prostatic acid phosphatase


Gene Symbol: prostatic acid phosphatase
Description: acid phosphatase, prostate
Alias: 5'-NT, ACP-3, ACP3, prostatic acid phosphatase, TMPase, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, prostatic acid phosphotase, thiamine monophosphatase
Species: human
Products:     prostatic acid phosphatase

Top Publications

  1. Luchter Wasylewska E, Wasylewski M, Röhm K. Concentration-dependent dissociation/association of human prostatic acid phosphatase. J Protein Chem. 2003;22:243-7 pubmed
    The apparent molecular mass of human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was estimated over a wide range of enzyme concentrations using equilibrium centrifugation in the "Airfuge" tabletop ultracentrifuge...
  2. Jakob C, Lewinski K, Kuciel R, Ostrowski W, Lebioda L. Crystal structure of human prostatic acid phosphatase . Prostate. 2000;42:211-8 pubmed
    b>Prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP) is a major product of the human prostate gland, yet its physiological substrate remains unknown...
  3. Meng T, Lin M. Tyrosine phosphorylation of c-ErbB-2 is regulated by the cellular form of prostatic acid phosphatase in human prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:22096-104 pubmed
    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP) is a prostate epithelium-specific differentiation antigen. In prostate carcinomas, the cellular PAcP is decreased. We investigated its functional role in these cells...
  4. Chuang T, Chen S, Lin F, Veeramani S, Kumar S, Batra S, et al. Human prostatic acid phosphatase, an authentic tyrosine phosphatase, dephosphorylates ErbB-2 and regulates prostate cancer cell growth. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23598-606 pubmed publisher
    Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase (cPAcP), an authentic tyrosine phosphatase, is proposed to function as a negative growth regulator of prostate cancer (PCa) cells in part through its dephosphorylation of ErbB-2...
  5. Stewart L, Lyles B, Lin M, Weigel N. Vitamin D receptor agonists induce prostatic acid phosphatase to reduce cell growth and HER-2 signaling in LNCaP-derived human prostate cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;97:37-46 pubmed
    ..This reduction in tyrosine kinase signaling appears to result from elevated levels of cellular prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP)...
  6. Zelivianski S, Igawa T, Lim S, Taylor R, Lin M. Identification and characterization of regulatory elements of the human prostatic acid phosphatase promoter. Oncogene. 2002;21:3696-705 pubmed
    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP) is a prostate epithelium-specific differentiation antigen. The cellular form of PAcP functions as a neutral protein-tyrosine phosphatase, and is involved in regulating prostate cell growth...
  7. Meng T, Lee M, Lin M. Interaction between protein tyrosine phosphatase and protein tyrosine kinase is involved in androgen-promoted growth of human prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2000;19:2664-77 pubmed
    ..cells associates with a low phosphotyrosine (p-Tyr) level of ErbB-2, which is regulated by cellular prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP), a protein tyrosine phosphatase...
  8. Banas B, Blaschke D, Fittler F, Hörz W. Analysis of the promoter of the human prostatic acid phosphatase gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1217:188-94 pubmed
    ..It was found to be induced 2-3-fold by the addition of the synthetic androgen mibolerone to the cells. The induced mRNA levels were approx. 10-times lower than those for the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in LNCaP cells. ..
  9. Ostrowski W, Kuciel R. Human prostatic acid phosphatase: selected properties and practical applications. Clin Chim Acta. 1994;226:121-9 pubmed
    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (EC is a non-specific phosphomonoesterase, synthetized and secreted into seminal plasma under androgenic control. The enzyme is a dimer of molecular weight around 100 kDa...

More Information


  1. Sharief F, Lee H, Leuderman M, Lundwall A, Deaven L, Lee C, et al. Human prostatic acid phosphatase: cDNA cloning, gene mapping and protein sequence homology with lysosomal acid phosphatase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;160:79-86 pubmed
    The cDNAs encoding human prostatic acid phosphatase were cloned and characterized. The mRNAs contain 3' noncoding regions of heterogeneous sizes 646, 1887 or 1913 nucleotides...
