Gene Symbol: PRM2
Description: protamine 2
Alias: CT94.2, protamine-2, cancer/testis antigen family 94, member 2, sperm histone P2, sperm protamine P2, testicular secretory protein Li 40
Species: human
Products:     PRM2

Top Publications

  1. Hamad M. Quantification of histones and protamines mRNA transcripts in sperms of infertile couples and their impact on sperm's quality and chromatin integrity. Reprod Biol. 2019;19:6-13 pubmed publisher
    ..22 ± 2.91, 30.03 ± 2.05 vs. 25.62 ± 1.98, 27.23 ± 3.04, respectively). Protamine PRM2 mRNA in patient's sperms (20.55 ± 2.01) was significantly lower than in normal (21.73 ± 2...
  2. Liu B, Song F, Yang Q, Zhou Y, Shao C, Shen Y, et al. Characterization of tissue-specific biomarkers with the expression of circRNAs in forensically relevant body fluids. Int J Legal Med. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..for menstrual blood; HTN3 for saliva; SPINK5, SERPINB3, ESR1, and CYP2B7P1 for vaginal secretions; TGM4, KLK3, and PRM2 for semen; and SLC22A6 and MIOX for urine, does not impair the specificity of these biomarkers...
  3. Dehghanpour F, Fesahat F, Miresmaeili S, Zare Mehrjardi E, Honarju A, Talebi A. Analysis of PRM1 and PRM2 Polymorphisms in Iranian Infertile Men with Idiopathic Teratozoospermia. Int J Fertil Steril. 2019;13:77-82 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of the present case-control study was to examine the association of SNPs in protamine1 (PRM1) and protamine2 (PRM2) genes with idiopathic teratozoospermia. In this case-control study, some SNPs in PRM1 (c.49 C>T, c...
  4. Itoh K, Kondoh G, Miyachi H, Sugai M, Kaneko Y, Kitano S, et al. Dephosphorylation of protamine 2 at serine 56 is crucial for murine sperm maturation in vivo. Sci Signal. 2019;12: pubmed publisher
    ..Pull-down and in vitro phosphatase assays suggested the dephosphorylation of protamine 2 at serine 56 (Prm2 Ser56) by Ppp1cc2...
  5. Niu P, Wei Y, Gao Q, Zhang X, Hu Y, Qiu Y, et al. Male Fertility Potential Molecular Mechanisms Revealed by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Epididymis from Wip1-/- Mice. OMICS. 2019;23:54-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note, four reproduction-related DEPs (PRM2, ODF1, PIWIL1, and KLHL10) were confirmed by western blotting...
  6. H M Y, Kumar S, Chaudhary R, Mishra C, A S, Kumar A, et al. Nucleotide variability of protamine genes influencing bull sperm motility variables. Anim Reprod Sci. 2018;193:126-139 pubmed publisher
    ..The PCR-SSCP analysis indicated there were two band patterns only in fragment I of the PRM1 and fragment II of the PRM2 gene. The sequence analysis revealed A152G and G179A transitions in the PRM1 gene...
  7. Nayeri M, Talebi A, Heidari M, Seifati S, Tabibnejad N. Polymorphisms of sperm protamine genes and CMA3 staining in infertile men with varicocele. Rev Int Androl. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphisms of PRM1 and PRM2 genes in extracted DNA samples were assessed by PCR-SSCP and sequencing...
  8. Shah A, Haynes C, Craig D, Sebek J, Grass E, Abramson K, et al. Genetic variants associated with vein graft stenosis after coronary artery bypass grafting. Heart Surg Forum. 2015;18:E1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..54 × 10(-6)), RMI2 (Rs9921338, P = 6.15 × 10(-6)), PRM2 (Rs7198849, P = 7.27 × 10(-6)), and TNFSF4 (Rs17346536, P = 9.33 × 10(-6))...
