prolactin

Summary

Gene Symbol: prolactin
Description: prolactin
Alias: GHA1, prolactin, decidual prolactin, growth hormone A1
Species: human
Products:     prolactin

Top Publications

  1. Truong A, Duez C, Belayew A, Renard A, Pictet R, Bell G, et al. Isolation and characterization of the human prolactin gene. EMBO J. 1984;3:429-37 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) genes derive from a common ancestor and still share some sequence homologies. Their expression in the pituitary gland is regulated in opposite directions by most of the many hormones acting on them...
  2. Vaclavicek A, Hemminki K, Bartram C, Wagner K, Wappenschmidt B, Meindl A, et al. Association of prolactin and its receptor gene regions with familial breast cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:1513-9 pubmed
    The contribution of prolactin (PRL) through its receptor (PRLR) to the pathogenesis and progression of human mammary tumors has received recent attention...
  3. Swaminathan G, Varghese B, Thangavel C, Carbone C, Plotnikov A, Kumar K, et al. Prolactin stimulates ubiquitination, initial internalization, and degradation of its receptor via catalytic activation of Janus kinase 2. J Endocrinol. 2008;196:R1-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) activates its receptor to initiate signal transduction pathways (including activation of Janus kinases, Jak) but also stimulates downregulation of this receptor to limit the magnitude and duration of signaling...
  4. Shaw Bruha C, Pirrucello S, Shull J. Expression of the prolactin gene in normal and neoplastic human breast tissues and human mammary cell lines: promoter usage and alternative mRNA splicing. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1997;44:243-53 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) has been implicated in the development of mammary cancer in rodents and humans...
  5. Peers B, Nalda A, Monget P, Voz M, Belayew A, Martial J. Binding of a 100-kDa ubiquitous factor to the human prolactin promoter is required for its basal and hormone-regulated activity. Eur J Biochem. 1992;210:53-8 pubmed
    cAMP strongly stimulates the activity of the human prolactin (hPRL) promoter...
  6. DiMattia G, Gellersen B, Duckworth M, Friesen H. Human prolactin gene expression. The use of an alternative noncoding exon in decidua and the IM-9-P3 lymphoblast cell line. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:16412-21 pubmed
    The prolactin (PRL) gene is normally expressed in the anterior pituitary lactotrope and the decidualized stromal cell of the human endometrium...
  7. Stevens A, Ray D, Alansari A, Hajeer A, Thomson W, Donn R, et al. Characterization of a prolactin gene polymorphism and its associations with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:2358-66 pubmed
    Hyperprolactinemia is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the mechanism is unknown. Prolactin is expressed in T lymphocytes and is under the control of an alternative promoter region...
  8. Stevens A, Ray D, Worthington J, Davis J. Polymorphisms of the human prolactin gene--implications for production of lymphocyte prolactin and systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2001;10:676-83 pubmed
    Hyperprolactinaemia is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but the mechanism is unknown. Prolactin is expressed not only by pituitary lactotrophic cells but also by T-lymphocytes under the control of an alternative ..
  9. Chavez Rueda K, Hernandez J, Zenteno E, Leaños Miranda A, Legorreta Haquet M, Blanco Favela F. Identification of prolactin as a novel immunomodulator on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokine secretions on T and B human lymphocytes. Clin Immunol. 2005;116:182-91 pubmed
    We investigate the immunomodulator role of prolactin (PRL) on CD4+ and B cell activation from healthy subjects in comparison with hyperprolactinemic patients...

More Information

Publications115 found, 100 shown here

  1. Adamson A, Friedrichsen S, Semprini S, Harper C, Mullins J, White M, et al. Human prolactin gene promoter regulation by estrogen: convergence with tumor necrosis factor-alpha signaling. Endocrinology. 2008;149:687-94 pubmed
    Estrogens have been implicated in the regulation of prolactin gene expression in man, although previous studies have not defined the molecular mechanism whereby estradiol activates the human prolactin gene promoter (hPrl)...
  2. Georgiopoulos G, Stamatelopoulos K, Lambrinoudaki I, Lykka M, Kyrkou K, Rizos D, et al. Prolactin and preclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension. 2009;54:98-105 pubmed publisher
    ..and an adverse cardiovascular risk profile, possibly as a result of the vasoconstrictive properties of prolactin. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the hypothesis that prolactin contributes to the increased ..
  3. Tran T, Utama F, Lin J, Yang N, Sjolund A, Ryder A, et al. Prolactin inhibits BCL6 expression in breast cancer through a Stat5a-dependent mechanism. Cancer Res. 2010;70:1711-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Stat5a mediates prolactin-induced differentiation of mammary epithelia, and loss of Stat5 signaling in human breast cancer is associated ..
