PROKR2

Summary

Gene Symbol: PROKR2
Description: prokineticin receptor 2
Alias: GPR73L1, GPR73b, GPRg2, HH3, KAL3, PKR2, dJ680N4.3, prokineticin receptor 2, G protein-coupled receptor 73-like 1, G-protein coupled receptor I5E, PK-R2
Species: human
Products:     PROKR2

Top Publications

  1. Monnier C, Dode C, Fabre L, Teixeira L, Labesse G, Pin J, et al. PROKR2 missense mutations associated with Kallmann syndrome impair receptor signalling activity. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..M323I, p.V331M) have been identified in the gene encoding the G protein-coupled receptor prokineticin receptor-2 (PROKR2), most often in the heterozygous state...
  2. Battersby S, Critchley H, Morgan K, Millar R, Jabbour H. Expression and regulation of the prokineticins (endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and Bv8) and their receptors in the human endometrium across the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:2463-9 pubmed
    ..vascular endothelial growth factors are also known as prokineticin (PK) 1 and PK2 and their receptors as PKR1 and PKR2. Expression of PK1 was elevated in the secretory compared with the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle (P &..
  3. Soga T, Matsumoto S, Oda T, Saito T, Hiyama H, Takasaki J, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of prokineticin receptors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1579:173-9 pubmed
    ..The tissue distribution of PK-Rs reported in this paper suggests that the prokineticins play multifunctional roles in vivo. ..
  4. Cole L, Sidis Y, Zhang C, Quinton R, Plummer L, Pignatelli D, et al. Mutations in prokineticin 2 and prokineticin receptor 2 genes in human gonadotrophin-releasing hormone deficiency: molecular genetics and clinical spectrum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3551-9 pubmed publisher
    Mice deficient in prokineticin 2(PROK2) and prokineticin receptor2 (PROKR2) exhibit variable olfactory bulb dysgenesis and GnRH neuronal migration defects reminiscent of human GnRH deficiency.
  5. Kishi T, Kitajima T, Tsunoka T, Okumura T, Ikeda M, Okochi T, et al. Possible association of prokineticin 2 receptor gene (PROKR2) with mood disorders in the Japanese population. Neuromolecular Med. 2009;11:114-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This evidence indicates that prokineticin 2 gene (PROK2) and prokineticin 2 receptor gene (PROKR2) are good candidate genes for the pathogenesis of mood disorders...
  6. Sarfati J, Guiochon Mantel A, Rondard P, Arnulf I, Garcia Piñero A, Wolczynski S, et al. A comparative phenotypic study of kallmann syndrome patients carrying monoallelic and biallelic mutations in the prokineticin 2 or prokineticin receptor 2 genes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:659-69 pubmed publisher
    Both biallelic and monoallelic mutations in PROK2 or PROKR2 have been found in Kallmann syndrome (KS). The objective of the study was to compare the phenotypes of KS patients harboring monoallelic and biallelic mutations in these genes...
  7. Guilini C, Urayama K, Turkeri G, Dedeoglu D, Kurose H, Messaddeq N, et al. Divergent roles of prokineticin receptors in the endothelial cells: angiogenesis and fenestration. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H844-52 pubmed publisher
    Prokineticins are secreted peptides that activate two G protein-coupled receptors: PKR1 and PKR2. Prokineticins induce angiogenesis and fenestration, but the cognate receptors involved in these functions are unknown...
  8. Reynaud R, Jayakody S, Monnier C, Saveanu A, Bouligand J, Guedj A, et al. PROKR2 variants in multiple hypopituitarism with pituitary stalk interruption. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E1068-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Pituitary stalk interruption represents a frequent feature of congenital hypopituitarism, but only rare cases have been assigned to a known genetic cause...
  9. Lin D, Bullock C, Ehlert F, Chen J, Tian H, Zhou Q. Identification and molecular characterization of two closely related G protein-coupled receptors activated by prokineticins/endocrine gland vascular endothelial growth factor. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19276-80 pubmed
    ..mRNA expression analysis reveals that prokineticin receptors are expressed in gastrointestinal organs, endocrine glands, and other tissues. ..

More Information

Publications86

  1. Abreu A, Trarbach E, de Castro M, Frade Costa E, Versiani B, Matias Baptista M, et al. Loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding prokineticin-2 or prokineticin receptor-2 cause autosomal recessive Kallmann syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4113-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Physiological activation of the prokineticin pathway has a critical role in olfactory bulb morphogenesis and GnRH secretion in mice...