  2. Sharief F, Li S. Structure of human prostatic acid phosphatase gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;184:1468-76 pubmed
    ..protein-coding sequence of 1,188 nucleotides as well as the 5' and 3' non-coding regions of human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) were isolated and sequenced...
  3. Van Etten R, Davidson R, Stevis P, Macarthur H, Moore D. Covalent structure, disulfide bonding, and identification of reactive surface and active site residues of human prostatic acid phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:2313-9 pubmed
    The pairing of the half-cysteine residues of human prostatic acid phosphatase was established by proteolytic digestion and analysis of the resulting peptide mixtures by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS)...
  4. Ye Z, French K, Popova L, Lednev I, Lopez M, Makhatadze G. Mechanism of fibril formation by a 39-residue peptide (PAPf39) from human prostatic acidic phosphatase. Biochemistry. 2009;48:11582-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that the nucleation and fibrillization of the PAPf39 peptide are a tug-of-war between the interactions formed upon agitation and the electrostatic interactions, modulated by pH and salt concentration. ..
  5. Arnold F, Schnell J, Zirafi O, Stürzel C, Meier C, Weil T, et al. Naturally occurring fragments from two distinct regions of the prostatic acid phosphatase form amyloidogenic enhancers of HIV infection. J Virol. 2012;86:1244-9 pubmed publisher
    Semen is the major vector for HIV-1 transmission. We previously isolated C-proximal fragments of the prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) from semen which formed amyloid fibrils that potently enhanced HIV infection...
  6. Graddis T, McMahan C, Tamman J, Page K, Trager J. Prostatic acid phosphatase expression in human tissues. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2011;4:295-306 pubmed
    ..b>Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) has been tested as a target antigen due to its high and apparently specific expression in the ..
  7. Olsen J, Dimaio J, Doran T, Brown C, Nilsson B, Dewhurst S. Seminal plasma accelerates semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI) fibril formation by the prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286) peptide. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:11842-9 pubmed publisher
    ..are necessary to induce amyloid formation from the precursor peptide (a proteolytic cleavage product of prostatic acid phosphatase, PAP(248-286))...
  8. LaCount M, Handy G, Lebioda L. Structural origins of L(+)-tartrate inhibition of human prostatic acid phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:30406-9 pubmed
    ..serum is usually separated into tartrate-resistant and tartrate-refractory, which is reported as the prostatic acid phosphatase level...
  9. Virkkunen P, Hedberg P, Palvimo J, Birr E, Porvari K, Ruokonen M, et al. Structural comparison of human and rat prostate-specific acid phosphatase genes and their promoters: identification of putative androgen response elements. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;202:49-57 pubmed
    ..Two of these elements in both genes, the conserved one in the proximal promoter region and another one in intron 1, were shown to bind androgen receptor efficiently in vitro. ..
  10. Li S, Sharief F. The prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) gene is localized to human chromosome 3q21-q23. Genomics. 1993;17:765-6 pubmed
    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) has been used as a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer. It is synthesized under androgen regulation and secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland...
  11. Kamoshida S, Tsutsumi Y. Extraprostatic localization of prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate-specific antigen: distribution in cloacogenic glandular epithelium and sex-dependent expression in human anal gland. Hum Pathol. 1990;21:1108-11 pubmed
    Immunoreactivities of prostatic acid phosphatase (PACP) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were demonstrated in normal anal glands of males (11 of 25) and urethral glands of both sexes (six of six), by indirect immunoperoxidase staining...
  12. Zylka M, Sowa N, Taylor Blake B, Twomey M, Herrala A, Voikar V, et al. Prostatic acid phosphatase is an ectonucleotidase and suppresses pain by generating adenosine. Neuron. 2008;60:111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that TMPase is identical to the transmembrane isoform of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), an enzyme with unknown molecular and physiological functions...
  13. Munch J, Rücker E, Ständker L, Adermann K, Goffinet C, Schindler M, et al. Semen-derived amyloid fibrils drastically enhance HIV infection. Cell. 2007;131:1059-71 pubmed
    ..Amyloidogenic PAP fragments are abundant in seminal fluid and boost semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection. Thus, they may play an important role in sexual transmission of HIV and could represent new targets for its prevention...