  9. Talha A, Pirahmadi S, Mehrizi A, Djadid N, Nour B, Zakeri S. Molecular genetic analysis of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Eastern and Central Sudan using pvcsp and pvmsp-3α genes as molecular markers. Infect Genet Evol. 2015;32:12-22 pubmed publisher
    ..displayed variations in the peptide repeat motifs (PRMs) ranging from 17 to 19 with GDRADGQPA (PRM1), GDRAAGQPA (PRM2) and DDRAAGQPA (PRM3)...

More Information


  1. Makala H, Pothana L, Sonam S, Malla A, Goel S. Regeneration of Leydig cells in ectopically autografted adult mouse testes. Reproduction. 2015;149:259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of germ cell-specific proteins such as POU5F1, DAZL, TNP1, TNP2, PRM1 and PRM2 revealed that, although proliferating and differentiating spermatogenic germ cells such as spermatogonia, ..
  2. Shah S, Saini N, Ashraf S, Singh M, Manik R, Singla S, et al. Cumulus cell-conditioned medium supports embryonic stem cell differentiation to germ cell-like cells. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2017;29:679-693 pubmed publisher
    ..meiotic (synaptonemal complex protein 3 (Sycp3), mutl homolog I (Mlh1), transition protein 1/2 (Tnp1/2) and protamine 2 (Prm2); spermatocyte-specific boule-like RNA binding protein (Boule) and tektin 1 (Tekt1)) and oocyte-specific ..
  3. Li D, Liu J, Du W, Liu H, Xiao W, Song X, et al. Carnitine/organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2) contributes to rat epididymal epithelial cell growth and proliferation. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;93:444-450 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with spermatogenesis, including azoospermia-like (DAZL), phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2), and protamine 2 (PRM2)...
  4. Shah S, Saini N, Singh M, Manik R, Singla S, Palta P, et al. Testicular cell-conditioned medium supports embryonic stem cell differentiation toward germ lineage and to spermatocyte- and oocyte-like cells. Theriogenology. 2016;86:715-29 pubmed publisher
    ..highest expression of primordial germ cell-specific (DAZL, VASA, and PLZF), meiotic (SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2, and PRM2), spermatocyte-specific (BOULE and TEKT1), and oocyte-specific genes (GDF9 and ZP2/3) for a culture period of 14 ..
  5. Schneider S, Balbach M, Jan F Jikeli -, Fietz D, Nettersheim D, Jostes S, et al. Re-visiting the Protamine-2 locus: deletion, but not haploinsufficiency, renders male mice infertile. Sci Rep. 2016;6:36764 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice and humans, two protamines, protamine-1 (Prm1) and protamine-2 (Prm2) are expressed in a species-specific ratio...
  6. Eckhardt M, Wang Eckhardt L. A commercial human protamine-2 antibody used in several studies to detect mouse protamine-2 recognizes mouse transition protein-2 but not protamine-2. Mol Hum Reprod. 2015;21:825-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A commercial antibody generated against human protamine-2 (PRM2) has been described to cross-react with mouse PRM2 and in fact has been used in several studies to detect mouse ..
  7. Jamali S, Karimian M, Nikzad H, Aftabi Y. The c.-190 C>A transversion in promoter region of protamine1 gene as a genetic risk factor for idiopathic oligozoospermia. Mol Biol Rep. 2016;43:795-802 pubmed publisher
    ..It is reported that defects in the protamine 1 (PRM1) and/or 2 (PRM2) genes cause male infertility. Located on chromosome 16 (16p13...
  8. Neuhaus N, Yoon J, Terwort N, Kliesch S, Seggewiss J, Huge A, et al. Single-cell gene expression analysis reveals diversity among human spermatogonia. Mol Hum Reprod. 2017;23:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..expression patterns of undifferentiated (OCT4, UTF1 and MAGE A4) and differentiated marker genes (BOLL and PRM2) were obtained within each spermatogonia cluster (13 clusters with 85 cells)...
  9. Pothana L, Devi L, Goel S. Cryopreservation of adult cervid testes. Cryobiology. 2017;74:103-109 pubmed publisher
    ..tissues of barking deer cryopreserved in 20% DMSO (D20) had all the analyzed 7 parameters (number of TNP1-, PRM2 and acrosin-expressing cells/tubule and, the number of viable, morphologically normal, acrosome intact, Annexin V-..