  4. Gellersen B, Kempf R, Telgmann R, DiMattia G. Nonpituitary human prolactin gene transcription is independent of Pit-1 and differentially controlled in lymphocytes and in endometrial stroma. Mol Endocrinol. 1994;8:356-73 pubmed
  5. Bellone G, Astarita P, Artusio E, Silvestri S, Mareschi K, Turletti A, et al. Bone marrow stroma-derived prolactin is involved in basal and platelet-activating factor-stimulated in vitro erythropoiesis. Blood. 1997;90:21-7 pubmed
    Cooperation between in vitro exogenous prolactin (PRL), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interleukin-3 (IL-3) at an early step of in vitro erythroid differentiation has been shown in a previous study...
  6. Bole Feysot C, Goffin V, Edery M, Binart N, Kelly P. Prolactin (PRL) and its receptor: actions, signal transduction pathways and phenotypes observed in PRL receptor knockout mice. Endocr Rev. 1998;19:225-68 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, many of the effects reported in this review may be shared with other hormones, cytokines, or growth factors and thus will be more difficult to study. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) ..
  7. Peirce S, Chen W. Human prolactin and its antagonist, hPRL-G129R, regulate bax and bcl-2 gene expression in human breast cancer cells and transgenic mice. Oncogene. 2004;23:1248-55 pubmed
    To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in human prolactin receptor antagonist (hPRL-G129R)-induced apoptosis, we used real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to measure bax and bcl-2 gene expression in ..
  8. Gutzman J, Miller K, Schuler L. Endogenous human prolactin and not exogenous human prolactin induces estrogen receptor alpha and prolactin receptor expression and increases estrogen responsiveness in breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;88:69-77 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) and estrogen act synergistically to increase mammary gland growth, development, and differentiation...
  9. Foitzik K, Krause K, Conrad F, Nakamura M, Funk W, Paus R. Human scalp hair follicles are both a target and a source of prolactin, which serves as an autocrine and/or paracrine promoter of apoptosis-driven hair follicle regression. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:748-56 pubmed
    The prototypic pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) exerts a wide variety of bioregulatory effects in mammals and is also found in extrapituitary sites, including murine skin...
  10. Hugo E, BORCHERDING D, Gersin K, Loftus J, Ben Jonathan N. Prolactin release by adipose explants, primary adipocytes, and LS14 adipocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4006-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional hormone produced in humans by both pituitary and extrapituitary sites, including adipose tissue...
  11. Kavanagh Wright L, Smith T, Gibney J, McKenna T. Characterization of macroprolactin and assessment of markers of autoimmunity in macroprolactinaemic patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70:599-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Comprehensive analysis of macroprolactin confirmed its composition as an IgG molecule or fragment with a PRL molecule. The occurrence of macroprolactin does not appear to be associated with autoimmunity. ..
  12. Kulkarni M, Tettamanzi M, Murphy J, Keeler C, Myszka D, Chayen N, et al. Two independent histidines, one in human prolactin and one in its receptor, are critical for pH-dependent receptor recognition and activation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:38524-33 pubmed publisher
    Human prolactin (hPRL), a member of the family of hematopoietic cytokines, functions as both an endocrine hormone and autocrine/paracrine growth factor...
  13. Radojkovic D, Pesic M, Radojkovic M, Dimić D, Vukelic Nikolic M, Jevtovic Stoimenov T, et al. Expression of prolactin receptors in the duodenum, kidneys and skeletal system during physiological and sulpiride-induced hyperprolactinaemia. Endocrine. 2018;62:681-691 pubmed publisher
    ..OC), serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and prolactin (PRL)...
  14. Pratt S, Andrae J. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Does tall fescue toxicosis negatively impact bull growth and breeding potential?. J Anim Sci. 2015;93:5522-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of ergot alkaloids through neurotransmitter receptors or indirect effects such as inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL)...
  15. Paepegaey A, Veron L, Wimmer M, Christin Maitre S. [Misleading diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia in women]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2016;44:181-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin is a major hormone, involved in gonadotroph axis regulation. Hyperprolactinemia induces gonadotropin deficiency and therefore hypogonadotropic hypogonadism...
  16. Anuradha -, Krishna A. Prolactin modulates luteal activity in the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx during delayed embryonic development. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;248:27-39 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of prolactin as a modulator of luteal steroidogenesis during the period of delayed embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx...