  2. Canto P, Munguia P, Soderlund D, Castro J, Mendez J. Genetic analysis in patients with Kallmann syndrome: coexistence of mutations in prokineticin receptor 2 and KAL1. J Androl. 2009;30:41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..we report the molecular findings regarding the analysis of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2), and prokineticin (PROK2) in patients with KS...
  3. Raivio T, Avbelj M, McCabe M, Romero C, Dwyer A, Tommiska J, et al. Genetic overlap in Kallmann syndrome, combined pituitary hormone deficiency, and septo-optic dysplasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E694-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Kallmann syndrome (KS), combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) all result from development defects of the anterior midline in the human forebrain...
  4. Dunand C, Hoffmann P, Sapin V, Blanchon L, Salomon A, Sergent F, et al. Endocrine gland-derived endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is a potential novel regulator of human parturition. Biol Reprod. 2014;91:73 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the FM, the chorion was the main source of EG-VEGF. EG-VEGF receptors, PROKR1 and PROKR2, were differentially expressed within the FM with increased expression toward term and an abrupt decrease with the ..
  5. Zhao Y, Wu J, Wang X, Jia H, Chen D, Li J. Prokineticins and their G protein-coupled receptors in health and disease. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2019;161:149-179 pubmed publisher
    ..bind to two highly related G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), prokineticin receptor 1 (PROKR1) and prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2). Prokineticins and their receptors are widely expressed...
  6. Correa F, Trarbach E, Tusset C, Latronico A, Montenegro L, Carvalho L, et al. FGFR1 and PROKR2 rare variants found in patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiencies. Endocr Connect. 2015;4:100-7 pubmed publisher
    The genetic aetiology of congenital hypopituitarism (CH) is not entirely elucidated. FGFR1 and PROKR2 loss-of-function mutations are classically involved in hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH), however, due to the clinical and genetic ..
  7. Lattanzi R, Maftei D, Marconi V, Florenzano F, Franchi S, Borsani E, et al. Prokineticin 2 upregulation in the peripheral nervous system has a major role in triggering and maintaining neuropathic pain in the chronic constriction injury model. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:301292 pubmed publisher
    The new chemokine Prokineticin 2 (PROK2) and its receptors (PKR1 and PKR2) have a role in inflammatory pain and immunomodulation...
  8. Freitas Ã, Gribble S, Simioni M, Vieira T, Silva Grecco R, Balarin M, et al. Maternally inherited partial monosomy 9p (pter → p24.1) and partial trisomy 20p (pter → p12.1) characterized by microarray comparative genomic hybridization. Am J Med Genet A. 2011;155A:2754-61 pubmed publisher
    ..the phenotype of our patient with those already reported in the literature, and discuss the role of DMRT, DOCK8, FOXD4, VLDLR, RSPO4, AVP, RASSF2, PROKR2, BMP2, MKKS, and JAG1, all genes mapping to the deleted and duplicated regions.
  9. Renukanthan A, Quinton R, Turner B, MacCallum P, Seal L, Davies A, et al. Kallmann syndrome patient with gender dysphoria, multiple sclerosis, and thrombophilia. Endocrine. 2015;50:496-503 pubmed publisher
    ..tests were negative for mutations in CHD7, FGF8, FGFR1, GNRH1, GNRHR, HS6ST1, KAL1, KISS1R, KISS1, NELF, PROK2, PROKR2, TAC3, and TACR3. The patient initially declined testosterone therapy with a view to undergo gender reassignment...
  10. Guida F, Lattanzi R, Boccella S, Maftei D, Romano R, Marconi V, et al. PC1, a non-peptide PKR1-preferring antagonist, reduces pain behavior and spinal neuronal sensitization in neuropathic mice. Pharmacol Res. 2015;91:36-46 pubmed publisher
    ..PKs bind two G protein coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2, and participate in the regulation of several biological processes, including pain sensation...
  11. Huang X, Jia L, Qian Z, Jia Y, Chen X, Xu X, et al. Diversity in human placental microvascular endothelial cells and macrovascular endothelial cells. Cytokine. 2018;111:287-294 pubmed publisher
    ..HPMECs and HUVECs had different expressions of eNOS, PROKR1 and PROKR2, and these characteristics substantiate the endothelial nature of cultured cells...