  10. Lüke L, Tourmente M, Dopazo H, Serra F, Roldan E. Selective constraints on protamine 2 in primates and rodents. BMC Evol Biol. 2016;16:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we analyze selective constraints and post-copulatory sexual selection acting on protamine 2 (Prm2) gene sequences of 53 species of primates and rodents...
  11. Shah S, Singla S, Palta P, Manik R, Chauhan M. Retinoic acid induces differentiation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells into germ cells. Gene. 2017;626:358-366 pubmed publisher
    ..found to induce highest expression of PGC- and meiosis-associated genes like DAZL, VASA, SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2 and PRM2, while mature germ cell genes like BOULE and TEKT1 (Spermatocyte markers), GDF9 and ZP2 (Oocyte markers) showed ..
  12. Cho C, Willis W, Goulding E, Jung Ha H, Choi Y, Hecht N, et al. Haploinsufficiency of protamine-1 or -2 causes infertility in mice. Nat Genet. 2001;28:82-6 pubmed
    ..We disrupted the coding sequence of one allele of either Prm1 or Prm2 in embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from 129-strain mice, and injected them into blastocysts from C57BL/6-strain ..
  13. Viguie F, Domenjoud L, Rousseau Merck M, Dadoune J, Chevaillier P. Chromosomal localization of the human protamine genes, PRM1 and PRM2, to 16p13.3 by in situ hybridization. Hum Genet. 1990;85:171-4 pubmed
    ..cDNA probes of 423 bp and 397 bp containing the entire coding sequence for human protamine 1 (HP1) and human protamine 2 (HP2), respectively, have been used...
  14. Shabani Nashtaei M, Nekoonam S, Naji M, Bakhshalizadeh S, Amidi F. Cryoprotective effect of resveratrol on DNA damage and crucial human sperm messenger RNAs, possibly through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Cell Tissue Bank. 2018;19:87-95 pubmed publisher
    ..the presence of key paternal transcripts considered as markers for male fertility (protamine 1 [PRM1] and protamine 2 [PRM2]) and pregnancy success (adducin 1 alpha [ADD1]) in cryopreserved human spermatozoa through modulation of ..
  15. Savadi Shiraz E, Edalatkhah H, Talebi S, Heidari Vala H, Zandemami M, Pahlavan S, et al. Quantification of sperm specific mRNA transcripts (PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2) in teratozoospermia and normozoospermia: New correlations between mRNA content and morphology of sperm. Mol Reprod Dev. 2015;82:26-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine if PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 transcripts in spermatozoa from normozoospermic and teratozoospermic men correlate with sperm morphology ..
  16. Jiang W, Zhu P, Zhang J, Wu Q, Li W, Liu S, et al. Polymorphisms of protamine genes contribute to male infertility susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. Oncotarget. 2017;8:61637-61645 pubmed publisher
    ..between controls and infertile cases among the five single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in PRM1, PRM2 and TNP1 [rs737008 (G/A), rs2301365 (C/A), rs2070923 (C/A), rs1646022 (C/G) and rs62180545 (A/G)]...
  17. Aydos O, Hekmatshoar Y, Altinok B, Ozkan T, Sakiragaoglu O, Karadağ A, et al. Genetic Polymorphisms in PRM1, PRM2, and YBX2 Genes are Associated with Male Factor Infertility. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Protamine polymorphisms have been studied in different populations, but various results have been acquired...
  18. Aoki V, Liu L, Jones K, Hatasaka H, Gibson M, Peterson C, et al. Sperm protamine 1/protamine 2 ratios are related to in vitro fertilization pregnancy rates and predictive of fertilization ability. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1408-15 pubmed
  19. Xiong Z, Yan Y, Liu E, Silver R, Verstovsek S, Yang F, et al. Novel tumor antigens elicit anti-tumor humoral immune reactions in a subset of patients with polycythemia vera. Clin Immunol. 2007;122:279-87 pubmed
    ..We identified two novel PV associated tumor antigens, PV65 (eIF-2alpha) and PV13 (protamine 2)...