  14. Quintero I, Araujo C, Pulkka A, Wirkkala R, Herrala A, Eskelinen E, et al. Prostatic acid phosphatase is not a prostate specific target. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6549-54 pubmed
    b>Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is currently evaluated as a target for vaccine immunotherapy of prostate cancer. This is based on the previous knowledge about secretory PAP and its high prostatic expression...
  15. Zhang X, Lee M, Zelivianski S, Lin M. Characterization of a prostate-specific tyrosine phosphatase by mutagenesis and expression in human prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:2544-50 pubmed
    The cellular form of human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP) is a neutral protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and may play a key role in regulating the growth and androgen responsiveness of prostate cancer cells...
  16. Hassan M, Aijaz A, Ahmad F. Structural and functional analysis of human prostatic acid phosphatase. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2010;10:1055-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is the most abundant phosphatase in human prostate tissue/secretions. It is a clinically important protein for its relevance as a biomarker of prostate carcinoma...
  17. Johnson J, Ellis B, Noack D, Seabra M, Catz S. The Rab27a-binding protein, JFC1, regulates androgen-dependent secretion of prostate-specific antigen and prostatic-specific acid phosphatase. Biochem J. 2005;391:699-710 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we present evidence that JFC1 differentially regulates the secretion of PSAP and PSA, and that Rab27a and PI3K play a central role in the exocytosis of prostate-specific markers. ..
  18. Zelivianski S, Glowacki R, Lin M. Transcriptional activation of the human prostatic acid phosphatase gene by NF-kappaB via a novel hexanucleotide-binding site. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:3566-80 pubmed
    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP) is a prostate epithelium-specific differentiation antigen...
  19. Vihko P, Virkkunen P, Henttu P, Roiko K, Solin T, Huhtala M. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding human prostatic acid phosphatase. FEBS Lett. 1988;236:275-81 pubmed
    lambda gt11 clones encoding human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) (EC were isolated from human prostatic cDNA libraries by immunoscreening with polyclonal antisera...
  20. Ostanin K, Saeed A, Van Etten R. Heterologous expression of human prostatic acid phosphatase and site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme active site. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:8971-8 pubmed
  21. Lindqvist Y, Schneider G, Vihko P. Three-dimensional structure of rat acid phosphatase in complex with L(+)-tartrate. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:20744-6 pubmed
    The crystal structure of recombinant rat prostatic acid phosphatase in complex with the inhibitor L(+)-tartrate was determined to 3-A resolution with protein crystallographic methods...
  22. Ortlund E, LaCount M, Lebioda L. Crystal structures of human prostatic acid phosphatase in complex with a phosphate ion and alpha-benzylaminobenzylphosphonic acid update the mechanistic picture and offer new insights into inhibitor design. Biochemistry. 2003;42:383-9 pubmed
    The X-ray crystal structure of human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in complex with a phosphate ion has been determined at 2.4 A resolution...
  23. Doret M. [Postnatal visit: Routine and particularity after complicated pregnancy--Guidelines for clinical practice]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2015;44:1118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..To ensure continuity in the management of women health, relevant medical elements will be pass on to the corresponding physicians (Professional consensus). ..
  24. Saraiya M, Kwan A, Cooper C. Primary HPV testing: U.S. women's awareness and acceptance of an emerging screening modality. Prev Med. 2018;108:111-114 pubmed publisher
    ..S. women was low and associated with variables which may be indicative of general HPV awareness. Widespread adoption of primary HPV testing may require increasing women's familiarity with the HPV test and screening guidelines. ..
  25. Cooper J, Foti A, Shank P. Radioimmunochemical measurement of bone marrow prostatic acid phosphatase. J Urol. 1978;119:392-5 pubmed
    ..Specifically, human prostatic acid phosphatase is a unique enzyme within a vast family of acid phosphatases concerned with catabolic processes in ..
  26. Thind K, Goldsmith P. Infundibular gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons are inhibited by direct opioid and autoregulatory synapses in juvenile monkeys. Neuroendocrinology. 1988;47:203-16 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it is suggested that OP/GnRH and GnRH/GnRH inhibitory contacts may play a role in maturation and control of reproductive function. ..
