog signalling in normal human urinary tract development. J Anat. 2007;211:620-9 pubmed
    ..The expression patterns of the SHH-transducing proteins Patched (PTCH) and Smoothened (SMO) were consistent with long-range paracrine signalling associated with detrusor smooth muscle ..
  56. Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Miyauchi A, Higashiyama T, Kihara M, Miya A. Prognostic Significance of the Proportion of Tall Cell Components in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma. World J Surg. 2017;41:742-747 pubmed publisher
    Tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) shows a poorer prognosis than conventional PTC. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification defines TCV as the tall cell component (TCC) in ≥50% of PTC lesions...
  57. Shikama Y, Hu H, Ohno M, Matsuoka I, Shichishima T, Kimura J. Transcripts expressed using a bicistronic vector pIREShyg2 are sensitized to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. BMC Mol Biol. 2010;11:42 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA decay (NMD), an mRNA surveillance system that degrades mRNA with a premature termination codon (PTC)...
  58. Cipolletta Campanile A, Malzone M, Losito N, Botti G, Chiofalo M, Faggiano A, et al. Accuracy of Fine Needle Cytology in Histological Prediction of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Variants: a Prospective Study. Endocr Pathol. 2017;28:187-197 pubmed publisher
    ..Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), in its classic variant (cPTC), is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid...
  59. Xue K, Hu D, Zhao L, Li N, Shen H. MiR-577 inhibits papillary thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting SphK2. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:3794-3800 pubmed
    ..However, the expression pattern and biological function of miR-577 in progression of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) remain unknown...
  60. Liu J, Wei S, Burnette P, Gamero A, Hutton M, Djeu J. Functional association of TGF-beta receptor II with cyclin B. Oncogene. 1999;18:269-75 pubmed
    ..These results suggest an alternative mechanism that cell cycle arrest in the G1/S phase caused by TGFbeta may, in part, be due to inactivation of cyclin B/Cdc2 kinase, which is needed for entry into the G2/M phase. ..
  61. Adappa N, Truesdale C, Workman A, Doghramji L, Mansfield C, Kennedy D, et al. Correlation of T2R38 taste phenotype and in vitro biofilm formation from nonpolypoid chronic rhinosinusitis patients. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2016;6:783-91 pubmed publisher
    ..defense as well as taste perception reflected in gustatory sensitivity to the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)...
  62. Fang W, Zhang L, Zhang J. Synthetic strategies, diverse structures and tuneable properties of polyoxo-titanium clusters. Chem Soc Rev. 2018;47:404-421 pubmed publisher
    ..The exploration of crystalline PTC materials originates from the molecular model of technically important TiO2 materials but has been ..
  63. Jia J, Werkmeister E, Gonzalez Hilarion S, Leroy C, Gruenert D, Lafont F, et al. Premature termination codon readthrough in human cells occurs in novel cytoplasmic foci and requires UPF proteins. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:3009-3022 pubmed publisher
    ..disruption of actin filaments results in both inhibition of NMD and activation of premature termination codon (PTC) readthrough, while disruption of microtubules causes only NMD inhibition...
  64. Liang P, Tang Q, Cai Y, Liu G, Si W, Shao J, et al. Self-quenched ferrocenyl diketopyrrolopyrrole organic nanoparticles with amplifying photothermal effect for cancer therapy. Chem Sci. 2017;8:7457-7463 pubmed publisher
    Organic nanoparticles (NPs) with near-infrared absorbance possess high photothermal conversion (PTC) efficiency and an excellent photoacoustic signal, presenting a great prospect for photoacoustic imaging (PAI)-guided photothermal ..
  65. Farias L, Gomes C, Brito J, Galvão C, Diniz M, de Castro W, et al. Loss of heterozygosity of the PTCH gene in ameloblastoma. Hum Pathol. 2012;43:1229-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Alterations in the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway, including PTCH gene mutations, have been associated with the pathogenesis of some odontogenic tumors...
  66. Xu X, Su J, Li R, Wang Y, Zeng D, Wu B. Aberrant expression of Sonic hedgehog signaling in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Hum Pathol. 2016;50:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the role of the SHH signaling pathway in PJS. Expression of SHH, PTCH, and GLI1 was examined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in 20 normal tissues and 75 colorectal lesions (25 ..
  67. Zhang S, Zhang L, Feng X, Yang H. Incidence and risk factors for postoperative shoulder imbalance in scoliosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Spine J. 2018;27:358-369 pubmed publisher
    ..RSH ≥20 mm as the criterion of PSI, our results showed that Risser sign, postoperative RSH, correction rate of PTC at follow-up, and LC at follow-up were contributing to PSI...
  68. Choi C, Ryu J, Cho Y, Jeon H, Choi J, Ylaya K, et al. The anti-cancer effects of itraconazole in epithelial ovarian cancer. Sci Rep. 2017;7:6552 pubmed publisher
    ..We also examined angiogenesis (VEGFR2, p-ERK, p-PLCr1/2), hedgehog (Gli1, Ptch1, SMO), and mTOR (pS6K1) signaling pathways to determine the mechanism of action of itraconazole...
  69. Riedlinger D, Bahra M, Boas Knoop S, Lippert S, Bradtmöller M, Guse K, et al. Hedgehog pathway as a potential treatment target in human cholangiocarcinoma. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2014;21:607-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of our study suggest that the Hh pathway plays a relevant role at least in a subset of human CCC. Inhibition of this pathway may represent a possible treatment option for CCC patients in which the Hh pathway is activated. ..
  70. Zhu W, You Z, Li T, Yu C, Tao G, Hu M, et al. Correlation of hedgehog signal activation with chemoradiotherapy sensitivity and survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2011;41:386-93 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we used the method of immunohistochemistry to examine the expression status of two hedgehog components, PTCH1 and glioma-associated oncogene GLI-1, in 100 pre-treated biopsy specimens of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ..
  71. Li J, Sun Z, Yuan Y, Yin F, Bian Y, Long L, et al. EphB3 Stimulates Cell Migration and Metastasis in a Kinase-dependent Manner through Vav2-Rho GTPase Axis in Papillary Thyroid Cancer. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:1112-1121 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we explored the function of EphB3, one member of Eph family, in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We found that the expression of EphB3 was significantly elevated in PTC...
  72. Yamaki Y, Kagawa H, Hatta T, Natsume T, Kawahara H. The C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of hedgehog receptor Patched1 is a platform for E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2016;414:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation via Patched1 (Ptc1), a 12-pass transmembrane receptor protein...