Gene Symbol: prodynorphin
Description: prodynorphin
Alias: ADCA, PENKB, SCA23, proenkephalin-B, beta-neoendorphin-dynorphin, leu-enkephalin, leumorphin, neoendorphin-dynorphin-enkephalin prepropeptide, preprodynorphin, preproenkephalin B, rimorphin
Species: human
Products:     prodynorphin

Top Publications

  1. Hurd Y. Subjects with major depression or bipolar disorder show reduction of prodynorphin mRNA expression in discrete nuclei of the amygdaloid complex. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7:75-81 pubmed
    The dynorphin system has been associated with the regulation of mood. The expression of the prodynorphin mRNA was currently studied in the amygdaloid complex, a brain region critical for emotional processing, in subjects (14-15 per group) ..
  2. Chen A, LaForge K, Ho A, McHugh P, Kellogg S, Bell K, et al. Potentially functional polymorphism in the promoter region of prodynorphin gene may be associated with protection against cocaine dependence or abuse. Am J Med Genet. 2002;114:429-35 pubmed
    ..Recently, a 68-base pair (bp) repeat polymorphism within the core promoter region of the human prodynorphin gene has been reported to occur in alleles containing one, two, three, or four copies...
  3. Williams T, LaForge K, Gordon D, Bart G, Kellogg S, Ott J, et al. Prodynorphin gene promoter repeat associated with cocaine/alcohol codependence. Addict Biol. 2007;12:496-502 pubmed
    ..Studies have shown that the 68-base pair repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the human prodynorphin gene contains a putative AP-1 binding site, and that three or four repeat copies result in greater ..
  4. Nikoshkov A, Drakenberg K, Wang X, Horvath M, Keller E, Hurd Y. Opioid neuropeptide genotypes in relation to heroin abuse: dopamine tone contributes to reversed mesolimbic proenkephalin expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:786-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined polymorphisms of proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN) genes in relation to heroin abuse and gene expression in the human striatum and the relevance of genetic ..
  5. Hussain Z, Fitting S, Watanabe H, Usynin I, Yakovleva T, Knapp P, et al. Lateralized response of dynorphin a peptide levels after traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29:1785-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These networks may differentially mediate effects of left and right brain injury on lateralized brain functions. ..
  6. Zimprich A, Kraus J, Wöltje M, Mayer P, Rauch E, Hollt V. An allelic variation in the human prodynorphin gene promoter alters stimulus-induced expression. J Neurochem. 2000;74:472-7 pubmed
    b>Prodynorphin, the precursor of the dynorphin opioid peptides, has been shown to play an important role in several aspects of human diseases and complex traits, e.g., drug abuse, epilepsy, and mood disorders...
  7. Stogmann E, Zimprich A, Baumgartner C, Aull Watschinger S, Hollt V, Zimprich F. A functional polymorphism in the prodynorphin gene promotor is associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. Ann Neurol. 2002;51:260-3 pubmed
    The prodynorphin gene (PDYN) encoding the anticonvulsant peptide dynorphin is a strong candidate for a seizure suppressor gene and thus a possible modulator of susceptibility to temporal lobe epilepsy...
  8. Ventriglia M, Bocchio Chiavetto L, Bonvicini C, Tura G, Bignotti S, Racagni G, et al. Allelic variation in the human prodynorphin gene promoter and schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology. 2002;46:17-21 pubmed
    ..In particular, the prodynorphin (PDYN), the precursor of the dynorphin opioid peptides, has been shown to play an important role in several ..
  9. Xuei X, Dick D, Flury Wetherill L, Tian H, Agrawal A, Bierut L, et al. Association of the kappa-opioid system with alcohol dependence. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11:1016-24 pubmed
    ..We genotyped SNPs throughout OPRK1, encoding the kappa-opioid receptor, and PDYN, which encodes its ligand prodynorphin, in a group of 1860 European American individuals from 219 multiplex alcohol dependent families...

More Information

Publications116 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bakalkin G, Watanabe H, Jezierska J, Depoorter C, Verschuuren Bemelmans C, Bazov I, et al. Prodynorphin mutations cause the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 23. Am J Hum Genet. 2010;87:593-603 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified missense mutations in prodynorphin (PDYN) that cause SCA23 in four Dutch families displaying progressive gait and limb ataxia...