  12. Lattanzi R, Maftei D, Negri L, Fusco I, Miele R. PK2β ligand, a splice variant of prokineticin 2, is able to modulate and drive signaling through PKR1 receptor. Neuropeptides. 2018;71:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Using different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we examined the specificity of PKR1 and PKR2 G-protein coupling following PK2β binding...
  13. Zinni M, Zuena A, Marconi V, Petrella C, Fusco I, Giuli C, et al. Maternal exposure to low levels of corticosterone during lactation protects adult rat progeny against TNBS-induced colitis: A study on GR-mediated anti-inflammatory effect and prokineticin system. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0173484 pubmed publisher
    ..pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, (v) the prokineticins PK2 and PK2L and (vi) their receptors PKR1 and PKR2. We found that adult CORT-nursed rats, in comparison to controls, showed increased expression of colonic GR and ..
  14. Zhong R, Li Y, Fang Z, Fang K, Wang L. PKR2 and β-catenin genes regulates pancreatic cancer chemosensitivity. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:48-54 pubmed
    ..And we analyzed the expression of PKR2 and β-catenin in different pathological stages of pancreatic cancer using Immunohistology and Western blotting...
  15. Méndez J, Zenteno J, Coronel A, Soriano Ursúa M, Valencia Villalvazo E, Söderlund D, et al. Triallelic digenic mutation in the prokineticin 2 and GNRH receptor genes in two brothers with normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Endocr Res. 2015;40:166-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Two siblings with nCHH, in whom mutations in GNRHR, PROKR2 and FGFR1 had been investigated previously, as well as their family were studied...
  16. Zhou C, Niu Y, Xu H, Li Z, Wang T, Yang W, et al. Mutation profiles and clinical characteristics of Chinese males with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Fertil Steril. 2018;110:486-495.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..In the 148 probands, PROKR2 (22/148, 14.86%), CHD7, FGFR1, and KAL1 had high mutation rates, and 8...
  17. Gonçalves C, Bastos M, Pignatelli D, Borges T, Aragüés J, Fonseca F, et al. Novel FGFR1 mutations in Kallmann syndrome and normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: evidence for the involvement of an alternatively spliced isoform. Fertil Steril. 2015;104:1261-7.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Oligogenic inheritance (FGFR1/CHD7/PROKR2) was found in one patient...
  18. Gu W, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Yang G, Hong T, Zhu D, et al. Mutation analyses in pedigrees and sporadic cases of ethnic Han Chinese Kallmann syndrome patients. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2015;240:1480-9 pubmed publisher
    ..C13ter (pedigree 2; a novel mutation); heterozygous FGFR1 p.R250W (pedigree 3); and homozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H (pedigrees 4 and 5). No genetic change of the assayed genes was detected in pedigrees 6 and 7...
  19. Ito H, Noda K, Yoshida K, Otani K, Yoshiga M, Oto Y, et al. Prokineticin 2 antagonist, PKRA7 suppresses arthritis in mice with collagen-induced arthritis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17:387 pubmed publisher
    ..PK2, prokineticin receptor (PKR) 1, and PKR2 mRNA transcripts in the joints of CIA mice were measured by real-time PCR on Days 21, 28, and 35 (n?=?15/day)...
  20. Gonçalves C, Aragüés J, Bastos M, Barros L, Vicente N, Carvalho D, et al. GNRHR biallelic and digenic mutations in patients with normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Endocr Connect. 2017;6:360-366 pubmed publisher
    ..One patient had a heterozygous GNRHR mutation associated with a heterozygous PROKR2 mutation, thus suggesting a possible role of synergistic heterozygosity in the pathogenesis of the disorder...
  21. Mohsen Z, Sim H, García Galiano D, Han X, Bellefontaine N, Saunders T, et al. Sexually dimorphic distribution of Prokr2 neurons revealed by the Prokr2-Cre mouse model. Brain Struct Funct. 2017;222:4111-4129 pubmed publisher
    b>Prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) is predominantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system...
  22. Severini C, Lattanzi R, Maftei D, Marconi V, Ciotti M, Petrocchi Passeri P, et al. Bv8/prokineticin 2 is involved in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15301 pubmed publisher
    ..cultures (CNs) and cortex and hippocampus from Aβ treated rats, we found that PROK2 and its receptors PKR1 and PKR2 mRNA are up-regulated by Aβ, suggesting their potential involvement in AD...