  27. Gage J, Hunt W, Schiffman M, Katki H, Cheung L, Myers O, et al. Similar Risk Patterns After Cervical Screening in Two Large U.S. Populations: Implications for Clinical Guidelines. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;128:1248-1257 pubmed
    ..The similar results from these two large cohorts from different real-life clinical practice settings support risk-based management thresholds across U.S. clinical populations and practice settings. ..
  28. Kearney P, Traynor D, Bonnier F, Lyng F, O Leary J, Martin C. Raman spectral signatures of cervical exfoliated cells from liquid-based cytology samples. J Biomed Opt. 2017;22:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, biochemical changes associated with high-grade dysplasia could be identified suggesting that Raman spectroscopy could be used to aid current cervical screening tests...
  29. Copur A, Erik Everhart D, Zhang C, Chen Z, Shekhani H, Mathevosian S, et al. Effect of personality traits on adherence with positive airway pressure therapy in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Sleep Breath. 2018;22:369-376 pubmed publisher
    ..BAS-FS, negative affect, and intellect/imagination are significant factors for adherence to PAP therapy in obstructive sleep apnea patients. ..
  30. Cassilly C, Maddox M, Cherian P, Bowling J, Hamann M, Lee R, et al. SB-224289 Antagonizes the Antifungal Mechanism of the Marine Depsipeptide Papuamide A. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154932 pubmed publisher
  31. Weidler S, Stopsack K, Hammermann J, Sommerburg O, Mall M, Hoffmann G, et al. A product of immunoreactive trypsinogen and pancreatitis-associated protein as second-tier strategy in cystic fibrosis newborn screening. J Cyst Fibros. 2016;15:752-758 pubmed publisher
    ..The IRT×PAP product performs well as second-tier cutoff parameter for CFNBS. Screening quality parameters depend on the analytic method and on age at blood collection. ..
  32. Steele C, Townsend J, Courtney Long E, Young M. Prevalence of Cancer Screening Among Adults With Disabilities, United States, 2013. Prev Chronic Dis. 2017;14:E09 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may be used to refine interventions to close gaps in cancer screening among persons with disabilities. ..
  33. Vargas Hernández V, Acosta Altamirano G, Moreno Eutimio M, Vargas Aguilar V. [New guidelines in regard to cervical cancer screening]. Cir Cir. 2014;82:453-9 pubmed
    ..Los programas de tamizaje sólo serán diferentes en poblaciones especiales con mayor riesgo, donde son necesarias pruebas o métodos alternativos más frecuentes. ..
  34. Nooij L, Kagie M. 'See and treat' approach for high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016;37:22-5 pubmed
    ..This should be part of the counseling process of patients with a Pap 3A average dysplasia. A 'see and treat' approach can and probably should be proposed to patients with a Pap 3B or higher. ..
  35. Damiani G, Basso D, Acampora A, Bianchi C, Silvestrini G, Frisicale E, et al. The impact of level of education on adherence to breast and cervical cancer screening: Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2015;81:281-9 pubmed publisher
    ..19-1.55; I(2)=0%). This study confirms and reinforces evidence of inequalities in breast and cervical cancer screening adherence according to educational level. ..
  36. Shoemaker M, White M. Breast and cervical cancer screening among Asian subgroups in the USA: estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 2008, 2010, and 2013. Cancer Causes Control. 2016;27:825-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight certain Asian subgroups continue to face significant barriers to cancer screening test use. ..
  37. Herrera D, Schiefelbein E, Smith R, Rojas R, Mirchandani G, McDonald J. Cervical cancer screening in the US-Mexico border region: a binational analysis. Matern Child Health J. 2012;16 Suppl 2:298-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Binational insurance coverage increases and/or cost reductions might bolster testing among unmarried and uninsured women, leading to earlier cervical cancer diagnosis and potentially lower mortality. ..
  38. Miller K, Schamber R, Chen Y, Ray B. Production of active chimeric pediocin AcH in Escherichia coli in the absence of processing and secretion genes from the Pediococcus pap operon. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998;64:14-20 pubmed
    ..coli host. The MBP fusion-periplasmic leaky expression system should be generally advantageous for production and screening of the activity of bioactive peptides...
