progesterone receptor


Gene Symbol: progesterone receptor
Description: progesterone receptor
Alias: NR3C3, progesterone receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 3
Species: human
Products:     progesterone receptor

Top Publications

  1. Gomes M, Castro R, Villanova F, da Silva I, Baracat E, de Lima G, et al. The progesterone receptor gene polymorphism, PROGINS, may be a factor related to the development of uterine fibroids. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:1116-21 pubmed
    To assess the possible association between the polymorphic allele of the progesterone receptor gene, named PROGINS, and uterine leiomyomas. Case-control study. Department of Gynecology. Teaching hospital...
  2. D Amora P, Maciel T, Tambellini R, Mori M, Pesquero J, Sato H, et al. Disrupted cell cycle control in cultured endometrial cells from patients with endometriosis harboring the progesterone receptor polymorphism PROGINS. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the crucial role that the progesterone receptor polymorphism PROGINS plays in predisposing women to the development of endometriosis, we hypothesized that ..
  3. Vicent G, Zaurin R, Nacht A, Font Mateu J, Le Dily F, Beato M. Nuclear factor 1 synergizes with progesterone receptor on the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter wrapped around a histone H3/H4 tetramer by facilitating access to the central hormone-responsive elements. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2622-31 pubmed publisher
    ..mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter progesterone induction is mediated by the reciprocal synergism between progesterone receptor (PR) and the ubiquitous transcription factor nuclear factor 1 (NF1)...
  4. De Amicis F, Zupo S, Panno M, Malivindi R, Giordano F, Barone I, et al. Progesterone receptor B recruits a repressor complex to a half-PRE site of the estrogen receptor alpha gene promoter. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:454-65 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we demonstrate that elevated levels of the progesterone receptor (PR)-B isoform in breast cancer cells induces down-regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha mRNA and protein content, causing concomitant repression ..
  5. O Mara T, Fahey P, Ferguson K, Marquart L, Lambrechts D, Despierre E, et al. Progesterone receptor gene variants and risk of endometrial cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:331-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The physiological function of progesterone is dependent upon the presence of its receptor [progesterone receptor (PGR)] and several studies have reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PGR gene to be ..
  6. Khan J, Amazit L, Bellance C, Guiochon Mantel A, Lombes M, Loosfelt H. p38 and p42/44 MAPKs differentially regulate progesterone receptor A and B isoform stabilization. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1710-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms (PRA and PRB) are implicated in the progression of breast cancers frequently associated with imbalanced PRA/PRB expression ratio...
  7. Yu Y, Lee J, Xie N, Li E, Hurtado Coll A, Fazli L, et al. Prostate stromal cells express the progesterone receptor to control cancer cell mobility. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92714 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous work showed that the progesterone receptor (PR) was expressed specifically in prostate stromal fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells...
  8. Kotsopoulos J, Tworoger S, De Vivo I, DeVivo I, Hankinson S, Hunter D, et al. +331G/A variant in the progesterone receptor gene, postmenopausal hormone use and risk of breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:1685-91 pubmed publisher
    A functional promoter polymorphism in the progesterone receptor (PR) gene previously has been associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer...
  9. Fernandez L, Milne R, Barroso E, Cuadros M, Arias J, Ruibal A, et al. Estrogen and progesterone receptor gene polymorphisms and sporadic breast cancer risk: a Spanish case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:467-71 pubmed
    ..Our results obtained in a European population confirm the protective role of the S10S variant in ESR1, previously reported in an Asian and a European-American population. ..

More Information


  1. Vicent G, Zaurin R, Nacht A, Li A, Font Mateu J, Le Dily F, et al. Two chromatin remodeling activities cooperate during activation of hormone responsive promoters. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000567 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, activation of hormone-responsive promoters requires cooperation of at least two chromatin remodeling activities, BAF and PCAF. ..