  23. Qu Z, Zhang H, Huang M, Shi G, Liu Z, Xie P, et al. Loss of ZBTB20 impairs circadian output and leads to unimodal behavioral rhythms. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Zbtb20-deficient mice exhibited a pronounced decrease in the expression of Prokr2 and resembled phenotypes of Prok2 and Prokr2-knockout mice...
  24. Song J, Li J, Liu H, Liu W, Feng Y, Zhou X, et al. Snapin interacts with G-protein coupled receptor PKR2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;469:501-6 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in Prokineticin receptor 2 (PKR2), a G-protein-coupled receptor, have been identified in patients with Kallmann syndrome and/or idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, characterized by delayed puberty and infertility...
  25. Nagy R, Boutin T, Marten J, Huffman J, Kerr S, Campbell A, et al. Exploration of haplotype research consortium imputation for genome-wide association studies in 20,032 Generation Scotland participants. Genome Med. 2017;9:23 pubmed publisher
    ..and WDR4 and four new associations with heart rate at SNPs within CSMD1 and ASPH, upstream of HTR1F and between PROKR2 and GPCPD1. All were driven by rare variants (minor allele frequencies in the range of 0.08-1%)...
  26. Mao J, Chen R, Wu X, Liu Z, Zheng J, Wang X, et al. [Association of the extra-gonadal manifestations with different pathogenic gene mutations in male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2015;95:3424-7 pubmed
    ..Gene mutations were detected in 83 (32.0%) patients, which included FGFR1 (n=20), PROKR2 (n=19), CHD7 (n=16), KAL1 (n=14) and other genes (n=14), such as PROK2, FGF8, GNRHR, KISS1R, NELF and WDR11...
  27. Burton K, Li X, Li B, Cheng M, Urbanski H, Zhou Q. Expression of prokineticin 2 and its receptor in the macaque monkey brain. Chronobiol Int. 2016;33:191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, the PK2 and its receptor, PKR2, was cloned from a species of diurnal macaque monkey...
  28. Murcia Belmonte V, Astillero López V, Esteban P. Anosmin 1 Interacts with the Prokineticin Receptor 2 In Vitro Indicating a Molecular Link Between Both Proteins in the Pathogenesis of Kallmann Syndrome. Protein Pept Lett. 2016;23:650-5 pubmed
    Sexual maturation and olfactory bulb defects found in prokineticin 2 (Pk2) and prokineticin receptor 2 (Pkr2) mutant mice resembling the phenotypic characteristics of Kallmann syndrome (KS), gave rise to the question of whether these ..
  29. Landucci E, Lattanzi R, Gerace E, Scartabelli T, Balboni G, Negri L, et al. Prokineticins are neuroprotective in models of cerebral ischemia and ischemic tolerance in vitro. Neuropharmacology. 2016;108:39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of OGD tolerance was associated with an increase in the expression of PK2, PKR1 and PKR2 mRNA and proteins and was prevented by addition of the antagonist PC7 into the medium during preconditioning...
  30. Leka Emiri S, Chrousos G, Kanaka Gantenbein C. The mystery of puberty initiation: genetics and epigenetics of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). J Endocrinol Invest. 2017;40:789-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Kallmann syndrome and in precocious puberty have been identified (GNRH1, GNRHR, KISS1, GPR54, FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2, PROKR2, TAC3, TACR3, KAL1, PROK2, PROKR2, CHD7, LEP, LEPR, PC1, DAX1, SF-1, HESX-1, LHX3, PROP-1)...
  31. Di Iorgi N, Morana G, Allegri A, Napoli F, Gastaldi R, Calcagno A, et al. Classical and non-classical causes of GH deficiency in the paediatric age. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;30:705-736 pubmed publisher
    ..factors - such as HESX1, SOX2, SOX3, LHX3, LHX4, PROP1, POU1F1, PITX, GLI3, GLI2, OTX2, ARNT2, IGSF1, FGF8, FGFR1, PROKR2, PROK2, CHD7, WDR11, NFKB2, PAX6, TCF7L1, IFT72, GPR161 and CDON - have been associated with pituitary dysfunction ..
  32. Garnier V, Traboulsi W, Salomon A, Brouillet S, Fournier T, Winkler C, et al. PPARγ controls pregnancy outcome through activation of EG-VEGF: new insights into the mechanism of placental development. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015;309:E357-69 pubmed publisher
    ..EG-VEGF exerts its functions via prokineticin receptor 1 (PROKR1) and 2 (PROKR2). This study sought to investigate whether EG-VEGF mediates part of PPARγ effects on placental development...