  39. Cook D, Smith L, Law J, Mei W, van Niekerk D, Ceballos K, et al. Aptima HPV Assay versus Hybrid Capture® 2 HPV test for primary cervical cancer screening in the HPV FOCAL trial. J Clin Virol. 2017;87:23-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Triage of AHPV+ by abnormal reflex LBC and the presence of HPV 16/18/45 would result in a significantly lower colposcopy referral rate with similar CIN2+ and CIN3+ detection rates as the overall HC2+ referral algorithm. ..
  40. Curbach J, Apfelbacher C, Knoll A, Herrmann S, Szagun B, Loss J. Physicians' perspectives on implementing the prevention scheme "Physical Activity on Prescription": Results of a survey in Bavaria. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes. 2018;131-132:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to strengthen the physicians' confidence in the effectiveness of preventive patient counselling on physical activity, existing research evidence needs to be spread among physicians. ..
  41. Bonella F, Long X, He X, Ohshimo S, Griese M, Guzman J, et al. Serum YKL-40 is a reliable biomarker for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Respirology. 2017;22:1371-1378 pubmed publisher
    ..875, P?=?0.001). The presence of the G allele was associated with higher serum and BALF levels of YKL-40. YKL-40 is elevated in serum and BALF of PAP patients, and may be of clinical utility to predict outcome in PAP. ..
  42. Yao S, Luo Y, Zhang Z, Hu G, Zhu Z, Li F. Preclinical PET imaging of HIP/PAP using 1'-18F-fluoroethyl-?-D-lactose. Oncotarget. 2017;8:75162-75173 pubmed publisher
  43. Deniz S, Kurt B, Oguzoncul A, Nazlican E, Akbaba M, Nayir T. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of women regarding breast and cervical cancer in Malatya, Turkey. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188571 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) of women had not received a Pap smear test. It has been determined that Turkish women do not have adequate knowledge about cancer diagnosis, early cancer diagnosis, and screening...
  44. Shanmuganathan A, Bishop A, French K, McCallum S, Makhatadze G. Bacterial expression and purification of the amyloidogenic peptide PAPf39 for multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Protein Expr Purif. 2013;88:196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..This allows the study of the PAPf39 monomer conformational ensemble by NMR spectroscopy. To this end, we performed the NMR chemical shift assignment of the PAPf39 peptide in the monomeric state at low pH. ..
  45. Chapman R, Li Z, Corboz M, Gauani H, Plaunt A, Konicek D, et al. Inhaled hexadecyl-treprostinil provides pulmonary vasodilator activity at significantly lower plasma concentrations than infused treprostinil. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2018;49:104-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, INS1009 may offer the opportunity to effect pulmonary vasodilation for long periods but with substantially lower systemic exposure than infused TRE. ..
  46. Battaglia T, Gunn C, McCoy M, Mu H, Baranoski A, Chiao E, et al. Beliefs About Anal Cancer among HIV-Infected Women: Barriers and Motivators to Participation in Research. Womens Health Issues. 2015;25:720-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, we must harness patients' previous experiences and address psychosocial and financial concerns to overcome barriers to participation. ..
  47. Sözmen K, Unal B, Sakarya S, Dinc G, Yardim N, Keskinkilic B, et al. Determinants of Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake Among Women in Turkey. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2016;28:528-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Residing in the eastern region and living in rural area was associated with lower likelihood of receiving both types of screening. ..
  48. Tung W, Smith Gagen J, Lu M, Warfield M. Application of the Transtheoretical Model to Cervical Cancer Screening in Latina Women. J Immigr Minor Health. 2016;18:1168-74 pubmed publisher
  49. Szalak R, Matysek M, Mozel S, Arciszewski M. Immunocytochemical detection of calretinin in the claustrum and endopiriform nucleus of the chinchilla. Pol J Vet Sci. 2015;18:857-63 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested, that CR acting as a calcium binding protein may play a role in neuronal network. Further co-localization studies are necessary to fully elucidate neurophysiology and neuropathology of the chinchilla's Cl and EN neurons. ..
  50. Boyraz G, Basaran D, Salman M, Ibrahimov A, Onder S, Akman O, et al. Histological Follow-Up in Patients with Atypical Glandular Cells on Pap Smears. J Cytol. 2017;34:203-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Atypical glandular cells (AGCs) result in the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear may be associated with significant genital and nongenital neoplastic processes...