  2. Wei S, Zhu Y, Lai J, Xue H, Chai Z, Li S. Association between heroin dependence and prodynorphin gene polymorphisms. Brain Res Bull. 2011;85:238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..examined potential association between heroin dependence and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of prodynorphin (PDYN) gene (rs35286281 in promoter region and rs1022563, rs2235749, rs910080 in 3'UTR)...
  3. Karpyak V, Winham S, Preuss U, Zill P, Cunningham J, Walker D, et al. Association of the PDYN gene with alcohol dependence and the propensity to drink in negative emotional states. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013;16:975-85 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (KOR) agonists induce dysphoric and pro-depressive effects and variations in the KOR (OPRK1) and prodynorphin (PDYN) genes have been shown to be associated with alcohol dependence...
  4. Masliukov P, Budnik A, Nozdrachev A. [Developmental changes of neurotransmitter properties in sympathetic neurons]. Adv Gerontol. 2017;30:347-355 pubmed ?????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????. ..
  5. Spetea M. Opioid receptors and their ligands in the musculoskeletal system and relevance for pain control. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19:7382-90 pubmed
    ..Demonstration of the occurrence of an endogenous opioid system in bone and joint tissues represents an essential step for defining novel pharmacological strategies to attain peripheral control of pain in musculoskeletal disorders. ..
  6. Pannell M, Labuz D, Celik M, Keye J, Batra A, Siegmund B, et al. Adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages reduces neuropathic pain via opioid peptides. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:262 pubmed
    ..Therefore, rather than focusing on macrophage-induced pain generation, promoting opioid-mediated M2 actions may be more relevant for pain control. ..
  7. Dobolyi A, Kékesi K, Juhasz G, Szekely A, Lovas G, Kovacs Z. Receptors of peptides as therapeutic targets in epilepsy research. Curr Med Chem. 2014;21:764-87 pubmed
  8. Celik M, Labuz D, Henning K, Busch Dienstfertig M, Gaveriaux Ruff C, Kieffer B, et al. Leukocyte opioid receptors mediate analgesia via Ca(2+)-regulated release of opioid peptides. Brain Behav Immun. 2016;57:227-242 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that opioid receptors in immune cells are important targets for the control of pathological pain. ..
  9. Walwyn W, Chen W, Kim H, Minasyan A, Ennes H, McRoberts J, et al. Sustained Suppression of Hyperalgesia during Latent Sensitization by μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors and α2A Adrenergic Receptors: Role of Constitutive Activity. J Neurosci. 2016;36:204-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that the activation of μ-opioid receptors is not due to the release of endogenous opioids, but rather to its ligand-independent constitutive activity. ..
  10. Bali A, Randhawa P, Jaggi A. Stress and opioids: role of opioids in modulating stress-related behavior and effect of stress on morphine conditioned place preference. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;51:138-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review describes these varied interactions between opioids and stress along with the possible mechanism. ..
  11. Oliveros A, Starski P, Lindberg D, Choi S, Heppelmann C, Dasari S, et al. Label-Free Neuroproteomics of the Hippocampal-Accumbal Circuit Reveals Deficits in Neurotransmitter and Neuropeptide Signaling in Mice Lacking Ethanol-Sensitive Adenosine Transporter. J Proteome Res. 2017;16:1445-1459 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our proteomic approach provides novel pathways indicating that ENT1-regulated signaling is essential for neurotransmitter release and neuropeptide processing, both of which underlie learning and reward-seeking behaviors. ..
  12. Morris J, Kondo M, Gibbins I. Selective innervation of different target tissues in guinea-pig cranial exocrine glands by sub-populations of parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1997;66:75-86 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the peptides enkephalin, NPY and dynorphin are likely to make variable contributions to autonomic neurotransmission in different arterial segments and in different cranial exocrine glands...
  13. Cajado Carvalho D, Kuniyoshi A, Kodama R, Oliveira A, Serrano S, Tambourgi D, et al. Neuropeptide Y family-degrading metallopeptidases in the Tityus serrulatus venom partially blocked by commercial antivenoms. Toxicol Sci. 2014;142:418-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These characterizations, unpublished until now, can contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the venom and envenomation processes by T. serrulatus. ..
  14. Schank J, Nelson B, Damadzic R, Tapocik J, Yao M, King C, et al. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism attenuates neuronal activity triggered by stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. Neuropharmacology. 2015;99:106-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results outline a potential pathway through which endogenous NK1R activation mediates stress-induced alcohol seeking. ..