  33. Xu H, Niu Y, Wang T, Liu S, Xu H, Wang S, et al. Novel FGFR1 and KISS1R Mutations in Chinese Kallmann Syndrome Males with Cleft Lip/Palate. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:649698 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic screening for 15 known causal IHH genes (KAL1, FGFR1, NELF, FGF8, CHD7, WDR11, SEMA3A, KISS1R, KISS1, PROKR2, PROK2, TAC3, TACR3, GNRH1, and GNRHR) in four KS with CLP patients and six IHH patients without CLP...
  34. Alfaidy N. Prokineticin1 and pregnancy. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2016;77:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..PROK1 acts via two G-protein coupled receptors: PROKR1 PROKR2. PROK1 is highly expressed in the placenta...
  35. Heck D, Wortmann S, Kraus L, Ronchi C, Sinnott R, Fassnacht M, et al. Role of Endocrine Gland-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (EG-VEGF) and Its Receptors in Adrenocortical Tumors. Horm Cancer. 2015;6:225-36 pubmed
    ..properties mediated via the two G protein-coupled receptors prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) and prokineticin receptor 2 (PKR2)...
  36. Alkelai A, Olender T, Dode C, Shushan S, Tatarskyy P, Furman Haran E, et al. Next-generation sequencing of patients with congenital anosmia. Eur J Hum Genet. 2017;25:1377-1387 pubmed publisher
    ..This yielded an additional 6 variants in 5 Kallmann syndrome genes (PROKR2, SEMA3A, CHD7, PROK2, ANOS1), two of them already reported to cause Kallmann syndrome...
  37. Ayers K, Bouty A, Robevska G, Van Den Bergen J, Juniarto A, Listyasari N, et al. Variants in congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism genes identified in an Indonesian cohort of 46,XY under-virilised boys. Hum Genomics. 2017;11:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, many of these patients had hypospadias. We postulate that variants in CHH genes, in particular PROKR2, PROK2, WDR11 and FGFR1 with CHD7, may contribute to under-virilisation phenotypes including hypospadias in ..
  38. Jethwa P, I ANSON H, Warner A, Prosser H, Hastings M, Maywood E, et al. Loss of prokineticin receptor 2 signaling predisposes mice to torpor. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R1968-79 pubmed publisher
    The genes encoding prokineticin 2 polypeptide (Prok2) and its cognate receptor (Prokr2/Gpcr73l1) are widely expressed in both the suprachiasmatic nucleus and its hypothalamic targets, and this signaling pathway has been implicated in the ..
  39. Dode C, Teixeira L, Levilliers J, Fouveaut C, Bouchard P, Kottler M, et al. Kallmann syndrome: mutations in the genes encoding prokineticin-2 and prokineticin receptor-2. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e175 pubmed
    ..ten and four different point mutations in the genes encoding the G protein-coupled prokineticin receptor-2 (PROKR2) and one of its ligands, prokineticin-2 (PROK2), respectively...
  40. Han B, Li L, Wang C, Guo Q, Lv Z, Mu Y, et al. Correlation between Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome and Prokineticin Receptor 2 and Prokineticin 2 Mutations. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2016;38:37-41 pubmed publisher
    To analyze the correlation between pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) and prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) and prokineticin 2 (RROK2) mutations...
  41. Li J, Wang C, Zhang Z, Wen Y, An L, Liang Q, et al. Transcription Factors Sp8 and Sp9 Coordinately Regulate Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Development. Cereb Cortex. 2017;:1-17 pubmed publisher
    ..mice, but not in Sp8 or Sp9 single mutant mice, newly born neuroblasts in the V-SVZ-RMS-OB system fail to express Prokr2 and Tshz1 expression, genes with known roles in promoting OB interneuron differentiation and migration, and that ..
  42. Sbai O, Monnier C, Dode C, Pin J, Hardelin J, Rondard P. Biased signaling through G-protein-coupled PROKR2 receptors harboring missense mutations. FASEB J. 2014;28:3734-44 pubmed publisher
    Various missense mutations in the gene coding for prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2), a G-protein-coupled receptor, have been identified in patients with Kallmann syndrome...