  17. Karayazi Atici Ö, Urbańska A, Gopal Gopinathan S, Boutillon F, Goffin V, Shemanko C. ATM is required for the prolactin-induced HSP90-mediated increase in cellular viability and clonogenic growth after DNA damage. Endocrinology. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin acts as a survival factor for breast cancer cells, but the prolactin signaling pathway and the mechanism is unknown...
  18. Tang M, Reedquist K, Garcia S, Fernandez B, Codullo V, Vieira Sousa E, et al. The prolactin receptor is expressed in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis synovial tissue and contributes to macrophage activation. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016;55:2248-2259 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is a lactation-inducing hormone with immunomodulatory properties and is found at elevated levels in the serum of patients with RA and other rheumatic diseases...
  19. Shao S, Yao Z, Lu J, Song Y, He Z, Yu C, et al. Ablation of prolactin receptor increases hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;498:693-699 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that the estrogen-responsive pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL), through specific PRL receptor (PRLR), down-regulates hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation...
  20. Thomas L, Chedrawe E, Barnes P, Too C. Prolactin/androgen-inducible carboxypeptidase-D increases with nitrotyrosine and Ki67 for breast cancer progression in vivo, and upregulates progression markers VEGF-C and Runx2 in vitro. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017;164:27-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of CPD and NO by 17β-estradiol, prolactin (PRL), and androgen increases survival of human breast cancer (BCa) cells in vitro...
  21. Schennink A, Trott J, Manjarin R, Lemay D, Freking B, Hovey R. Comparative genomics reveals tissue-specific regulation of prolactin receptor gene expression. J Mol Endocrinol. 2015;54:1-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL), acting via the PRL receptor (PRLR), controls hundreds of biological processes across a range of species...
  22. Alkharusi A, Lesma E, Ancona S, Chiaramonte E, Nystrom T, Gorio A, et al. Role of Prolactin Receptors in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0146653 pubmed publisher
    ..Emerging evidence suggests that the pituitary hormone prolactin (Prl) has both endocrine and paracrine modes of action...
  23. Bernard V, Young J, Binart N. Prolactin - a pleiotropic factor in health and disease. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    The principal role of prolactin in mammals is the regulation of lactation. Prolactin is a hormone that is mainly synthesized and secreted by lactotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland...
  24. Podfigurna A, Stellmach A, Szeliga A, Czyzyk A, Meczekalski B. Metabolic Profile of Patients with Premature Ovarian Insufficiency. J Clin Med. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (..
  25. Leehy K, Truong T, Mauro L, Lange C. Progesterone receptors (PR) mediate STAT actions: PR and prolactin receptor signaling crosstalk in breast cancer models. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2018;176:88-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The high circulating levels of progesterone during pregnancy signal through PR, inducing expression of the prolactin receptor (PRLR)...
  26. Pharo E, Renfree M, Cane K. Mammary cell-activating factor regulates the hormone-independent transcription of the early lactation protein (ELP) gene in a marsupial. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;436:169-82 pubmed publisher
    ..ELP is responsive to the lactogenic hormones; insulin (I), hydrocortisone (HC) and prolactin (PRL) in mammary gland explants but could not be induced with lactogenic hormones in tammar primary mammary ..
  27. Cave B, Wakerley J, Luckman S, Tortonese D. Hypothalamic targets for prolactin: assessment of c-Fos induction in tyrosine hydroxylase- and proopiomelanocortin-containing neurones in the rat arcuate nucleus following acute central prolactin administration. Neuroendocrinology. 2001;74:386-95 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) has been implicated in central actions including those that result in its own regulation and/or the suppression of gonadotropin secretion...
  28. Donn R, Farhan A, Stevans A, Ramanan A, Ollier W, Thomson W. Neuroendocrine gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002;41:930-6 pubmed
    ..None of the polymorphisms investigated showed any statistically significant associations with JIA. The lack of association with polymorphisms of these neuroendocrine genes suggests that they are not involved in susceptibility to JIA. ..
  29. Waligorska Stachura J, Sawicka Gutaj N, Zabel M, Liebert W, Gut P, Czarnywojtek A, et al. Decreased expression of survivin 2B in human pituitary adenomas. A preliminary study. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2017;55:21-25 pubmed publisher
    ..0498). Survivin and its splice variants might be involved to some extent in benign tumor growth of pituitary adenomas. However, survivin cannot be regarded as a candidate for targeted therapy or molecular biomarker of pituitary adenomas. ..