  2. Daniel A, Lange C. Protein kinases mediate ligand-independent derepression of sumoylated progesterone receptors in breast cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we explored mechanisms of ligand-independent progesterone receptor (PR) activity...
  3. Diergaarde B, Potter J, Jupe E, Manjeshwar S, Shimasaki C, Pugh T, et al. Polymorphisms in genes involved in sex hormone metabolism, estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy use, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:1751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that specific polymorphisms in genes involved in sex hormone metabolism may modify the effect of E+P use on breast cancer risk. ..
  4. Scarpin K, Graham J, Mote P, Clarke C. Progesterone action in human tissues: regulation by progesterone receptor (PR) isoform expression, nuclear positioning and coregulator expression. Nucl Recept Signal. 2009;7:e009 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we examine the role of nuclear localization of PR, coregulator association and tissue-specific expression in modulating progesterone action in the human. ..
  5. Lee E, Hsu C, Haiman C, Razavi P, Horn Ross P, Van Den Berg D, et al. Genetic variation in the progesterone receptor gene and risk of endometrial cancer: a haplotype-based approach. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1392-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The PROGINS allele of the progesterone receptor (PGR) gene reduces the function of PGR and has been associated with increased risk of the endometrioid ..
  6. Faivre E, Daniel A, Hillard C, Lange C. Progesterone receptor rapid signaling mediates serine 345 phosphorylation and tethering to specificity protein 1 transcription factors. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:823-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate the therapeutic potential for PR-targeted breast cancer treatment by exploiting multiple nodes along the PR signaling pathway, including PR-B, EGFR, c-Src, MAPK, or Sp1. ..
  7. Pooley K, Healey C, Smith P, Pharoah P, Thompson D, Tee L, et al. Association of the progesterone receptor gene with breast cancer risk: a single-nucleotide polymorphism tagging approach. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:675-82 pubmed
    Association studies on susceptibility to breast cancer using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the progesterone receptor (PGR) gene have been previously published, but the results have been inconclusive...
  8. Govindan S, Ahmad S, Vedicherla B, Kodati V, Jahan P, Rao K, et al. Association of progesterone receptor gene polymorphism (PROGINS) with endometriosis, uterine fibroids and breast cancer. Cancer Biomark. 2007;3:73-8 pubmed has been carried out to identify the association of 306bp Alu insertion polymorphism in intron 7 of progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS)...
  9. Tung L, Abdel Hafiz H, Shen T, Harvell D, Nitao L, Richer J, et al. Progesterone receptors (PR)-B and -A regulate transcription by different mechanisms: AF-3 exerts regulatory control over coactivator binding to PR-B. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2656-70 pubmed
    ..In sum, AF3 in BUS plays a critical modulatory role in PR-B, and in doing so, defines a mechanism for PR-B function that is fundamentally distinct from that of PR-A. ..
  10. Knutson T, Daniel A, Fan D, Silverstein K, Covington K, Fuqua S, et al. Phosphorylated and sumoylation-deficient progesterone receptors drive proliferative gene signatures during breast cancer progression. Breast Cancer Res. 2012;14:R95 pubmed
    ..Patients whose ER+/PR+ tumors are driven by hyperactive (that is, derepressed) phospho-PRs may benefit from endocrine (antiestrogen) therapies that contain an antiprogestin. ..
  11. Ludwig A, Murawska M, Panek G, Timorek A, Kupryjanczyk J. Androgen, progesterone, and FSH receptor polymorphisms in ovarian cancer risk and outcome. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009;16:1005-16 pubmed publisher
    ..003) and death (P=0.03), while the FSHRSer680Ser polymorphism increased the risk of recurrence (P=0.037). Progesterone receptor polymorphisms analyzed did not show any associations...
  12. van Kaam K, Romano A, Schouten J, Dunselman G, Groothuis P. Progesterone receptor polymorphism +331G/A is associated with a decreased risk of deep infiltrating endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:129-35 pubmed
    Alterations in the progesterone receptor (PR) are considered a risk factor for the development of endometriosis...