  15. Brodsky M, Gibson A, Smirnov D, Nair S, Neumaier J. Striatal 5-HT6 Receptors Regulate Cocaine Reinforcement in a Pathway-Selective Manner. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016;41:2377-87 pubmed publisher
  16. van den Heuvel J, Furman K, Gumbs M, Eggels L, Opland D, Land B, et al. Neuropeptide Y activity in the nucleus accumbens modulates feeding behavior and neuronal activity. Biol Psychiatry. 2015;77:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..NPY reduces neuronal firing in the Acb resulting in increased palatable food intake. Together, our neuroanatomical, pharmacologic, and neuronal activity data support a role and mechanism for intra-Acb NPY-induced fat intake. ..
  17. Engel J, Nylander I, Jerlhag E. A ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist attenuates the rewarding properties of morphine and increases opioid peptide levels in reward areas in mice. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:2364-71 pubmed publisher
  18. Rogers S, Kempen T, Pickel V, Milner T. Enkephalin levels and the number of neuropeptide Y-containing interneurons in the hippocampus are decreased in female cannabinoid-receptor 1 knock-out mice. Neurosci Lett. 2016;620:97-103 pubmed publisher
  19. Van Waes V, Ehrlich S, Beverley J, Steiner H. Fluoxetine potentiation of methylphenidate-induced gene regulation in striatal output pathways: potential role for 5-HT1B receptor. Neuropharmacology. 2015;89:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that 5-HT1B receptors are known to facilitate addiction-related gene regulation and behavior, our results suggest that SSRIs may enhance the addiction liability of methylphenidate by increasing 5-HT1B receptor signaling. ..
  20. Barson J, Leibowitz S. Hypothalamic neuropeptide signaling in alcohol addiction. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016;65:321-9 pubmed publisher
  21. Lee H, Ko M. Distinct functions of opioid-related peptides and gastrin-releasing peptide in regulating itch and pain in the spinal cord of primates. Sci Rep. 2015;5:11676 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies will facilitate transforming discoveries of novel ligand-receptor systems into future therapies as antipruritics and/or analgesics in humans. ..
  22. Górska A, Kaminska K, Wawrzczak Bargieła A, Costa G, Morelli M, Przewłocki R, et al. Neurochemical and Neurotoxic Effects of MDMA (Ecstasy) and Caffeine After Chronic Combined Administration in Mice. Neurotox Res. 2018;33:532-548 pubmed publisher
    ..DAT and SERT densities were determined by immunohistochemistry, while prodynorphin (PDYN) and proenkephalin were determined by quantitative PCR reactions...
  23. Ortiz Villanueva E, Benavente F, Giménez E, Yilmaz F, Sanz Nebot V. Preparation and evaluation of open tubular C18-silica monolithic microcartridges for preconcentration of peptides by on-line solid phase extraction capillary electrophoresis. Anal Chim Acta. 2014;846:51-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Results obtained were promising because both neuropeptides could be detected at 0.05μgmL(-1), which was almost the same concentration level as for the standard solutions (0.01μgmL(-1)). ..
  24. Tascon M, Benavente F, Sanz Nebot V, Gagliardi L. A high performance system to study the influence of temperature in on-line solid-phase extraction capillary electrophoresis. Anal Chim Acta. 2015;863:78-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Results prove the potential of temperature control to further enhance sensitivity in SPE-CE when analytes are thermally stable. ..
  25. Hanson G, Jones L, Fidone S. Physiological chemoreceptor stimulation decreases enkephalin and substance P in the carotid body. Peptides. 1986;7:767-9 pubmed
  26. Dahl J, Weller A, Kampman K, Oslin D, Lohoff F, Ferraro T, et al. Confirmation of the association between a polymorphism in the promoter region of the prodynorphin gene and cocaine dependence. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005;139B:106-8 pubmed
    ..been reported that the variable nucleotide tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the 5' promoter region of the prodynorphin gene, which encodes the precursor for three endogenous opioid peptides, is associated with the cocaine ..
  27. Kang Park M, Kieffer B, Roberts A, Siggins G, Moore S. Interaction of CRF and kappa opioid systems on GABAergic neurotransmission in the mouse central amygdala. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015;355:206-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that potential pharmacotherapies aimed at neurobehavioral and addictive disorders may need to involve both the KOR/dynorphin and the CRF systems in CeA. ..