  30. Bermea K, Rodriguez Garcia A, Tsin A, Barrera Saldaña H. Somatolactogens and diabetic retinopathy. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2018;41:42-47 pubmed publisher
    ..in the retina from which somatolactogens (pituitary growth hormone, GH-N; placental growth hormone, GH-V; prolactin, PRL; and placental lactogen, PL, also referred as chorionic somatomammotropin, CSH), may play an important role...
  31. Yang X, Meyer K, Friedl A. STAT5 and prolactin participate in a positive autocrine feedback loop that promotes angiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21184-96 pubmed publisher
    We have shown previously that the murine prolactin/growth hormone family member proliferin plays a pivotal role in angiogenesis induced by the FGF2/STAT5 signaling cascade...
  32. Doğan B, Taşcı T, Arduç A, Müslüm Tuna M, Berker D, Güler S. Are there any causes for increased thyroid volume in women with prolactinoma?. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2015;76:595-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Sixty-three euthyroid women with prolactinoma and 60 healthy euthyroid women were included. Serum prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (free T4), free tri-iodothyronine (free T3), insulin ..
  33. Kautz E, de Carvalho Papa P, Reichler I, Gram A, Boos A, Kowalewski M. In vitro decidualisation of canine uterine stromal cells. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2015;13:85 pubmed publisher
    ..An in vitro decidualisation model with canine uterine stromal cells was successfully established, allowing future, more detailed studies to be undertaken on the underlying molecular and endocrine mechanisms of canine decidualisation. ..
  34. Akbaş T, Deyneli O, Sönmez F, Akalın S. The pituitary-gonadal-thyroid and lactotroph axes in critically ill patients. Endokrynol Pol. 2016;67:305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..022) in males were also displayed. Critically ill patients develop significant changes in neuroendocrine axes. Alterations in hormones correlate with the disease severity and mortality. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (3): 305-312). ..
  35. Xu R, Zhou H, Liu W, Wu W, Liu X, Zhang W, et al. [Construction and identification of human p-selectin promotor luciferase reporter gene vector]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2016;36:332-8 pubmed
    ..pGL3-p-selectin-promoter can be transcribed and activated in 293F cells. This study provided an important basis for acquiring transcriptional factors and screening inflammatory factors and drugs. ..
  36. Chinezu L, Vasiljevic A, Trouillas J, Lapoirie M, Jouanneau E, Raverot G. Silent somatotroph tumour revisited from a study of 80 patients with and without acromegaly and a review of the literature. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017;176:195-201 pubmed
    ..Tumours in each group were classified into GH and plurihormonal (GH/prolactin (PRL)/±thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)) and into densely granulated (DG) and sparsely granulated (SG) types...
  37. Costanza M, Pedotti R. Prolactin: Friend or Foe in Central Nervous System Autoimmune Inflammation?. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    ..Even if prolactin (PRL) does not belong to the sex hormones family, its crucial role in female reproduction and lactation has ..
  38. Wu D, Kimura F, Zheng L, Ishida M, Niwa Y, Hirata K, et al. Chronic endometritis modifies decidualization in human endometrial stromal cells. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2017;15:16 pubmed publisher
    ..The concentrations in culture media and the protein expressions in ESCs of prolactin (PRL) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), two well known decidualization markers used in ..
  39. Pandey R, Kumar R, Gupta P, Mohmmed A, Tewari R, Malhotra P, et al. High throughput in silico identification and characterization of Plasmodium falciparum PRL phosphatase inhibitors. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2017;:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The study identifies PfPRL as one of the potential drug targets for selected ChEMBL-NTD compounds that may be exploited as a scaffold to develop novel antimalarials...
  40. Bjelobaba I, Janjic M, Kucka M, Stojilkovic S. Cell Type-Specific Sexual Dimorphism in Rat Pituitary Gene Expression During Maturation. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:21 pubmed publisher
  41. Hachim I, Hachim M, Lopez V, Lebrun J, Ali S. Prolactin Receptor Expression is an Independent Favorable Prognostic Marker in Human Breast Cancer. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2016;24:238-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) hormone plays an important role in the development of the mammary gland and terminal differentiation of the mammary epithelial cells...
  42. Wang H, Zhu Y, Xu X, Wang X, Hou Q, Xu Q, et al. Ctenopharyngodon idella NF-?B subunit p65 modulates the transcription of I?B? in CIK cells. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;54:564-72 pubmed publisher
    ..1-Cip65-?C and pcDNA3.1-Cip65-?N, can increase the luciferase activity. Taken together, these results suggested that Cip65 can regulate the expression of CiI?B? and works as a negative feedback loop in NF-?B pathway. ..