  51. Viens L, Clouston S, Messina C. Women's autonomy and cervical cancer screening in the Lesotho Demographic and Health Survey 2009. Soc Sci Med. 2016;150:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding, that augmenting women's autonomy improves cervical cancer screening awareness, adds yet another to the myriad reasons for focusing global attention on issues of gender equity. ..
  52. Al Mandeel H, Sagr E, Sait K, Latifah H, Al Obaid A, Al Badawi I, et al. Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Screening and Treatment of Precancerous Lesions for Cervical Cancer Prevention in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2016;36:313-320 pubmed
    ..National studies on cervical cancer screening modalities and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions, including HPV prevalence and its association with cervical cancer, are scarce. ..
  53. Thangarajah F, Einzmann T, Bergauer F, Patzke J, Schmidt Petruschkat S, Theune M, et al. Cervical screening program and the psychological impact of an abnormal Pap smear: a self-assessment questionnaire study of 590 patients. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016;293:391-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results underline the importance of a trustful physician-patient relationship in that matter. ..
  54. Hajiesmaeil M, Tafvizi F, Sarmadi S. The effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms on susceptibility to human papilloma virus infection and cervical cancer. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;46:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination analysis of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms revealed that combined MTHFR 677CC and 1298CC are strongly associated with a risk of cervical cancer. ..
  55. Farrelly C, Lal P, Trerotola S, Nadolski G, Watts M, Gorrian C, et al. Correlation of Peripheral Vein Tumour Marker Levels, Internal Iliac Vein Tumour Marker Levels and Radical Prostatectomy Specimens in Patients with Prostate Cancer and Borderline High Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Pilot Study. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2016;39:724-31 pubmed publisher
    To correlate prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free to total PSA percentage (fPSA%) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) levels from peripheral and pelvic venous samples with prostatectomy specimens in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma ..
  56. Tippin J, Aksan N, Dawson J, Anderson S, Rizzo M. Sleep remains disturbed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea treated with positive airway pressure: a three-month cohort study using continuous actigraphy. Sleep Med. 2016;24:24-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Improvements in sleepiness evolve over months with more severely affected patients responding quicker. Persistent sleep disruption may partially explain residual sleepiness in some PAP-adherent OSA patients. ..
  57. Kovacs G, Herve P, Barbera J, Chaouat A, Chemla D, Condliffe R, et al. An official European Respiratory Society statement: pulmonary haemodynamics during exercise. Eur Respir J. 2017;50: pubmed publisher
    ..There is a lack of robust clinical evidence on targeted medical therapy for exercise pulmonary hypertension. ..
  58. Gonzalez Herrera L, Rodríguez Morales P, Gonza Lez Losa M, Pérez Mendoza G, Canul Canche J, Rosado Lopez I, et al. MTHFR/p53 polymorphisms as genetic factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer in HPV-infected Mexican women. Int J Biol Markers. 2014;29:e142-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The MTHFR/p53 genetic combinations AA/ArgArg and AA/ArgPro are associated genetic risk factors for ICC and CIN in Mexican HPV-infected women. ..
  59. Malur A, Huizar I, Wells G, Barna B, Malur A, Thomassen M. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;415:288-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that the ABCG1 lipid transporter is the key downstream target of GM-CSF-induced PPAR? necessary for surfactant catabolism...
  60. Valenti G, Vitale S, Tropea A, Biondi A, Laganà A. Tumor markers of uterine cervical cancer: a new scenario to guide surgical practice?. Updates Surg. 2017;69:441-449 pubmed publisher
    ..Although cancer markers actually are not used only for early diagnosis, they may be useful in others fields of application such as evaluation and monitoring of treatments to improve diagnosis and treatment of CC. ..
  61. Malur A, Baker A, Mccoy A, Wells G, Barna B, Kavuru M, et al. Restoration of PPAR? reverses lipid accumulation in alveolar macrophages of GM-CSF knockout mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;300:L73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo instillation of lenti-PPAR? results in: 1) upregulating ABCG1 and PPAR? expression of GM-CSF KO alveolar macrophages, 2) reducing intracellular lipid accumulation, and 3) increasing cholesterol efflux activity...