  20. Depa Martynow M, Kempisty B, Lianeri M, Jagodziński P, Jedrzejczak P. Association between fertilin beta, protamines 1 and 2 and spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein mRNA levels, fertilization ability of human spermatozoa, and quality of preimplantation embryos. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2007;45 Suppl 1:S79-85 pubmed
    ..PCR reaction (QR-PCR) methods and zygote and embryo scoring, we compared fertilin beta, protamine 1 (PRM1), protamine 2 (PRM2), spermatid-specific linker histone 1 (HILS1) mRNAs levels, in vitro fertilization ability of mature ..
  21. Sautiere P, Martinage A, Belaiche D, Arkhis A, Chevaillier P. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of human protamines HP2 and HP3 and of intermediate basic nuclear proteins HPS1 and HPS2. Structural evidence that HPS1 and HPS2 are pro-protamines. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:11059-62 pubmed
    ..Their amino-terminal amino acid sequences have also been determined. The structural data thus obtained suggest that HPS1 and HPS2 are precursors of human protamines HP2 and HP3. ..
  22. Nelson J, Krawetz S. Characterization of a human locus in transition. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:31067-73 pubmed
    The spermatid-specific nucleoprotamine genes PRM1 and PRM2 and the transition protein gene TNP2 are clustered at a single site on human chromosome 16p13.2...
  23. Domenjoud L, Fronia C, Uhde F, Engel W. Sequence of human protamine 2 cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:7733 pubmed
  24. Jodar M, Oriola J, Mestre G, Castillo J, Giwercman A, Vidal Taboada J, et al. Polymorphisms, haplotypes and mutations in the protamine 1 and 2 genes. Int J Androl. 2011;34:470-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathogenic high penetrance protamine gene missense mutations, if any, must be extremely rare. However, the detected presence of rare variants and haplotypes in infertile patients deserves further investigation. ..
  25. Zalata A, Mokhtar N, Atwa A, Khaled M, Shaker O. The Role of Protamine 2 Gene Expression and Caspase 9 Activity in Male Infertility. J Urol. 2016;195:796-800 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to give insight into the role of PRM2 gene expression and caspase 9 activity in the pathogenesis of male infertility...
  26. Hamad M, Shelko N, Montenarh M, Hammadeh M. The impact of cigarette smoking on protamines 1 and 2 transcripts in human spermatozoa. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2017;:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and subjected to real-time quantitative PCR using specific primer pairs for protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2). The main outcomes showed that PRM1 mRNA levels in smokers were significantly lower (p?=?0...
  27. Malla A, Bhandari R. IP6K1 is essential for chromatoid body formation and temporal regulation of Tnp2 and Prm2 expression in mouse spermatids. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:2854-2866 pubmed publisher
    ..from Ip6k1-/- mice display premature expression of the transition protein TNP2 and the protamine PRM2 due to translational derepression...
  28. Imken L, Rouba H, El Houate B, Louanjli N, Barakat A, Chafik A, et al. Mutations in the protamine locus: association with spermatogenic failure?. Mol Hum Reprod. 2009;15:733-8 pubmed publisher
    The protamine locus consists of a 28.5 kb region with a linear array of the protamine (PRM)1, PRM2, PRM3 and transition nuclear protein (TNP)2 genes...
  29. Slomski R, Schloesser M, Chlebowska H, Reiss J, Engel W. Detection of human spermatid-specific transcripts in peripheral blood lymphocytes of males and females. Hum Genet. 1991;87:307-10 pubmed
    We describe the detection of ectopic ("illegitimate") transcripts of the proacrosin and protamine 2 genes, which are specific for human spermatogenesis, in non-cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes...
  30. Wyckoff G, Wang W, Wu C. Rapid evolution of male reproductive genes in the descent of man. Nature. 2000;403:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results open up opportunities to test the hypothesis that sexual selection plays some role in the molecular evolution of higher primates...