  43. Meléndez García R, Arredondo Zamarripa D, Arnold E, Ruiz Herrera X, Noguez Imm R, Baeza Cruz G, et al. Prolactin protects retinal pigment epithelium by inhibiting sirtuin 2-dependent cell death. EBioMedicine. 2016;7:35-49 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Prolactin (PRL) receptors are expressed in the retina, but nothing is known about the role of PRL in RPE...
  44. Lan H, Hong P, Li R, L S, Anshan S, Li S, et al. Internal image anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development a new category of prolactin receptor (PRLR) antagonist. Mol Immunol. 2017;87:86-93 pubmed publisher
    Over the past decades, a number of prolactin receptor (PRLR) antagonists have been developed, which can be divided into two categories, PRLR analogue and anti-PRLR antibody...
  45. Anagnostou I, Reyes Mendoza J, Morales T. Glial cells as mediators of protective actions of prolactin (PRL) in the CNS. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;265:106-110 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone with multiple actions in the central nervous system (CNS) spanning from physiology to pathology...
  46. Streelman J, Kocher T. Microsatellite variation associated with prolactin expression and growth of salt-challenged tilapia. Physiol Genomics. 2002;9:1-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in the tilapia prolactin 1 (prl 1) promoter are associated with differences in prl 1 gene expression and the growth response of salt-..
  47. Montoya Díaz E, Cervera Castillo H, Chavez Sanchez L, Legorreta Haquet M, Sánchez González L, Chavez Rueda K, et al. Prolactin promoter polymorphism (-1149 G/T) is associated with anti-DNA antibodies in Mexican patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunol Invest. 2011;40:614-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is a 23-kDa protein hormone that is synthesized mainly by the anterior pituitary gland. However, PRL can also be synthesized and secreted by extrapituitary tissues, particularly immune cells...
  48. Joustra S, Meijer O, Heinen C, Mol I, Laghmani E, Sengers R, et al. Spatial and temporal expression of immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 in the rat. J Endocrinol. 2015;226:181-91 pubmed publisher
    ..superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) gene cause an X-linked syndrome of central hypothyroidism, macroorchidism, variable prolactin and GH deficiency, delayed pubertal testosterone rise, and obesity...
  49. Abdelbaset Ismail A, Suszynska M, Borkowska S, Adamiak M, Ratajczak J, Kucia M, et al. Human haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells express several functional sex hormone receptors. J Cell Mol Med. 2016;20:134-46 pubmed publisher
    ..of receptors for pituitary SexHs, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL), as well as the receptors for gonadal SexHs, including progesterone, oestrogens, and androgen, on HSPCs ..
  50. Sala E, Bellaviti Buttoni P, Malchiodi E, Verrua E, Carosi G, Profka E, et al. Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia following dopamine agonist withdrawal and possible predictive factors of recurrence in prolactinomas. J Endocrinol Invest. 2016;39:1377-1382 pubmed
    ..CAB therapy was interrupted according to Endocrine Society Guidelines. Prolactin (PRL) levels were measured 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after withdrawal...
  51. Vaitkiene P, Valiulyte I, Glebauskiene B, Liutkeviciene R. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) promoter methylation and expression in pituitary adenoma. Diagn Pathol. 2017;12:33 pubmed publisher
  52. Leitherer S, Clos J, Liebler Tenorio E, Schleicher U, Bogdan C, Soulat D. Characterization of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase LmPRL-1 Secreted by Leishmania major via the Exosome Pathway. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..major led to an increased number of parasites in macrophages. From these data, we conclude that the L. major phosphatase LmPRL-1 contributes to the intracellular survival of the parasites in macrophages. ..
  53. Xu L, Zhang M, Li H, Guan W, Liu B, Liu F, et al. SH3BGRL as a novel prognostic biomarker is down-regulated in acute myeloid leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2018;59:918-930 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrated that SH3BGRL is a novel crucial player in AML progression and could be both a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker. ..
  54. Bello A, Puertas Avendaño R, González Gómez M, Gonzalez Gomez M, Laborda J, Damas C, et al. Delta-like protein 1 in the pituitary-adipose axis in the adult male mouse. J Neuroendocrinol. 2017;29: pubmed publisher
    ..09±0.9% were leptin receptor (LEPR) immunoreactive (-IR), mainly in GH-IR and prolactin (PRL)-IR cells (41.5±3.8%; 13.5±1.7%, respectively)...
  55. Li J, Liang A, Li Z, Du C, Hua G, Salzano A, et al. An association analysis between PRL genotype and milk production traits in Italian Mediterranean river buffalo. J Dairy Res. 2017;84:430-433 pubmed publisher
    This Research Communication describes the association between genetic variation within the prolactin (PRL) gene and the milk production traits of Italian Mediterranean river buffalo (Bufala mediterranea Italiana)...