  43. Eddie S, Childs A, Kinnell H, Brown P, Jabbour H, Anderson R. Prokineticin Ligands and Receptors Are Expressed in the Human Fetal Ovary and Regulate Germ Cell Expression of COX2. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:E1197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..PROK2 significantly increased across the gestations examined. PROKR2 expression remained unchanged...
  44. Sarfati J, Dode C, Young J. Kallmann syndrome caused by mutations in the PROK2 and PROKR2 genes: pathophysiology and genotype-phenotype correlations. Front Horm Res. 2010;39:121-32 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the prokineticin 2 peptide (PROK2) and its seven-transmembrane domain type 2 receptor PROKR2 are newly identified molecular culprits in autosomal Kallmann syndrome (KS)...
  45. Abreu A, Noel S, Xu S, Carroll R, Latronico A, Kaiser U. Evidence of the importance of the first intracellular loop of prokineticin receptor 2 in receptor function. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1417-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in PROKR2 have been described in patients with varying degrees of GnRH deficiency and are located in diverse functional ..
  46. Avbelj Stefanija M, Jeanpierre M, Sykiotis G, Young J, Quinton R, Abreu A, et al. An ancient founder mutation in PROKR2 impairs human reproduction. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:4314-24 pubmed publisher
    ..with the causal mutations being both rare and private, one causal mutation in the prokineticin receptor, PROKR2 L173R, appears unusually prevalent among GnRH-deficient patients of diverse geographic and ethnic origins...
  47. Tommiska J, Toppari J, Vaaralahti K, Känsäkoski J, Laitinen E, Noisa P, et al. PROKR2 mutations in autosomal recessive Kallmann syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2013;99:815-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the inheritance pattern of two missense PROKR2 changes within a single family. This is a descriptive study. Tertiary referral center...
  48. Libri D, Kleinau G, Vezzoli V, Busnelli M, Guizzardi F, Sinisi A, et al. Germline prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) variants associated with central hypogonadism cause differental modulation of distinct intracellular pathways. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:E458-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effects of seven missense alterations on two different prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2)-dependent pathways: inositol phosphate-Ca(2+) (Gq coupling) and cAMP (Gs coupling)...
  49. Moya Plana A, Villanueva C, Laccourreye O, Bonfils P, de Roux N. PROKR2 and PROK2 mutations cause isolated congenital anosmia without gonadotropic deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;168:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..bulb agenesis, a detailed phenotype analysis was conducted and the coding sequences of KAL1, FGFR1, FGF8, PROKR2, and PROK2 were sequenced. Three PROKR2 mutations previously described in KS and one new PROK2 mutation were found...
  50. Marsango S, Bonaccorsi di Patti M, Barra D, Miele R. Evidence that prokineticin receptor 2 exists as a dimer in vivo. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:2919-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Prokineticins bind two closed related G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), PKR1 and PKR2. In general, these receptors act as molecular switches to relay activation to heterotrimeric G-proteins and a ..
  51. Yin W, Liu H, Peng Z, Chen D, Li J, Li J. Mechanisms that underlie the internalization and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activation by PKR2 receptor. Cell Signal. 2014;26:1118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..in many physiological processes by binding to two closely related G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), PKR1 and PKR2. We recently demonstrated that PKR2 undergoes rapid ligand-induced endocytosis, and PKR2 recycles back to the ..
  52. Traboulsi W, Sergent F, Boufettal H, Brouillet S, Slim R, Hoffmann P, et al. Antagonism of EG-VEGF Receptors as Targeted Therapy for Choriocarcinoma Progression In Vitro and In Vivo. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23:7130-7140 pubmed publisher
    ..EG-VEGF acts via two receptors, PROKR1 and PROKR2. Here, we demonstrate that EG-VEGF receptors can be targeted for CC therapy...
  53. Sposini S, Caltabiano G, Hanyaloglu A, Miele R. Identification of transmembrane domains that regulate spatial arrangements and activity of prokineticin receptor 2 dimers. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;399:362-72 pubmed publisher
    The chemokine prokineticin 2 (PK2) activates its cognate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) PKR2 to elicit various downstream signaling pathways involved in diverse biological processes...
  54. Su M, Lin S, Chen Y, Kuo P. Gene-gene interactions and risk of recurrent miscarriages in carriers of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and prokineticin receptor polymorphisms. Fertil Steril. 2014;102:1071-1077.e3 pubmed publisher
    To study endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF), prokineticin receptor (PROKR) 1, and PROKR2 variants in the coding regions of idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients and further evaluate gene-gene ..