  13. Lesniewicz T, Kanczuga Koda L, Baltaziak M, Jarzabek K, Rutkowski R, Koda M, et al. Comparative evaluation of estrogen and progesterone receptor expression with connexins 26 and 43 in endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2009;19:1253-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, expressions of Cxs and progesterone receptor (PR) were not compared in human tissues...
  14. Vicent G, Ballaré C, Nacht A, Clausell J, Subtil Rodríguez A, Quiles I, et al. Induction of progesterone target genes requires activation of Erk and Msk kinases and phosphorylation of histone H3. Mol Cell. 2006;24:367-81 pubmed
    ..Five minutes after hormone treatment, Erk activation leads to phosphorylation of the progesterone receptor (PR), activation of Msk1, and recruitment of a complex of the three proteins to a nucleosome on the MMTV ..
  15. Yu K, Chen A, Shao Z. No association between a progesterone receptor gene promoter polymorphism (+331G>A) and breast cancer risk in Caucasian women: evidence from a literature-based meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;122:853-8 pubmed publisher
    Sex steroid hormones and their receptors such as estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) have been widely studied for their roles in the etiology of breast cancer...
  16. Vicent G, Nacht A, Font Mateu J, Castellano G, Gaveglia L, Ballaré C, et al. Four enzymes cooperate to displace histone H1 during the first minute of hormonal gene activation. Genes Dev. 2011;25:845-62 pubmed publisher
    ..First, activated progesterone receptor (PR) recruits the chromatin remodeling complexes NURF and ASCOM (ASC-2 [activating signal cointegrator-2] ..
  17. Romano A, Delvoux B, Fischer D, Groothuis P. The PROGINS polymorphism of the human progesterone receptor diminishes the response to progesterone. J Mol Endocrinol. 2007;38:331-50 pubmed
    The human progesterone receptor (PR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor and two isoforms, (PRA and PRB), can be distinguished...
  18. Ramamoorthy S, Dhananjayan S, DeMayo F, Nawaz Z. Isoform-specific degradation of PR-B by E6-AP is critical for normal mammary gland development. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:2099-113 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism appears to regulate normal mammogenesis, and dysregulation of this process may be an important contributor to mammary cancer development and progression. ..
  19. Daniel A, Gaviglio A, Czaplicki L, Hillard C, Housa D, Lange C. The progesterone receptor hinge region regulates the kinetics of transcriptional responses through acetylation, phosphorylation, and nuclear retention. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:2126-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, the PR hinge region is multifunctional. Understanding the ability of this region to couple acetylation, phosphorylation, and nuclear entry may provide clues to mechanisms of altered hormone responsiveness. ..
  20. Clarke C, Graham J. Non-overlapping progesterone receptor cistromes contribute to cell-specific transcriptional outcomes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35859 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of the ovarian hormone progesterone are pleiotropic, and binding to DNA of the nuclear progesterone receptor (PR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, results in diverse outcomes in a range of target tissues...
  21. Daniel A, Faivre E, Lange C. Phosphorylation-dependent antagonism of sumoylation derepresses progesterone receptor action in breast cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2890-906 pubmed
    ..In the context of elevated protein kinase activities, such as during mammary gland development or breast cancer progression, phosphorylated PR-B may be undersumoylated, transcriptionally hyperactive, and unstable/undetectable. ..
  22. Amazit L, Roseau A, Khan J, Chauchereau A, Tyagi R, Loosfelt H, et al. Ligand-dependent degradation of SRC-1 is pivotal for progesterone receptor transcriptional activity. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:394-408 pubmed publisher
    The progesterone receptor (PR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, recruits the primary coactivator steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) gene promoters...