  56. Xu D, Lin L, Lin X, Huang Z, Lei Z. Immunoregulation of autocrine prolactin: suppressing the expression of costimulatory molecules and cytokines in T lymphocytes by prolactin receptor knockdown. Cell Immunol. 2010;263:71-8 pubmed publisher
    Ample evidence indicates that prolactin (PRL) secreted from the pituitary gland plays an important role in a variety of human immune responses. However, the immunoregulation of autocrine PRL in T lymphocytes is not fully understood...
  57. Spoerri M, Guscetti F, Hartnack S, Boos A, Oei C, Balogh O, et al. Endocrine control of canine mammary neoplasms: serum reproductive hormone levels and tissue expression of steroid hormone, prolactin and growth hormone receptors. BMC Vet Res. 2015;11:235 pubmed publisher
    ..has revealed decreased expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα, ESR1), progesterone (P4) receptor (PGR), prolactin (PRL) receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) associated with neoplastic differentiation of mammary ..
  58. Fernández Pernas P, Fafián Labora J, Lesende Rodriguez I, Mateos J, De la Fuente A, Fuentes I, et al. 3, 3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine Increases In Vitro Chondrogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Human Umbilical Cord Stroma Through SRC2. J Cell Biochem. 2016;117:2097-108 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to determine whether lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) or 3, 3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), the active thyroid hormone, modulates chondrogenesis in our in vitro ..
  59. Vandsemb E, Bertilsson H, Abdollahi P, Størkersen Ã, VÃ¥tsveen T, Rye M, et al. Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) is overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissue and promotes growth and migration. J Transl Med. 2016;14:71 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from our in vitro assays suggest that PRL-3 promotes growth and migration in prostate cancer. In conclusion, these results imply that PRL-3 has a role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. ..
  60. Kamkrathok B, Sartsoongnoen N, Prakobsaeng N, Rozenboim I, Porter T, Chaiseha Y. Distribution of hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactive neurons in the male native Thai chicken. Anim Reprod Sci. 2016;171:27-35 pubmed publisher
    Avian prolactin (PRL) secretion is under stimulatory control by the PRL-releasing factor (PRF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The neuroendocrine regulation of the avian reproductive system has been extensively studied in females...
  61. Chávez Güitrón L, Morales Montor J, Muñoz Guzmán M, Nava Castro K, Ramírez Álvarez H, Moreno Mendoza N, et al. The in vitro effect of prolactin on the growth, motility and expression of prolactin receptors in larvae of Toxocara canis. Vet Parasitol. 2016;224:33-38 pubmed publisher
    The in vitro effect of prolactin (PRL) on the growth and motility of Toxocara canis larvae was assessed. Additionally, the expression and location of prolactin receptors (PRL-Rs) were determined in the larvae. Larvae of T...
  62. Flores Fernández R, Blanco Favela F, Fuentes Panana E, Chavez Sanchez L, Gorocica Rosete P, Pizaña Venegas A, et al. Prolactin Rescues Immature B-Cells from Apoptosis Induced by B-Cell Receptor Cross-Linking. J Immunol Res. 2016;2016:3219017 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin has an immunomodulatory effect and has been associated with B-cell-triggered autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  63. Li B, Yang Y, Liu Y, Sun J, Ye Y, Liu X, et al. Prolactin rs1341239 T allele may have protective role against the brick tea type skeletal fluorosis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171011 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) has been reported to be associated with increased bone turnover, and increased bone turnover is also a feature of skeletal fluorosis (SF)...
  64. Zhao X, Gao G, Wang H, Li Q, Zhang K, Zhong H, et al. Effect of photoperiod on serum hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle in geese. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    ..natural conditions, we collected blood samples from Sichuan white geese and Xupu geese to quantify changes in prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), gonadotropin-..
  65. Huang H, Lin S, Zhao W, Wu Z. Cabergoline versus bromocriptine for the treatment of giant prolactinomas: A quantitative and systematic review. Metab Brain Dis. 2018;33:969-976 pubmed publisher
    ..The compared outcomes included tumor shrinkage, tumor response, normalization of prolactin (PRL) level, and visual field defect (VFD) improvement. Gender differences were also considered...
  66. Franchi A, Bocca S, Anderson S, Riggs R, Oehninger S. Expression of milk fat globule EGF-factor 8 (MFG-E8) mRNA and protein in the human endometrium and its regulation by prolactin. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:360-71 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Prolactin (PRL) secreted by stromal cells has been suggested to modulate protein expression...