  62. Johnston B, McEwan A, de Chazal P. Semi-automated nasal PAP mask sizing using facial photographs. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2017;2017:1214-1217 pubmed publisher
    ..The semi-automated system performed comparably to sizing from manual measurements taken from the same images which produced 89% and 100% accuracy respectively...
  63. Hidalgo Tenorio C, Ramírez Taboada J, Gil Anguita C, Esquivias J, Omar Mohamed Balgahata M, Sampedro A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine in HIV-positive Spanish men who have sex with men (MSM). AIDS Res Ther. 2017;14:34 pubmed publisher
    ..Older age was the main protective factor against HR-HPV infection, and non-suppressed HIV viremia was a risk factor. ISRCTN14732216 ( ). ..
  64. Mao J, Li H, Wei S, Harroun S, Lee M, Lin H, et al. DNA Modulates the Interaction of Genetically Engineered DNA-Binding Proteins and Gold Nanoparticles: Diagnosis of High-Risk HPV Infection. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..7%/100.0% and 85.7%/91.7%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the Cys-Sso7d/Au NP probe can be used to diagnose high-risk HPV types in Pap smear samples with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy...
  65. Taylor V, Jackson J, Tu S, Yasui Y, Schwartz S, Kuniyuki A, et al. Cervical cancer screening among Chinese Americans. Cancer Detect Prev. 2002;26:139-45 pubmed
    ..Chinese women in North America have high rates of invasive cervical cancer and low levels of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing use. This study examined Pap testing barriers and facilitators among Chinese American women...
  66. Allen S, CARIAS A, Anderson M, Okocha E, Benning L, McRaven M, et al. Characterization of the Influence of Semen-Derived Enhancer of Virus Infection on the Interaction of HIV-1 with Female Reproductive Tract Tissues. J Virol. 2015;89:5569-80 pubmed publisher
    ..At the mucus-coated columnar epithelial barrier, the HIV-1/SEVI interaction is disrupted. These observations suggest that SEVI may not play a significant stimulatory role in the efficiency of male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV. ..
  67. Mosavel M, Genderson M. Daughter-Initiated Cancer Screening Appeals to Mothers. J Cancer Educ. 2016;31:767-775 pubmed publisher
    ..g., mammogram, Pap smear) directly based on the youth's appeal. These findings can have major implications for youth-initiated health promotion efforts, especially among hard-to-reach populations. ..
  68. Rousset Jablonski C, Reynaud Q, Nove Josserand R, Ray Coquard I, Mekki Y, Golfier F, et al. High proportion of abnormal pap smear tests and cervical dysplasia in women with cystic fibrosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2018;221:40-45 pubmed publisher
    ..A regular gynaecological follow-up, periodic cervical screening, and routine HPV vaccination are strongly recommended in this population. ..
  69. Udechukwu M, Downey B, Udenigwe C. Influence of structural and surface properties of whey-derived peptides on zinc-chelating capacity, and in vitro gastric stability and bioaccessibility of the zinc-peptide complexes. Food Chem. 2018;240:1227-1232 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings indicate that strong zinc chelation can promote gastric stability and impede intestinal release, for peptides intended for use as dietary zinc carriers. ..
  70. Tian J, Wu X, Zhang M, Zhou Z, Liu Y. Comparative study on the effects of apple peel polyphenols and apple flesh polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors in mice. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2017;:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that apple polyphenols possess potential cardioprotective effects, and suggests that apple, especially apple peel, may be excellent source for exploration of preventive agents against cardiovascular disorders...
  71. Pan X, Sang S, Fei G, Jin L, Liu H, Wang Z, et al. Enhanced Activities of Blood Thiamine Diphosphatase and Monophosphatase in Alzheimer's Disease. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0167273 pubmed publisher
    ..thiamine monophosphate (TMP), and thiamine, as well as the activities of thiamine diphosphatase (TDPase), thiamine monophosphatase (TMPase), and thiamine pyrophosphokinase (TPK), were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography...