  23. Aruna M, Nagaraja T, Andal S, Tarakeswari S, Sirisha P, Reddy A, et al. Role of progesterone receptor polymorphisms in the recurrent spontaneous abortions: Indian case. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8712 pubmed publisher
    We attempt to ascertain if the 3 linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Progesterone Receptor (PR) gene (exon 1: G 1031 C; S344T, exon 4: G 1978 T; L660V and exon 5: C 2310 T; H770H) and the PROGINS insertion in the intron ..
  24. Gul A, Keser S, Barisik N, Kandemir N, Cakir C, Sensu S, et al. The relationship of cerb B 2 expression with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and prognostic parameters in endometrial carcinomas. Diagn Pathol. 2010;5:13 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer, to study its correlation to established prognostic parameters and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses of ER, PR and c-erbB-2 were performed in 72 EC cases...
  25. Chaudhary S, Panda A, Mishra D, Mishra S. Association of +331G/A PgR polymorphism with susceptibility to female reproductive cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53308 pubmed publisher
    The progesterone receptor (PgR), a sex steroid hormone receptor that binds progesterone is critical for normal breast development...
  26. Dong X, Yu C, Shynlova O, Challis J, Rennie P, Lye S. p54nrb is a transcriptional corepressor of the progesterone receptor that modulates transcription of the labor-associated gene, connexin 43 (Gja1). Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1147-60 pubmed publisher
    The progesterone receptor (PR) plays important roles in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy...
  27. Guoyang Luo -, Morgan T, Bahtiyar M, Snegovskikh V, Schatz F, Kuczynski E, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human progesterone receptor gene and spontaneous preterm birth. Reprod Sci. 2008;15:147-55 pubmed publisher
    Progesterone supplementation can prevent preterm birth in some high-risk women. Progesterone binds to progesterone receptor (PR) and modulates the expression of target genes...
  28. Karteris E, Zervou S, Pang Y, Dong J, Hillhouse E, Randeva H, et al. Progesterone signaling in human myometrium through two novel membrane G protein-coupled receptors: potential role in functional progesterone withdrawal at term. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1519-34 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate the presence of a novel signaling pathway mediated by mPRs that may result in a functional progestin withdrawal, shifting the balance from a quiescent state to one of contraction. ..
  29. De Carvalho C, Nogueira de Souza N, Costa A, Baracat E, Girao M, D Amora P, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450cl7alpha (CYP17) and progesterone receptor genes (PROGINS) in the assessment of endometriosis risk. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007;23:29-33 pubmed
    ..evaluate the eventual role of polymorphisms in the genes encoding cytochrome P450c17alpha (CYP17) and the progesterone receptor (PROGINS) as risk factors for endometriosis development...
  30. Mirza S, Sharma G, Prasad C, Parshad R, Srivastava A, Gupta S, et al. Promoter hypermethylation of TMS1, BRCA1, ERalpha and PRB in serum and tumor DNA of invasive ductal breast carcinoma patients. Life Sci. 2007;81:280-7 pubmed
    ..This study also underscores the potential utility of DNA methylation based screening of serum (a surrogate for tumor DNA methylation) as a tool for detection of breast cancer. ..
  31. Takano M, Lu Z, Goto T, Fusi L, Higham J, Francis J, et al. Transcriptional cross talk between the forkhead transcription factor forkhead box O1A and the progesterone receptor coordinates cell cycle regulation and differentiation in human endometrial stromal cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2334-49 pubmed
    ..Using a glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assay, we confirmed that FOXO1 interacts with progesterone receptor, irrespectively of the presence of ligand...
  32. Chen C, Opazo J, Erez O, Uddin M, Santolaya Forgas J, Goodman M, et al. The human progesterone receptor shows evidence of adaptive evolution associated with its ability to act as a transcription factor. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;47:637-49 pubmed publisher
    The gene encoding the progesterone receptor (PGR) acts as a transcription factor, and participates in the regulation of reproductive processes including menstruation, implantation, pregnancy maintenance, parturition, mammary development, ..