  67. Rygula R, Popik P. Trait "pessimism" is associated with increased sensitivity to negative feedback in rats. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2016;16:516-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of our study demonstrate the interrelation and co-existence of two cognitive biases that may predict vulnerability to depressive disorder. ..
  68. Matsuda M, Koide T, Yorihuzi T, Hosokawa N, Nagata K. Molecular cloning of a novel ubiquitin-like protein, UBIN, that binds to ER targeting signal sequences. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;280:535-40 pubmed
    ..The possible function of UBIN will be discussed with regards to novel characteristics of binding to signal sequences for ER targeting. ..
  69. Roelfsema F, Pijl H, Keenan D, Veldhuis J. Prolactin secretion in healthy adults is determined by gender, age and body mass index. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31305 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) secretion is quantifiable as mean, peak and nadir PRL concentrations, degree of irregularity (ApEn, approximate entropy) and spikiness (brief staccato-like fluctuations)...
  70. Reyes Castillo Z, Pereira Suárez A, Palafox Sánchez C, Rangel Villalobos H, Estrada Chávez C, Oregon Romero E, et al. The extrapituitary prolactin promoter polymorphism is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and anti-CCP antibodies in Mexican population. Gene. 2013;525:130-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone-cytokine that has been involved in autoimmunity due to its immunoregulatory and lymphoproliferative effects...
  71. Ozdemir E, Caglar G, Akgul E, Cengiz S, Tombak G. The association between prolactin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and Framingham risk score in menopause. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2014;78:119-23 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the association between serum prolactin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women regarding the Framingham Risk Score (FRS)...
  72. Lee Y, Bae S, Song G. Meta-analysis of associations between functional prolactin -1149 G/T polymorphism and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol. 2015;34:683-90 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine whether the prolactin -1149 G/T polymorphism confers susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  73. Sano Y, Doi T, Kikuchi S, Kawai K, Tanaka M. Correlations between stress hormone levels in umbilical cord blood and duration of delivery. J Pak Med Assoc. 2015;65:782-4 pubmed
    Correlations between umbilical cord blood concentration of stress response hormone cortisol and prolactin, and delivery duration were examined...
  74. Janssen C, Verghese P. Training eye movements for visual search in individuals with macular degeneration. J Vis. 2016;16:29 pubmed publisher
    ..However, training did not transfer to a different visual search task. Nevertheless, our study suggests that increasing scotoma awareness and training participants to look toward their scotoma may help them acquire missing information. ..
  75. Owerbach D, Rutter W, Cooke N, Martial J, Shows T. The prolactin gene is located on chromosome 6 in humans. Science. 1981;212:815-6 pubmed
    The gene for prolactin has been located on chromosome 6 in humans. DNA fragments of 4.8 and 4.0 kilobases containing prolactin gene sequences were identified in human genomic DNA, whereas DNA fragments of 7.4, 3.6, and 3...
  76. De Marinis L, Mancini A, Valle D, Bianchi A, Gentilella R, Milardi D, et al. Effects of galanin on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in anorexia nervosa. Metabolism. 2000;49:155-9 pubmed
    ..GAL also stimulates GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) secretion in vitro. In rats, GAL is able to stimulate prolactin (PRL) release, but this effect is not clear in humans...
  77. Ruiz Moreno J, Tavolato M, Montero J, Alio J. Choroidal neovascularization in myopic eyes after phakic refractive lens and iris-claw lens implantation. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2004;14:159-62 pubmed
    ..To describe the appearance of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in two myopic patients after implantation of a phakic refractive lens (PRL) and an iris-claw lens...
  78. Chavez Rueda K, Legorreta Haquet M, Cervera Castillo H, Sanchez L, Jara L, Zenteno E, et al. Prolactin effect on CD69 and CD154 expression by CD4+ cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2005;23:769-77 pubmed
    ..PRL is produced and secreted by the immune cell and acts just after the first trigger signal of activation in an autocrine way. The expression of CD69 and CD154 molecules depend partially on the prolactine. ..
  79. Nilsson L, Olsson A, Isomaa B, Groop L, Billig H, Ling C. A common variant near the PRL gene is associated with increased adiposity in males. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;102:78-81 pubmed publisher
    A common variant (rs4712652) adjacent to the prolactin gene was recently associated with obesity using a genome-wide association study...