  31. Domenjoud L, Nussbaum G, Adham I, Greeske G, Engel W. Genomic sequences of human protamines whose genes, PRM1 and PRM2, are clustered. Genomics. 1990;8:127-33 pubmed
    ..Using cDNA clones, we have isolated the genes for both human protamines, i.e., protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2), from a human cosmid library...
  32. Hammoud S, Emery B, Aoki V, Carrell D. Identification of genetic variation in the 5' and 3' non-coding regions of the protamine genes in patients with protamine deregulation. Arch Androl. 2007;53:267-74 pubmed
    ..protamine expression, we have sequenced the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of both protamine 1 (P1) and protamine 2 (P2) genes in a population of infertile men with protamine deregulation, men presenting for infertility work-up ..
  33. Torregrosa N, Domínguez Fandos D, Camejo M, Shirley C, Meistrich M, Ballescà J, et al. Protamine 2 precursors, protamine 1/protamine 2 ratio, DNA integrity and other sperm parameters in infertile patients. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:2084-9 pubmed
    The protamine 1-to-protamine 2 ratio (P1/P2) is altered in the sperm cells of some infertile patients. Also, evidence for increased protamine 2 precursors (pre-P2) in a few patients has been reported...
  34. Quintanilla Vega B, Hoover D, Bal W, Silbergeld E, Waalkes M, Anderson L. Lead interaction with human protamine (HP2) as a mechanism of male reproductive toxicity. Chem Res Toxicol. 2000;13:594-600 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the ability of lead to decrease the level of HP2-DNA interaction may result in alterations to sperm chromatin condensation, and thus in reduced fertility. ..
  35. McKay D, Renaux B, Dixon G. Human sperm protamines. Amino-acid sequences of two forms of protamine P2. Eur J Biochem. 1986;156:5-8 pubmed
    ..Protamine P2a is approximately 50% homologous with human protamine P1. The amino acid sequence of P2a is: (sequence; see text) ..
  36. Ammer H, Henschen A, Lee C. Isolation and amino-acid sequence analysis of human sperm protamines P1 and P2. Occurrence of two forms of protamine P2. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1986;367:515-22 pubmed
  37. Zhang J, Webb D, Podlaha O. Accelerated protein evolution and origins of human-specific features: Foxp2 as an example. Genetics. 2002;162:1825-35 pubmed
    ..Using comparative analysis of human, chimpanzee, and mouse protein sequences, we identified two genes (PRM2 and FOXP2) with significantly enhanced evolutionary rates in the hominid lineage...
  38. Tanaka H, Miyagawa Y, Tsujimura A, Matsumiya K, Okuyama A, Nishimune Y. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the protamine-1 and -2 genes of fertile and infertile human male populations. Mol Hum Reprod. 2003;9:69-73 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the human protamine-1 (PRM1) and -2 (PRM2) gene sequences in 226 sterile male patients and in 270 proven-fertile male volunteers revealed four single ..
  39. Martinage A, Arkhis A, Alimi E, Sautiere P, Chevaillier P. Molecular characterization of nuclear basic protein HPI1, a putative precursor of human sperm protamines HP2 and HP3. Eur J Biochem. 1990;191:449-51 pubmed
  40. Kempisty B, Depa Martynow M, Lianeri M, Jedrzejczak P, Darul Wasowicz A, Jagodziński P. Evaluation of protamines 1 and 2 transcript contents in spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic men. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2007;45 Suppl 1:S109-13 pubmed
    ..The key role in this process is played by protamines 1 and 2 (PRM1, PRM2)...
  41. de Mateo S, Gazquez C, Guimerá M, Balasch J, Meistrich M, Ballescà J, et al. Protamine 2 precursors (Pre-P2), protamine 1 to protamine 2 ratio (P1/P2), and assisted reproduction outcome. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:715-22 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the presence of protamine 2 precursors (pre-P2/P2 ratio) and the protamine 1 to protamine 2 ratio (P1/P2) are related to the assisted reproduction outcome. Prospective study...