  33. Hardy D, Janowski B, Chen C, Mendelson C. Progesterone receptor inhibits aromatase and inflammatory response pathways in breast cancer cells via ligand-dependent and ligand-independent mechanisms. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1812-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the progesterone receptor (PR) is an estrogen-induced target gene, it has been suggested that its presence may serve as an indicator ..
  34. Cloke B, Huhtinen K, Fusi L, Kajihara T, Yliheikkilä M, Ho K, et al. The androgen and progesterone receptors regulate distinct gene networks and cellular functions in decidualizing endometrium. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4462-74 pubmed publisher
    ..By combining small interfering RNA technology with genome-wide expression profiling, we found that AR and progesterone receptor (PR) regulate the expression of distinct decidual gene networks...
  35. Yu Y, Liu L, Xie N, Xue H, Fazli L, Buttyan R, et al. Expression and function of the progesterone receptor in human prostate stroma provide novel insights to cell proliferation control. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:2887-96 pubmed publisher
    ..studied for their functions in controlling stromal cell proliferation and differentiation, the role of the progesterone receptor (PR) remains unclear...
  36. Coulam C, Jeyendran R, Roussev R. Association of progesterone receptor polymorphisms with recurrent implantation failure after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2008;25:119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The actions of progesterone are mediated by the progesterone receptor. Polymorphic variants of human progesterone receptor genes have been implicated in implantation failure...
  37. Boonyaratanakornkit V, Bi Y, Rudd M, Edwards D. The role and mechanism of progesterone receptor activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways in regulating gene transcription and cell cycle progression. Steroids. 2008;73:922-8 pubmed publisher
    Human progesterone receptor (PR) contains a polyproline motif in the amino-terminal domain that interacts with the SH3 domain of Src and mediates rapid activation of c-Src and downstream MAPK (Erk-1/-2) independent of the transcriptional ..
  38. Cheang M, Chia S, Voduc D, Gao D, Leung S, Snider J, et al. Ki67 index, HER2 status, and prognosis of patients with luminal B breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:736-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of ER, progesterone receptor, and HER2 proteins and the Ki67 index appear to distinguish luminal A from luminal B breast cancer ..
  39. Heneghan A, Connaghan Jones K, Miura M, Bain D. Coactivator assembly at the promoter: efficient recruitment of SRC2 is coupled to cooperative DNA binding by the progesterone receptor. Biochemistry. 2007;46:11023-32 pubmed
    ..We have previously resolved the microstate interaction energetics of progesterone receptor A-isoform (PR-A) assembly at multiple promoters; here we extend this work to the role of PR-A in mediating ..
  40. Han Y, Feng H, Sandlow J, Haines C. Comparing expression of progesterone and estrogen receptors in testicular tissue from men with obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia. J Androl. 2009;30:127-33 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to identify and compare the expression profiles of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) in the testes of men with obstructive azoospermia (OA), maturation arrest (MA), and ..
  41. Joshi G, Pradhan S, Mittal B. Role of the oestrogen receptor (ESR1 PvuII and ESR1 325 C->G) and progesterone receptor (PROGINS) polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to migraine in a North Indian population. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..patterns and the contribution of oestrogen receptor [ESR1 PvuII (rs2234693), ESR1 325 C?G (rs1801132)] and progesterone receptor [PROGINS (rs1042838)] polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to migraine by analysing 613 subjects ..
  42. Hagan C, Regan T, Dressing G, Lange C. ck2-dependent phosphorylation of progesterone receptors (PR) on Ser81 regulates PR-B isoform-specific target gene expression in breast cancer cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2439-52 pubmed publisher
  43. Khan J, Bellance C, Guiochon Mantel A, Lombes M, Loosfelt H. Differential regulation of breast cancer-associated genes by progesterone receptor isoforms PRA and PRB in a new bi-inducible breast cancer cell line. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45993 pubmed publisher
    b>Progesterone receptor isoforms (PRA and PRB) are expressed at equal levels in normal mammary cells...