  80. te Beek E, Chen X, Jacobs G, Nahon K, de Kam M, Lappalainen J, et al. The effects of the nonselective benzodiazepine lorazepam and the ?2 /?3 subunit-selective GABAA receptor modulators AZD7325 and AZD6280 on plasma prolactin levels. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2015;4:149-54 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the exact role of the GABAA receptor subtypes in the regulation of prolactin secretion and the differential effects of selective and nonselective GABA receptor modulators, the effects of ..
  81. Gasull Camós J, Tarrés Gatius M, Artigas F, Castañé A. Glial GLT-1 blockade in infralimbic cortex as a new strategy to evoke rapid antidepressant-like effects in rats. Transl Psychiatry. 2017;7:e1038 pubmed publisher
  82. Javali M, Acharya P, Shah S, Mahale R, Shetty P, Rangasetty S. Role of Biomarkers in Differentiating New-onset Seizures from Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2017;8:581-584 pubmed publisher
    Review of literature revealed very limited studies considering a combination of serum prolactin (PRL) and serum creatine kinase (CK) as markers for differentiating epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES)...
  83. Van Coppenolle F, Skryma R, Ouadid Ahidouch H, Slomianny C, Roudbaraki M, Delcourt P, et al. Prolactin stimulates cell proliferation through a long form of prolactin receptor and K+ channel activation. Biochem J. 2004;377:569-78 pubmed
    PRL (prolactin) has been implicated in the proliferation and differentiation of numerous tissues, including the prostate gland...
  84. Bob P, Fedor Freybergh P, Susta M, Pavlat J, Jasova D, Zima T, et al. Depression, prolactin and dissociated mind. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2007;28:639-42 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study is to perform examination of HPA axis as indexed by basal serum prolactin and test its relationship to dissociative symptoms and symptoms of traumatic stress...
  85. Barclay J, Anderson S, Waters M, Curlewis J. SOCS3 as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells, and its regulation by PRL. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:1756-66 pubmed publisher
    ..we elucidated the signaling pathways and transcription factors involved in SOCS3 expression in response to prolactin, a key mammotropic hormone...
  86. Alpañés M, Sanchón R, Martínez García M, Martínez Bermejo E, Escobar Morreale H. Prevalence of hyperprolactinaemia in female premenopausal blood donors. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013;79:545-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also measured serum prolactin (PRL) (ruling out macroprolactinaemia when indicated), thyrotrophin, total testosterone, androstendione, sex ..
  87. Halkein J, Tabruyn S, Ricke Hoch M, Haghikia A, Nguyen N, Scherr M, et al. MicroRNA-146a is a therapeutic target and biomarker for peripartum cardiomyopathy. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Although PPCM is driven in part by the 16-kDa N-terminal prolactin fragment (16K PRL), the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood...
  88. Tikk K, Sookthai D, Fortner R, Johnson T, Rinaldi S, Romieu I, et al. Circulating prolactin and in situ breast cancer risk in the European EPIC cohort: a case-control study. Breast Cancer Res. 2015;17:49 pubmed publisher
    The relationship between circulating prolactin and invasive breast cancer has been investigated previously, but the association between prolactin levels and in situ breast cancer risk has received less attention...
  89. Clapp C, Adán N, Ledesma Colunga M, Solís Gutiérrez M, Triebel J, Martinez de la Escalera G. The role of the prolactin/vasoinhibin axis in rheumatoid arthritis: an integrative overview. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016;73:2929-48 pubmed publisher
    ..of reproductive states in RA have long linked this disease to sexually dimorphic, reproductive hormones such as prolactin (PRL). PRL has immune-enhancing properties and increases in the circulation of some patients with RA...
  90. Athanasoulia A, Sievers C, Ising M, Brockhaus A, Yassouridis A, Stalla G, et al. Polymorphisms of the drug transporter gene ABCB1 predict side effects of treatment with cabergoline in patients with PRL adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;167:327-35 pubmed publisher
    Treatment with dopamine agonists in patients with prolactin (PRL) adenomas and Parkinson's disease is associated with central side effects...
  91. Lian S, Meng L, Yang Y, Ma T, Xing X, Feng Q, et al. PRL-3 promotes telomere deprotection and chromosomal instability. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:6546-6571 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results uncover a novel role of PRL-3 in tumor development through its adverse impact on telomere homeostasis. ..
  92. Radke I, Götte M, Smollich M, Scharle N, Kiesel L, Wülfing P. Expression of PRL-3 regulates proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;296:1153-1160 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of PRL-3 function induces an antimetastatic gene expression profile in breast cancer cells. Due to its role in tumor growth and metastasis, PRL-3 emerges as a new therapeutic target in breast cancer therapy. ..