  28. Fluegge K. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders: A reply to Sealey et al. (2016). Environ Int. 2016;97:256-257 pubmed publisher
    ..Future attention may need to be focused on understanding on how early-life mercury exposures, such as in vaccines, may or may not reveal a gestational opiate dependence induced from other ASD-implicated environmental factors. ..
  29. Hunt N, Waters K, Machaalani R. Promotion of the Unfolding Protein Response in Orexin/Dynorphin Neurons in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Elevated pPERK and ATF4 Expression. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:7171-7185 pubmed publisher
    ..As pPERK may inhibit multiple neuronal groups in the pons in SIDS infants, it could also indicate that a common pathway promotes loss of protein expression and impaired functionality of multiple brainstem neuronal groups. ..
  30. Iwasa T, Matsuzaki T, Yano K, Yanagihara R, Mayila Y, Irahara M. The effects of chronic testosterone administration on hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulatory factors (Kiss1, NKB, pDyn and RFRP) and their receptors in female rats. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2018;34:437-441 pubmed publisher
    ..contrary, the administration of testosterone, but not estradiol, suppressed the hypothalamic mRNA expression of prodynorphin, which is a negative regulator of GnRH...
  31. Schicks J, Synofzik M, Beetz C, Schiele F, Schols L. Mutations in the PDYN gene (SCA23) are not a frequent cause of dominant ataxia in Central Europe. Clin Genet. 2011;80:503-4 pubmed publisher
  32. Wang H, Li S, Kirouac G. Effects of footshocks on anxiety-like behavior and mRNA levels of precursor peptides for corticotropin releasing factor and opioids in the forebrain of the rat. Neuropeptides. 2015;54:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, prodynorphin and proenkephalin mRNA levels in the striatum, BST and CeA were not different between HR, LR and nonshocked ..
  33. Li J, Liang X, Zhou Y, Zhang S, Yang F, Guo H, et al. Role of dynorphin in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;791:78-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypoxia-induced increase was enhanced by dynorphin A 1-13 and abolished by nor-BNI. In conclusion, endogenous dynorphin A released in the early stage of hypoxia plays a protective effect against HPH via stimulation of ?-opioid receptor. ..
  34. Kononenko O, Bazov I, Watanabe H, Gerashchenko G, Dyachok O, Verbeek D, et al. Opioid precursor protein isoform is targeted to the cell nuclei in the human brain. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:246-255 pubmed publisher
    Neuropeptide precursors are traditionally viewed as proteins giving rise to small neuropeptide molecules. Prodynorphin (PDYN) is the precursor protein to dynorphins, endogenous ligands for the ?-opioid receptor...
  35. Kunimura Y, Iwata K, Ishigami A, Ozawa H. Age-related alterations in hypothalamic kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin neurons and in pulsatile LH release in female and male rats. Neurobiol Aging. 2017;50:30-38 pubmed publisher
  36. Lunenfeld B, Buhler K. The neuro control of the ovarain cycle - a hypothesis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017;:1-5 pubmed publisher
  37. Weems P, Lehman M, Coolen L, Goodman R. The Roles of Neurokinins and Endogenous Opioid Peptides in Control of Pulsatile LH Secretion. Vitam Horm. 2018;107:89-135 pubmed publisher
    ..In ruminants, dynorphin terminates GnRH secretion at the end of pulse, most likely acting on both KNDy and GnRH neurons, but the data on the role of this EOP in rodents are conflicting. ..
  38. Grignon D, Ro J, Mackay B, Ordonez N, el Naggar A, Molina T, et al. Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder: immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and DNA flow cytometric studies. Hum Pathol. 1991;22:1162-9 pubmed
  39. Litt M, Buroker N, Kondoleon S, Douglass J, Liston D, Sheehy R, et al. Chromosomal localization of the human proenkephalin and prodynorphin genes. Am J Hum Genet. 1988;42:327-34 pubmed
    DNA probes derived from rat and human proenkephalin and prodynorphin genes have been used to localize these two opiate neuropeptide genes on human chromosomes...
  40. Chartoff E, Mavrikaki M. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction. Front Neurosci. 2015;9:466 pubmed publisher
    ..evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN) gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid ..
  41. LeBlanc D, McGinn M, Itoga C, Edwards S. The affective dimension of pain as a risk factor for drug and alcohol addiction. Alcohol. 2015;49:803-9 pubmed publisher
  42. Clarke H, Dhillo W, Jayasena C. Comprehensive Review on Kisspeptin and Its Role in Reproductive Disorders. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2015;30:124-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This review aims to concisely summarize what is known about kisspeptin as a regulator of reproductive function, and provide an update on recent advances within this field. ..