  72. Tu K, Zhao L, Gu J, Yan P, Wang F, Cao Y. The function of activatable cell-penetrating peptides in human intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2016;48:599-606 pubmed
    ..ACPP can be used for imaging hIBDEC with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. ..
  73. Liu Y, Chen L, Qiu Y, Xiao Y, Cai H. Clinical features of secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis associated with myelodysplastic syndrome: Two case reports. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8481 pubmed publisher
    ..Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disorder characterized by the abnormal accumulation of alveolar surfactant protein in alveolar spaces. Secondary PAP can result from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)...
  74. Kang S, Pinault M, Pfefferle L, Elimelech M. Single-walled carbon nanotubes exhibit strong antimicrobial activity. Langmuir. 2007;23:8670-3 pubmed
    ..This finding may be useful in the application of SWNTs as building blocks for antimicrobial materials. ..
  75. Li J, Wu Y, Tian X, Wang J, Dong M, Wang A, et al. Protective effect of HTK solution on postoperative pulmonary function in infants with CHD and PAH. Biosci Rep. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, inflammatory cells infiltration decreased and pulmonary interstitial showed mild edema in HTK group. PAP with HTK could effectively reduce CPB-induced lung injury and improve lung function. ..
  76. de Wijs Meijler D, van Duin R, Duncker D, Scherrer U, Sartori C, Reiss I, et al. Structural and functional changes of the pulmonary vasculature after hypoxia exposure in the neonatal period - a new swine model of pulmonary vascular disease. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;:ajpheart.00362.2017 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we developed a neonatal swine model that allows examination of the long-term sequelae of damage to the developing neonatal lung, the course of the disease, and the effect of therapy on long-term outcome...
  77. Sahu A, Gera P, Pai V, Dubey A, Tyagi G, Waghmare M, et al. Raman exfoliative cytology for oral precancer diagnosis. J Biomed Opt. 2017;22:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Future longitudinal studies can help validate potential of REC in screening and monitoring high-risk populations and prognosis prediction of premalignant lesions...
  78. Coughlin S, Wilson K. Breast and cervical cancer screening among migrant and seasonal farmworkers: a review. Cancer Detect Prev. 2002;26:203-9 pubmed
  79. Darson M, Pacelli A, Roche P, Rittenhouse H, Wolfert R, Young C, et al. Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) expression in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma: a novel prostate cancer marker. Urology. 1997;49:857-62 pubmed
    ..Clinic with pathologic Stage 12 adenocarcinoma to compare the cytoplasmic expression of hK2, PSA, and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in benign tissue, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and adenocarcinoma...
  80. Kutky M, Hudak K. Expression of an RNA glycosidase inhibits HIV-1 transactivation of transcription. Biochem J. 2017;474:3471-3483 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the observed decrease in viral RNAs in cells expressing PAP and contribute to our understanding of the antiviral effects of this plant protein. ..
  81. Kirschenbaum A, Liu X, Yao S, Leiter A, Levine A. Prostatic acid phosphatase is expressed in human prostate cancer bone metastases and promotes osteoblast differentiation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1237:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..There are no effective therapies for PCa bone metastases that prolong survival. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a secretory protein expressed by PCa cells...
  82. Hassani L, Dehdari T, Hajizadeh E, Shojaeizadeh D, Abedini M, Nedjat S. Barriers to Pap Smear Test for the Second Time in Women Referring to Health Care Centers in the South of Tehran: A Qualitative Approach. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2017;5:376-385 pubmed
    ..Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a regular screening program. Many studies have reported a large number of barriers that women had for the first time, but this study decided to find other barriers for the second time pap smear...
  83. Li W, Li W, Laishram R, Hoque M, Ji Z, Tian B, et al. Distinct regulation of alternative polyadenylation and gene expression by nuclear poly(A) polymerases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:8930-8942 pubmed publisher
    ..The Star-PAP-mediated APA of PTEN is essential for DNA damage-induced increase of PTEN protein levels. Together, our results reveal a PAS-guided and PAP-mediated paradigm for gene expression in response to cellular signaling cues. ..
  84. Kim J, Lee Y, Kim J, Lee S, Bae M, Ahn J, et al. PPAR? agonists induce adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of Lipin-1, which acts as a PPAR? phosphatase. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016;81:57-66 pubmed publisher