  42. Haraguchi T, Ishikawa T, Yamaguchi K, Fujisawa M. Cyclin and protamine as prognostic molecular marker for testicular sperm extraction in patients with azoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:1424-6 pubmed publisher
    The CCNA1, CCNB1, CCNB2, PRM1, and PRM2 messenger RNA transcript ratios were significantly decreased in patients with spermatogenic disorders...
  43. Arkhis A, Martinage A, Sautiere P, Chevaillier P. Molecular structure of human protamine P4 (HP4), a minor basic protein of human sperm nuclei. Eur J Biochem. 1991;200:387-92 pubmed
    ..These three protamines exhibit a close structural relationship with mouse protamine mP2. The heterogeneity of protamines in human sperm nuclei is discussed. ..
  44. Kumar K, Deka D, Singh A, Chattopadhyay P, Dada R. Expression pattern of PRM2, HSP90 and WNT5A in male partners of couples experiencing idiopathic recurrent miscarriages. J Genet. 2012;91:363-6 pubmed
  45. Depa Martynow M, Kempisty B, Jagodziński P, Pawelczyk L, Jedrzejczak P. Impact of protamine transcripts and their proteins on the quality and fertilization ability of sperm and the development of preimplantation embryos. Reprod Biol. 2012;12:57-72 pubmed
    Protamine 1 (PRM1) and 2 (PRM2) are major nuclear proteins in spermatozoa known to bind to chromatin during early spermatogenesis...
  46. Aoki V, Christensen G, Atkins J, Carrell D. Identification of novel polymorphisms in the nuclear protein genes and their relationship with human sperm protamine deficiency and severe male infertility. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1416-22 pubmed
    ..A number of SNPs are present in the testis-specific nuclear protein genes. However, the gene variants do not appear to underlie protamine deficiency and severe male infertility. ..
  47. Li Y, Lalancette C, Miller D, Krawetz S. Characterization of nucleohistone and nucleoprotamine components in the mature human sperm nucleus. Asian J Androl. 2008;10:535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunofluorescent localization of histones, protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) along with fluorescence in situ hybridization localization of chromosome 16 telomeric sequences revealed ..
  48. Grassetti D, Paoli D, Gallo M, D Ambrosio A, Lombardo F, Lenzi A, et al. Protamine-1 and -2 polymorphisms and gene expression in male infertility: an Italian study. J Endocrinol Invest. 2012;35:882-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There are two types of protamines: protamine 1 (P1) and the protamine 2 family (P2, P3, and P4), coded by the genes PRM1 and PRM2...
  49. Shah S, Singla S, Palta P, Manik R, Chauhan M. Retinoic acid induces differentiation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells into germ cells. Gene. 2017;631:54-67 pubmed publisher
    ..found to induce highest expression of PGC- and meiosis-associated genes like DAZL, VASA, SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2 and PRM2, while mature germ cell genes like BOULE and TEKT1 (Spermatocyte markers), GDF9 and ZP2 (Oocyte markers) showed ..
  50. Wykes S, Visscher D, Krawetz S. Haploid transcripts persist in mature human spermatozoa. Mol Hum Reprod. 1997;3:15-9 pubmed
    ..Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that human protamines PRM1, PRM2 and transition protein TNP2 transcripts are associated with round and elongating spermatids...
  51. Alimi E, Martinage A, Arkhis A, Belaiche D, Sautiere P, Chevaillier P. Amino acid sequence of the human intermediate basic protein 2 (HPI2) from sperm nuclei. Structural relationship with protamine P2. Eur J Biochem. 1993;214:445-50 pubmed
    ..Arkhis, A., Alimi, E., Sautière, P. & Chevaillier, P. (1990) Eur. J. Biochem. 191, 449-451]. Due to this structural similarity, HPI2 must be considered as an intermediate in the maturation of proprotamine HPI1 limited proteolysis. ..