  43. Narayanaswamy S, Prague J, Jayasena C, Papadopoulou D, Mizamtsidi M, Shah A, et al. Investigating the KNDy Hypothesis in Humans by Coadministration of Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B, and Naltrexone in Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101:3429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest significant interactions between the KNDy neuropeptides on LH pulsatility and gonadotropin release in humans. This has important implications for improving our understanding of GnRH pulse generation in humans. ..
  44. Morgan M, Heffernan A, Benhabib F, Wagner S, Hewavitharana A, Shaw P, et al. The efficacy of Dynorphin fragments at the ?, ? and ? opioid receptor in transfected HEK cells and in an animal model of unilateral peripheral inflammation. Peptides. 2017;89:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that dynorphin fragments produced in an inflamed tissue homogenate have changed activity at the opioid receptors and that dynorphin 1-7 mediates analgesia. ..
  45. González Rodríguez S, Álvarez M, Garcia Dominguez M, Lastra A, Cernuda Cernuda R, Folgueras A, et al. Hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mechanisms evoked by the acute administration of CCL5 in mice. Brain Behav Immun. 2017;62:151-161 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support previous data describing the hyperalgesic properties of CCL5 and constitute the first indication that a chemokine of the CC group can activate endogenous analgesic mechanisms. ..
  46. Bousman C, Glatt S, Everall I, Tsuang M. Genetic association studies of methamphetamine use disorders: A systematic review and synthesis. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B:1025-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, replication of the findings reviewed here along with further development of more rigorous methodologies and reporting protocols will aid in delineating the complex genetic epidemiology of METH use disorders...
  47. Mysels D, Sullivan M. The kappa-opiate receptor impacts the pathophysiology and behavior of substance use. Am J Addict. 2009;18:272-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This feedback mechanism may have significant clinical implications for treating drug dependent patients in various stages of their pathology. ..
  48. Tanco V, Whitlock B, Jones M, Wilborn R, Brandebourg T, Foradori C. Distribution and regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, kisspeptin, RF-amide related peptide-3, and dynorphin in the bovine hypothalamus. Peerj. 2016;4:e1833 pubmed publisher
    ..The data produced in this work support roles for kisspeptin and dynorphin, within the KNDy neural network, in controlling GnRH release over the ovarian cycle and conveying progesterone-negative feedback onto GnRH neurons in the bovine. ..
  49. Lee Y, Kupp R, Remesic M, Ramos Colon C, Hall S, Chan C, et al. Various modifications of the amphipathic dynorphin A pharmacophore for rat brain bradykinin receptors. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2016;88:615-9 pubmed publisher
  50. Tomic A, Kovacevic B, Tomic S. Concerted nitrogen inversion and hydrogen bonding to Glu451 are responsible for protein-controlled suppression of the reverse reaction in human DPP III. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2016;18:27245-27256 pubmed
    ..Therefore we propose that the functional significance of DPP III is dual: to lower the energy barrier of the peptide hydrolysis and to suppress the reverse reaction. ..
  51. Holliday K, McBeth J, Macfarlane G, Huhtaniemi I, Bartfai G, Casanueva F, et al. Investigating the role of pain-modulating pathway genes in musculoskeletal pain. Eur J Pain. 2013;17:28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings were not replicated in a single independent cohort; however, given the potential of this pathway as a therapeutic target, further investigation in additional cohorts is warranted. ..
  52. Komatsu T, Katsuyama S, Nagase H, Mizoguchi H, Sakurada C, Tsuzuki M, et al. Intrathecal morphine-3-glucuronide-induced nociceptive behavior via Delta-2 opioid receptors in the spinal cord. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2016;140:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that M3G-induced nociceptive responses and ERK activation may be triggered via δ2-opioid receptors activated by Leu-ENK, which is formed from dynorphin in the spinal cord. ..
  53. Matzeu A, Kallupi M, George O, Schweitzer P, Martin Fardon R. Dynorphin Counteracts Orexin in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Thalamus: Cellular and Behavioral Evidence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018;43:1010-1020 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that the κ-opioid system in the pPVT counteracts OrxA-induced cocaine seeking, suggesting a novel therapeutic target to prevent cocaine relapse. ..