  55. Brouillet S, Hoffmann P, Chauvet S, Salomon A, Chamboredon S, Sergent F, et al. Revisiting the role of hCG: new regulation of the angiogenic factor EG-VEGF and its receptors. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:1537-50 pubmed publisher
    ..biological activity is mediated via two G protein-coupled receptors, prokineticin receptor 1 (PROKR1) and prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2)...
  56. Zhou X, Chen D, Xie Z, Peng Z, Xia K, Liu H, et al. Functional analysis of the distal region of the third intracellular loop of PROKR2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;439:12-7 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the G-protein-coupled receptor PROKR2 have been identified in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and Kallmann syndrome (KS) manifesting with delayed puberty and infertility...
  57. Seidmann L, Suhan T, Unger R, Gerein V, Kirkpatrick C. Imbalance of expression of bFGF and PK1 is associated with defective maturation and antenatal placental insufficiency. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013;170:352-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of PK1 and PKR2 was elevated in placental tissue exhibiting accelerated maturation and a predominant differentiation of terminal ..
  58. Traboulsi W, Brouillet S, Sergent F, Boufettal H, Samouh N, Aboussaouira T, et al. Prokineticins in central and peripheral control of human reproduction. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2015;24:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..PROKs activate two G-protein linked receptors (prokineticin receptor 1 and 2, PROKR1 and PROKR2). Both PROK1 and PROK2 have been found to regulate a stunning array of biological functions...
  59. Benlahfid M, Traboulsi W, Sergent F, Benharouga M, Elhattabi K, Erguibi D, et al. Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) and its receptor PROKR2 are associated to human colorectal cancer progression and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cancer Biomark. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..which biological activity is mediated via two G protein-coupled receptors, prokineticin receptor1 (PROKR1) and PROKR2. Recent studies suggested that EG-VEGF expression is deregulated in multiple cancers including colorectal cancer (..
  60. Cox K, Oliveira L, Plummer L, Corbin B, GARDELLA T, Balasubramanian R, et al. Modeling Mutant/Wild-type Interactions to Ascertain Pathogenicity of PROKR2 Missense Variants in Patients with Isolated GnRH Deficiency. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..This problem is well-illustrated by PROKR2 variants associated with Isolated GnRH Deficiency (IGD)...
  61. Levit A, Yarnitzky T, Wiener A, Meidan R, Niv M. Modeling of human prokineticin receptors: interactions with novel small-molecule binders and potential off-target drugs. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27990 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, analysis of the intracellular regions highlights variable regions that may provide subtype specificity. ..
  62. Ruiz Ferrer M, Torroglosa A, Núñez Torres R, De Agustin J, Antinolo G, Borrego S. Expression of PROKR1 and PROKR2 in human enteric neural precursor cells and identification of sequence variants suggest a role in HSCR. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23475 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunocytochemical analysis of neurosphere-forming cells demonstrated that both PROKR1 and PROKR2 were present in human enteric neural crest cells...
  63. Peng Z, Tang Y, Luo H, Jiang F, Yang J, Sun L, et al. Disease-causing mutation in PKR2 receptor reveals a critical role of positive charges in the second intracellular loop for G-protein coupling and receptor trafficking. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16615-22 pubmed publisher
    ..involved in many physiological processes by binding to two closely related G-protein-coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2. Recently, mutations in prokineticin 2 (PK2) and PKR2 are found to be associated with Kallmann syndrome and/or ..
  64. Chauvet S, Traboulsi W, Thevenon L, Kouadri A, Feige J, Camara B, et al. EG-VEGF, BV8, and their receptor expression in human bronchi and their modification in cystic fibrosis: Impact of CFTR mutation (delF508). Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;309:L314-22 pubmed publisher
    ..At the mRNA level, EG-VEGF, BV8, and PROKR2 gene expression was, respectively, approximately five, four, and two times higher in CF lungs compared with the ..
  65. Su M, Lin S, Chen Y, Wu L, Kuo P. Prokineticin receptor variants (PKR1-I379V and PKR2-V331M) are protective genotypes in human early pregnancy. Reproduction. 2013;146:63-73 pubmed publisher
    Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) and its receptor genes (PROKR1 (PKR1) and PROKR2 (PKR2)) play an important role in human early pregnancy...
  66. McCabe M, Gaston Massuet C, Gregory L, Alatzoglou K, Tziaferi V, Sbai O, et al. Variations in PROKR2, but not PROK2, are associated with hypopituitarism and septo-optic dysplasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E547-57 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 have been implicated in Kallmann syndrome (KS), characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia...