  52. Friel A, Houghton J, Glennon M, Lavery R, Smith T, Nolan A, et al. A preliminary report on the implication of RT-PCR detection of DAZ, RBMY1, USP9Y and Protamine-2 mRNA in testicular biopsy samples from azoospermic men. Int J Androl. 2002;25:59-64 pubmed
    ..The study of the expression of such genes in a larger number of patients might be useful in characterizing and identifying subpopulations of azoospermic men. ..
  53. Schlicker M, Schnülle V, Schneppel L, Vorob ev V, Engel W. Disturbances of nuclear condensation in human spermatozoa: search for mutations in the genes for protamine 1, protamine 2 and transition protein 1. Hum Reprod. 1994;9:2313-7 pubmed
    ..of the structure of three genes which code for germ cell-specific nuclear proteins, namely protamine 1 (PRM1), protamine 2 (PRM2) and transition protein 1 (TNP1) in infertile men with disturbed sperm chromatin condensation...
  54. Bianchi F, Rousseaux Prevost R, Bailly C, Rousseaux J. Interaction of human P1 and P2 protamines with DNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;201:1197-204 pubmed
    ..Moreover the binding to DNA was not influenced by the presence of zinc which induces the formation of a zinc-finger structure in protamine P2. ..
  55. Bal W, Jezowska Bojczuk M, Kasprzak K. Binding of nickel(II) and copper(II) to the N-terminal sequence of human protamine HP2. Chem Res Toxicol. 1997;10:906-14 pubmed
    ..These results imply HP2 as a likely target for the toxic metals Ni(II) and Cu(II). ..
  56. Prigent Y, Troalen F, Dadoune J. Immunoelectron microscopic visualization of intermediate basic proteins HPI1 and HPI2 in human spermatids and spermatozoa. Reprod Nutr Dev. 1998;38:417-27 pubmed
  57. Tüttelmann F, Krenkova P, Romer S, Nestorovic A, Ljujic M, Stambergova A, et al. A common haplotype of protamine 1 and 2 genes is associated with higher sperm counts. Int J Androl. 2010;33:e240-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Haploinsufficiency of the protamine 1 (PRM1) or PRM2 gene causes infertility in mice...
  58. Nasr Esfahani M, Salehi M, Razavi S, Mardani M, Bahramian H, Steger K, et al. Effect of protamine-2 deficiency on ICSI outcome. Reprod Biomed Online. 2004;9:652-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it can be concluded that altered P1/P2 ratio effects fertilization rate and embryo quality which subsequently may affect implantation and pregnancy outcome. ..
  59. Günther K, Paradowska Dogan A, Bärmann B, Klein H, von Eichel Streiber C, Hartley R, et al. Expression of sperm-specific protamines impairs bacterial and eukaryotic cell proliferation. Histochem Cell Biol. 2015;143:599-609 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and HeLa cells by protamine expression. Follow-up studies on the molecular effect of protamines on proliferative cells may, in the future, open new avenues to investigate effective and specific treatments of cancer cells. ..
  60. Cavalcanti M, Steilmann C, Failing K, Bergmann M, Kliesch S, Weidner W, et al. Apoptotic gene expression in potentially fertile and subfertile men. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:415-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Casp4, Casp 6 and TNFSF10 are differentially expressed in potentially fertile and subfertile men and represent useful biomarkers for predicting male fertility in combination with P1 and P2. ..
  61. Bal W, Dyba M, Szewczuk Z, Jezowska Bojczuk M, Lukszo J, Ramakrishna G, et al. Differential zinc and DNA binding by partial peptides of human protamine HP2. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001;222:97-106 pubmed
    ..Zn(II) markedly enhances DNA binding by all partial peptides. These findings suggest that Zn(II) ions may be a regulatory factor for sperm chromatin condensation processes. ..
  62. Gatewood J, Schroth G, Schmid C, Bradbury E. Zinc-induced secondary structure transitions in human sperm protamines. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:20667-72 pubmed
    ..Our data support a model in which protamine adopts a folded structure in the presence of zinc. We propose that a zinc-modulated structure is physiologically significant considering the relatively high levels of zinc in human sperm. ..