  54. Okamura H, Yamamura T, Wakabayashi Y. Mapping of KNDy neurons and immunohistochemical analysis of the interaction between KNDy and substance P neural systems in goat. J Reprod Dev. 2017;63:571-580 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results demonstrate anatomical evidence for a robust association between the KNDy and SP neural systems. ..
  55. Karkhanis A, Rose J, Weiner J, Jones S. Early-Life Social Isolation Stress Increases Kappa Opioid Receptor Responsiveness and Downregulates the Dopamine System. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016;41:2263-74 pubmed publisher
  56. Carboni L, Romoli B, Romualdi P, Zoli M. Repeated nicotine exposure modulates prodynorphin and pronociceptin levels in the reward pathway. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016;166:150-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA expression of prodynorphin (pdyn), pronociceptin (pnoc) and the respective receptors was measured by quantitative PCR in the ventral ..
  57. Rose J, Karkhanis A, Steiniger Brach B, Jones S. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs. ..
  58. Boyle K, Gutierrez Mecinas M, Polgár E, Mooney N, O Connor E, Furuta T, et al. A quantitative study of neurochemically defined populations of inhibitory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord. Neuroscience. 2017;363:120-133 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are important for interpretation of studies using molecular-genetic techniques to manipulate the functions of interneuron populations to investigate their roles in somatosensory processing. ..
  59. Dogra S, Yadav P. Biased agonism at kappa opioid receptors: Implication in pain and mood disorders. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;763:184-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This article highlights various lines of evidence, which indicates different ligands of k receptor as "biased", and their potential implications in mood and pain disorders. ..
  60. Marinova Z, Vukojevic V, Surcheva S, Yakovleva T, Cebers G, Pasikova N, et al. Translocation of dynorphin neuropeptides across the plasma membrane. A putative mechanism of signal transmission. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26360-70 pubmed
    ..Translocation across the plasma membrane may represent a previously unknown mechanism by which dynorphins can signal information to the cell interior. ..
  61. Greisenegger E, Zimprich A, Zimprich F, Stingl G, Kopp T. Analysis of the prodynorphin promoter polymorphism in atopic dermatitis and disease-related pruritus. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34:728-30 pubmed publisher
    Pruritus is one of the key symptoms in atopic dermatitis (AD). The prodynorphin polypeptide is a precursor protein of pruritus-modulating opioid peptides. It is encoded by the prodynorphin gene (PDYN)...
  62. Chatzaki E, Margioris A, Makrigiannakis A, Castanas E, Georgoulias V, Gravanis A. Kappa opioids and TGFbeta1 interact in human endometrial cells. Mol Hum Reprod. 2000;6:602-9 pubmed
    ..possesses specific opioid binding sites, the majority of which belong to the kappa type, for which the prodynorphin-derived opioids are the endogenous ligands...
  63. Verbeek D, van de Warrenburg B, Wesseling P, Pearson P, Kremer H, Sinke R. Mapping of the SCA23 locus involved in autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia to chromosome region 20p13-12.3. Brain. 2004;127:2551-7 pubmed
    ..46 at = 0.00 for marker D20S199. This new SCA locus, on chromosome region 20p13-p12.3, was designated SCA23 after approval by the HUGO Nomenclature Committee...
  64. Oldham W, Van Eps N, Preininger A, Hubbell W, Hamm H. Mechanism of the receptor-catalyzed activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:772-7 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first direct observation of R*-mediated conformational changes in G proteins and define the structural basis for GDP release from G alpha. ..
  65. Bovo G, Diani E, Bisulli F, Di Bonaventura C, Striano P, Gambardella A, et al. Analysis of LGI1 promoter sequence, PDYN and GABBR1 polymorphisms in sporadic and familial lateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurosci Lett. 2008;436:23-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also analysed in our study population the GABA(B) receptor 1 c.1465G>A and the prodynorphin promoter 68-bp repeat polymorphisms, previously associated with temporal lobe epilepsy...
  66. Pirker S, Gasser E, Czech T, Baumgartner C, Schuh E, Feucht M, et al. Dynamic up-regulation of prodynorphin transcription in temporal lobe epilepsy. Hippocampus. 2009;19:1051-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We now report pronounced increases of prodynorphin mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in comparison to controls...