  44. Beguelin W, Díaz Flaqué M, Proietti C, Cayrol F, Rivas M, Tkach M, et al. Progesterone receptor induces ErbB-2 nuclear translocation to promote breast cancer growth via a novel transcriptional effect: ErbB-2 function as a coactivator of Stat3. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:5456-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Progesterone receptor (PR) and ErbB-2 bidirectional cross talk participates in breast cancer development...
  45. Hilton H, Graham J, Kantimm S, Santucci N, Cloosterman D, Huschtscha L, et al. Progesterone and estrogen receptors segregate into different cell subpopulations in the normal human breast. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;361:191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..that progesterone regulates the stem cell compartment in the murine mammary gland, despite the absence of progesterone receptor (PR) in mammary stem cells, highlights the fact that PR distribution in progenitor cell subsets in the ..
  46. Liu S, Chia S, Mehl E, Leung S, Rajput A, Cheang M, et al. Progesterone receptor is a significant factor associated with clinical outcomes and effect of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;119:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The additional value of progesterone receptor (PR) has remained controversial...
  47. Hardy D, Janowski B, Corey D, Mendelson C. Progesterone receptor plays a major antiinflammatory role in human myometrial cells by antagonism of nuclear factor-kappaB activation of cyclooxygenase 2 expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2724-33 pubmed likely mediated by a concerted series of biochemical events that negatively impact the ability of the progesterone receptor (PR) to regulate target genes that maintain myometrial quiescence...
  48. Cancello G, Maisonneuve P, Rotmensz N, Viale G, Mastropasqua M, Pruneri G, et al. Progesterone receptor loss identifies Luminal B breast cancer subgroups at higher risk of relapse. Ann Oncol. 2013;24:661-8 pubmed publisher
    The immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), Ki-67 and HER2 is considered a surrogate means for identifying the molecular subtypes of breast cancer with different prognosis...
  49. Arnett Mansfield R, Graham J, Hanson A, Mote P, Gompel A, Scurr L, et al. Focal subnuclear distribution of progesterone receptor is ligand dependent and associated with transcriptional activity. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:14-29 pubmed
    The progesterone receptor (PR) is a critical mediator of progesterone action in the female reproductive system...
  50. Taylor D, Pearce C, Hovanessian Larsen L, Downey S, Spicer D, Bartow S, et al. Progesterone and estrogen receptors in pregnant and premenopausal non-pregnant normal human breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;118:161-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Short-term changes in PRA expression while the chemoprevention is being administered may be a more useful marker. ..
  51. Johnatty S, Spurdle A, Beesley J, Chen X, Hopper J, Duffy D, et al. Progesterone receptor polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer: results from two Australian breast cancer studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;109:91-9 pubmed
    Association studies aimed at identifying breast cancer susceptibility variants in the progesterone receptor (PGR) gene have been previously reported in the literature with conflicting results, ranging from a protective effect conferred ..
  52. Fu X, Giretti M, Baldacci C, Garibaldi S, Flamini M, Sanchez A, et al. Extra-nuclear signaling of progesterone receptor to breast cancer cell movement and invasion through the actin cytoskeleton. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2790 pubmed publisher
    ..In the presence of progesterone, progesterone receptor A (PRA) interacts with the G protein G alpha(13), while MPA drives PR to interact with tyrosine kinase c-..
  53. Reding K, Li C, Weiss N, Chen C, Carlson C, Duggan D, et al. Genetic variation in the progesterone receptor and metabolism pathways and hormone therapy in relation to breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170:1241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1, 2.2) but not in never users (P(heterogeneity) = 0.02). Interpretation of these subgroup associations must await the results of similar studies conducted in other populations. ..
  54. Samalecos A, Gellersen B. Systematic expression analysis and antibody screening do not support the existence of naturally occurring progesterone receptor (PR)-C, PR-M, or other truncated PR isoforms. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5872-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the 60-kDa protein called PR-C does not originate from AUG-595 and is not a naturally occurring PR isoform. ..