  67. Kishi T, Kitajima T, Tsunoka T, Okumura T, Okochi T, Kawashima K, et al. PROKR2 is associated with methamphetamine dependence in the Japanese population. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:1033-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we reported that the prokineticin 2 receptor gene (PROKR2) was associated with mood disorders including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder in the Japanese ..
  68. Huang F, Zhu Q, Zhu A, Wu X, Xie L, Wu X, et al. Mutants in the imprinted PICKLE RELATED 2 gene suppress seed abortion of fertilization independent seed class mutants and paternal excess interploidy crosses in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2017;90:383-395 pubmed publisher
    ..The causes of the failure of cellularization are poorly understood. In this study we identified PICKLE RELATED 2 (PKR2) mutations which suppress seed abortion in fis1/mea by restoring endosperm cellularization...
  69. Pasquali D, Rossi V, Staibano S, De Rosa G, Chieffi P, Prezioso D, et al. The endocrine-gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF)/prokineticin 1 and 2 and receptor expression in human prostate: Up-regulation of EG-VEGF/prokineticin 1 with malignancy. Endocrinology. 2006;147:4245-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, the level of EG-VEGF/PK1 could be useful for prostate cancer outcome evaluation and as a target for prostate cancer treatment in the future. ..
  70. Parsons S, Wright N, Burkitt Wright E, Skae M, Murray P. A heterozygous microdeletion of 20p12.2-3 encompassing PROKR2 and BMP2 in a patient with congenital hypopituitarism and growth hormone deficiency. Am J Med Genet A. 2017;173:2261-2267 pubmed publisher
    ..8?Mb heterozygous deletion at 20p12.2-3. The deletion contained 17 protein coding genes including PROKR2 and BMP2, both of which are expressed during embryological development of the pituitary gland...
  71. McCormack S, Li D, Kim Y, Lee J, Kim S, Rapaport R, et al. Digenic Inheritance of PROKR2 and WDR11 Mutations in Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2501-2507 pubmed publisher
    ..missense mutations in two genes required for pituitary development, a known loss-of-function mutation in PROKR2 (c.253C>T;p.R85C) inherited from an unaffected mother, and a WDR11 (c.1306A>G;p...
  72. Cao Y, Zhang Z, Wang J, Miao M, Xu J, Shen Y, et al. Association between polymorphisms of prokineticin receptor (PKR1 rs4627609 and PKR2 rs6053283) and recurrent pregnancy loss. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2016;17:218-24 pubmed publisher
    ..During the last decade, studies indicated that the expression patterns of the prokineticin receptor (PKR1 and PKR2) are closely related to early pregnancy. However, there are few studies on the role of PKR1 and PKR2 in RPL...
  73. Sarfati J, Fouveaut C, Leroy C, Jeanpierre M, Hardelin J, Dode C. Greater prevalence of PROKR2 mutations in Kallmann syndrome patients from the Maghreb than in European patients. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;169:805-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of the non-synonymous mutations in KAL1, FGFR1, FGF8, PROKR2, and PROK2 was determined for each gene, and compared with those previously obtained from the analysis of 712 ..
  74. Chen S, Reichert S, Singh C, Oikonomou G, Rihel J, Prober D. Light-Dependent Regulation of Sleep and Wake States by Prokineticin 2 in Zebrafish. Neuron. 2017;95:153-168.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that light-dependent, Prok2-induced sedation requires prokineticin receptor 2 (prokr2) and is strongly suppressed in galn mutants...
  75. Shaw J, Wills G, Lee K, Horner P, McClure M, Abrahams V, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases fallopian tube PROKR2 via TLR2 and NF?B activation resulting in a microenvironment predisposed to ectopic pregnancy. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:253-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Fallopian tube (FT) from women with EP exhibit altered expression of prokineticin receptors 1 and 2 (PROKR1 and PROKR2); smoking increases FT PROKR1, resulting in a microenvironment predisposed to EP. We hypothesize that C...
  76. Su M, Lin S, Lee I, Chen Y, Hsu C, Pan H, et al. Polymorphisms of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor gene and its receptor genes are associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:2923-30 pubmed publisher
    ..vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) and its receptor genes [prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) and prokineticin receptor 2 (PKR2)] have been identified in the last decade and their expression is restricted to the steroidogenic ..