  67. Bilkei Gorzo A, Erk S, Schürmann B, Mauer D, Michel K, Boecker H, et al. Dynorphins regulate fear memory: from mice to men. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9335-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Human volunteers bearing the (T) allele of PDYN (prodynorphin) at rs1997794 showed reduced fear extinction and a significantly diminished functional connectivity between ..
  68. Fawcett K, Mehrabian M, Liu Y, Hamed S, Elahi E, Revesz T, et al. The frequency of spinocerebellar ataxia type 23 in a UK population. J Neurol. 2013;260:856-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently the prodynorphin (PDYN) gene was identified as the cause of SCA23 in four Dutch families displaying progressive gait and limb ..
  69. Jezierska J, Stevanin G, Watanabe H, Fokkens M, Zagnoli F, Kok J, et al. Identification and characterization of novel PDYN mutations in dominant cerebellar ataxia cases. J Neurol. 2013;260:1807-12 pubmed publisher
    We have recently identified missense mutations in prodynorphin (PDYN), the precursor to dynorphin opioid peptides, as the cause for spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA23) in Dutch ataxia cases...
  70. Wang X, Wang Y, Zhang C, Liu C, Zhao B, Wei N, et al. CB1 receptor antagonism prevents long-term hyperexcitability after head injury by regulation of dynorphin-KOR system and mGluR5 in rat hippocampus. Brain Res. 2016;1646:174-181 pubmed publisher
  71. Yang J, Yasrebi A, Snyder M, Roepke T. The interaction of fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity with 17?-estradiol on the expression of KNDy neuropeptides and their receptors in the female mouse. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;437:35-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our experiments suggest that steroidal environment and energy state negatively regulate KNDy gene expression in both ARC and Tac2 neurons. ..
  72. Mann K, Torup L, Sørensen P, Gual A, Swift R, WALKER B, et al. Nalmefene for the management of alcohol dependence: review on its pharmacology, mechanism of action and meta-analysis on its clinical efficacy. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;26:1941-1949 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, because it does not require abstinence, this treatment has the potential to motivate more patients for treatment and thus helps to address a major public health concern. ..
  73. Abraham A, Fontaine H, Song A, Andrews M, Baird M, Kieffer B, et al. κ-Opioid Receptor Activation in Dopamine Neurons Disrupts Behavioral Inhibition. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018;43:362-372 pubmed publisher
  74. Venancio J, Margatho L, Rorato R, Rosales R, Debarba L, Coletti R, et al. Short-Term High-Fat Diet Increases Leptin Activation of CART Neurons and Advances Puberty in Female Mice. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3929-3942 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these data indicate that CART neurons in the ARC can mediate the effect of leptin on Kiss1 neurons in early puberty induced by a HFD...
  75. Liu N, Murugaiyan V, Storman E, Schnell S, Kumar A, Wessendorf M, et al. Plasticity of Signaling by Spinal Estrogen Receptor α, κ-Opioid Receptor, and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors over the Rat Reproductive Cycle Regulates Spinal Endomorphin 2 Antinociception: Relevance of Endogenous-Biased Agonism. J Neurosci. 2017;37:11181-11191 pubmed publisher
  76. Summar M, Phillips J, Battey J, Castiglione C, Kidd K, Maness K, et al. Linkage relationships of human arginine vasopressin-neurophysin-II and oxytocin-neurophysin-I to prodynorphin and other loci on chromosome 20. Mol Endocrinol. 1990;4:947-50 pubmed
    ..The ARVP/OT loci demonstrated extremely close linkage with the prodynorphin (PDYN) locus, with no recombinants (theta of 0) and a log10 odds score of 5.2...
  77. Chow K, Oakley O, Goodman J, Ma Z, Juliano M, Juliano L, et al. Nardilysin cleaves peptides at monobasic sites. Biochemistry. 2003;42:2239-44 pubmed
    ..These studies extend the range of potential substrates for nardilysin and further substantiate that nardilysin is a true peptidase. ..
  78. Rometo A, Rance N. Changes in prodynorphin gene expression and neuronal morphology in the hypothalamus of postmenopausal women. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:1376-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, ovariectomy decreases the expression of prodynorphin gene transcripts in the arcuate nucleus of the ewe...
  79. Chavkin C. Dynorphin--still an extraordinarily potent opioid peptide. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;83:729-36 pubmed publisher
  80. Anderson S, Michaelides M, Zarnegar P, Ren Y, Fagergren P, Thanos P, et al. Impaired periamygdaloid-cortex prodynorphin is characteristic of opiate addiction and depression. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:5334-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Rodent models implicate amygdala prodynorphin (Pdyn) as a mediator of negative affect; however, evidence of PDYN involvement in human negative affect is ..
  81. Yuferov V, Butelman E, Ho A, Morgello S, Kreek M. Neurocognitive and neuroinflammatory correlates of PDYN and OPRK1 mRNA expression in the anterior cingulate in postmortem brain of HIV-infected subjects. J Neuroinflammation. 2014;11:5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined mRNA levels of endogenous opioid receptors OPRK1 and OPRM1, prodynorphin (PDYN), macrophage scavenger receptor CD163, and microglia/macrophage marker CD68 in the caudate and anterior ..
  82. Faisal M, Waseem D, Ismatullah H, Taqi M. A molecular prospective provides new insights into implication of PDYN and OPRK1 genes in alcohol dependence. Comput Biol Med. 2014;53:250-7 pubmed publisher individual׳s susceptibility for alcohol dependence by remodeling DNA-protein interaction patterns in prodynorphin (PDYN) and the κ-opioid receptor (OPRK1) genes...
  83. Bivehed E, Strömvall R, Bergquist J, Bakalkin G, Andersson M. Region-specific bioconversion of dynorphin neuropeptide detected by in situ histochemistry and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry. Peptides. 2017;87:20-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining histochemistry and MALDI imaging MS is a powerful and sensitive tool for the study of inhibition of enzyme activity directly in native tissue sections. ..
  84. Ji B, Liu H, Zhang R, Jiang Y, Wang C, Li S, et al. Novel signaling of dynorphin at ?-opioid receptor/bradykinin B2 receptor heterodimers. Cell Signal. 2017;31:66-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of this signaling pathway has significant implications for the role of dynorphin in the regulation of neuroprotective effects. ..
  85. Hawes S, Salinas A, Lovinger D, Blackwell K. Long-term plasticity of corticostriatal synapses is modulated by pathway-specific co-release of opioids through ?-opioid receptors. J Physiol. 2017;595:5637-5652 pubmed publisher
  86. Loh R, Collins S, Galvez R. Neocortical prodynorphin expression is transiently increased with learning: Implications for time- and learning-dependent neocortical kappa opioid receptor activation. Behav Brain Res. 2017;335:145-150 pubmed publisher
    ..DYN), KOR's endogenous ligand, is synthesized from the precursor prodynorphin (PD) that is synthesized from preprodynorphin (PPD)...
  87. Alvarez B, Barrientos T, Gac L, Teske J, Perez Leighton C. Effects on Hedonic Feeding, Energy Expenditure and Balance of the Non-opioid Peptide DYN-A2-17. Neuroscience. 2018;371:337-345 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also propose different roles of opioid, non-opioid DYN and orexin peptides on food choice and intake when palatable and non-palatable food options are available. ..
  88. Sukhov R, Walker L, Rance N, Price D, Young W. Opioid precursor gene expression in the human hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 1995;353:604-22 pubmed
    ..histochemistry, we studied the distribution of neurons that express preproopiomelanocortin (pre-POMC), preprodynorphin (pre-PDYN), and preproenkephalin (pre-PENK) gene transcripts within the human hypothalamus and surrounding ..
  89. Lambright D, Noel J, Hamm H, Sigler P. Structural determinants for activation of the alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein. Nature. 1994;369:621-8 pubmed
    ..The changes are distinct from those observed in other members of the GTPase superfamily. ..
  90. Levin B, Dunn Meynell A. Defense of body weight depends on dietary composition and palatability in rats with diet-induced obesity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;282:R46-54 pubmed
    ..Thus genetic background, diet composition, and palatability interact to produce disparate levels of defended body weight and central neuropeptide expression...
  91. Hansell N, Agrawal A, Whitfield J, Morley K, Gordon S, Lind P, et al. Can we identify genes for alcohol consumption in samples ascertained for heterogeneous purposes?. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009;33:729-39 pubmed publisher
    ..However, sample characteristics, such as participant age, and trait distribution, may have substantial effects on the strength of the genetic signal. These results can inform forthcoming GWAS where the same restrictions apply. ..
  92. Yuferov V, Nielsen D, Levran O, Randesi M, Hamon S, Ho A, et al. Tissue-specific DNA methylation of the human prodynorphin gene in post-mortem brain tissues and PBMCs. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:185-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) is critical for rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and stress-induced responses...